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Presentation on theme: "NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION SCIENCES"— Presentation transcript:

International Conference on Education Policy and Research Educational Trends in Latin America: Challenges for Future Research Agendas. Margarita Poggi IIPE-UNESCO Buenos Aires October Beijing, China 1

2 Organization of the presentation
A brief review of the 90s and 2000s. Progress and achievements in educational policies. Challenges for education research in the coming years. Some characteristics of organizations that produce knowledge on educational policies. 2

3 Some precisions Talking about general trends does not deny the characteristics of each sub region and country. It is important to know about processes: why certain topics appear in educational agendas, what challenges are raised. Decades as periods are not strict, but help understand movements, agendas, and actors involved. An organizing tool. 3

4 Increased social and educational inequalities.
The 90s decade Increased social and educational inequalities. Neoliberal policies; state discredited. Increased enrolment, especially in basic education. Extension of compulsory education (including lower secondary and at least one year of pre-primary). Increased global investment, but this only compensates for what was lost in the previous decade. 4

5 Education quality – student performance – standardized assessments.
The 90s decade Central debates: Education quality – student performance – standardized assessments. Decentralization / autonomy / accountability. Progress in the production of educational information. Policy decisions supported in empirical evidence. Inclusive education begins to have an important place in agendas (ensuring the right beyond ethnic and racial minorities, gender, or socioeconomic background). 5

6 Appreciation of the role of States.
The 2000s Appreciation of the role of States. New education laws modify those passed in the previous decade. Almost all countries resume the design of national education plans (duration of approx.10 years). Decade of economic growth. Increased investment in education primarily aimed at expanding the offer. Efforts (some effective) to reduce social and educational gaps. 6

7 Attention and promotion of diversity (ethnic, linguistic).
The 2000s Efforts continue for universality and the extension of compulsory education (primary and secondary level). Second wave of defining secondary education as compulsory, including the upper cycle. Consolidation in agendas of the educational quality issue; debate about its definition. Attention and promotion of diversity (ethnic, linguistic). ICT policies in schools and classrooms. Different models: 1:1, digital classrooms. 7

8 Progress and achievements in educational policies
Latin America, completion of primary and secondary levels High primary, High secondary High primary, Medium secondary High primary, Low secondary Medium primary, Medium secondary Medium primary, Low secondary Fuente % de adolescentes de 15 años con nivel primario completo % de jóvenes de 20 años con nivel medio completo América Latina, 18 países cca. 2011 PAIS AÑO GRADUACION 15 20 GRUPO 1 Guatemala ,6 16,3 Nicaragua ,8 34,3 GRUPO 2 R Domin ,6 54,8 El Salvador ,9 41,2 Honduras ,5 33,7 GRUPO 3 Brasil ,4 56,3 Paraguay ,1 50,6 Costa Rica ,6 45,3 Colombia ,0 63,2 Bolivia ,2 59,3 Panamá ,4 56,7 Ecuador ,7 65,2 Venezuela ,8 62,6 México ,5 48,9 GRUPO 4 Argentina ,9 62,6 Chile ,9 80,5 SIN GRUPO Perú ,2 71,4 Uruguay ,9 33,0 8 8 8

9 Progress and achievements in educational policies
Expansion of pre-primary education opportunities. Important progress in primary education completion, except in Guatemala and Nicaragua. Configuration of systems for integral child protection. Considerable increase of secondary school enrolment in the last 25 years. Progress in gender parity.

10 Progress and achievements in educational policies
Expansion of the rights perspective. A more dynamic vision of planning in government action. Consolidation of education funding models. Progress in defining the concept of Care and Early Childhood Education with an integral approach. Improvement of adult literacy by increasing access to education. 10

11 Research topics related to challenges in LA
Deepen democratization process of education, quantitative and qualitative. Reducing inequalities (socio-economic status, area of ​​residence, group membership, gender). Quantitative: ensuring access and graduation, according to compulsory levels defined by each education system. Qualitative: education quality, access to knowledge defined as relevant for each level of education. Following trends, analysis of social and educational gaps. Analysis of policies and experiences for educational improvement. 11

12 Research topics related to challenges in LA
Improve academic trajectories: indicators of repetition, over-age and drop out. These problems begin to occur in primary and are later more prominent in secondary education. Analysis of strategies related to pedagogical and institutional interventions in these issues. 12

13 Research topics related to challenges in LA
Retention and graduation from secondary schools represent a great challenge. Gaps increase as we move up education levels. Producing knowledge on strategies focused on: Promoting innovations in institutional formats, contents and pedagogy in secondary schools to take into account the diversity of students. Providing specific support to improve learning outcomes. Designing “second chance” alternatives for adolescents and youth who have dropped out. 13

14 Research topics related to challenges in LA
Education for diversity, intercultural bilingual education. Special attention to the persistence of cultural patterns, representations and gender stereotypes that are present in all countries of the region. Analysis of formats and strategies that modify traditional patterns of intervention based on an homogenous educational supply. Analysis of education policies to achieve progress in areas such as curricular relevance, contents and teaching materials. 14

15 Research topics related to challenges in LA
ICT Policies. Expansion of  1:1 models. Social and Pedagogical dimension=> ICT can bring forward pedagogical changes and improve learning processes. Problems with the inclusion of digital culture in schools, how to guarantee universal access to the digital world, teacher training in this topic. Challenges for ICT integration in education systems: analysis of costs, ubiquitous technology, digital contents, connectivity, infrastructure and devices. Specific regulatory frameworks that shape the actions of states in terms of digital inclusion. 15

16 Research topics related to challenges in LA
Social policies (SP) and education. More inclusive SP, expansion of CCTs (conditional cash transfers) in LA, new policy model for poverty alleviation and education equality. Scarce integration of SP with other sectors as health or education. Need to analyse potential synergies between sectors to improve design and implementation. Education challenges and social inclusion: how do educational policies address new social demands? How do schools deal with the arrival of longstanding excluded populations? CCTs are targeted monetary transfers, primarily aimed at female head of households granted under the condition that their children regularly attend school and perform health checkups. They are one of the main strategies to fight poverty in Latin America shaping the lives of millions. Both conditionalities are guided through a principle of co-responsibility where state and families are both responsible for using their potential to fight poverty. 16

17 Knowledge production and educational policies
Networks of institutions in LA that produce knowledge on the educational systems and policies: Governmental organizations (Ministries of Education, National Institutes and Agencies). Universities and academic organizations. International and regional organizations. Think tanks. Teachers Unions (lesser development). Governmental organizations (Ministries of Education, National Institutes and agencies). Brazil: INEP. CAPES. Mexico: INEE. DIE-CINVESTAV. Universities and academic organizations. FLACSO (national offices in various countries) Mexico: DIE-CINVESTAV. UNAM. COMIE Brazil: Federal Universities (USP) or State level universities (UNICAMP). International and regional organizations. IIPE-UNESCO Buenos Aires FLACSO Think tanks. Colombia: Empresarios por la Educación. Teacher Unions. Mexico: Fundación SNTE. Argentina: CTERA. Colombia: FECODE. 17

18 Knowledge production and educational policies
Most of the govnm. organizations were developed from the ´60 onwards. The development was uneven in many countries due to different causes: dictatorships, strength or weakness of the states, degree of specialized agencies within the state, etc. Links between research and educational policies depend on the following: Capacity of the State to manage the educational system. Request for specialized knowledge. Formalized relationships. Brazil, Mexico: relevant examples of interesting links between knowledge production and design of policies. 18

19 Knowledge production and educational policies at IIEP
Observatory of trends in the region. Identification of courses of action and implementation of policy decisions on relevant issues for the educational agenda. Complemented with Program evaluation. Comparative perspective of international and regional contexts. Situational and contextualized analysis at country level. Strong dissemination policy. Main audiences: policy-makers, counselors at MoE, researchers, teachers. Different strategies: publication, policy fora, seminars. Use of online tools: webinars. 19

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