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Chapter 21 The Muslim Empires. THE OTTOMANS The Beginning 1258 CE: Mongol invasion disrupts Seljuk Turk government – Death of the last Abbasid caliph.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21 The Muslim Empires. THE OTTOMANS The Beginning 1258 CE: Mongol invasion disrupts Seljuk Turk government – Death of the last Abbasid caliph."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 21 The Muslim Empires




5 The Beginning 1258 CE: Mongol invasion disrupts Seljuk Turk government – Death of the last Abbasid caliph Ottomans fill power vacuum under leadership of Osman I (Sunni Muslims) A warrior aristocracy develops – Central Bureaucracy Sultan The warrior aristocracy competed with one another for power: Not a stable situation

6 The Good times 1453 CE: Control majority of eastern Mediterranean and capture Constantinople Reach the height of their power and control in the 16 th century under Suliemann the Magnificent

7 Sultans Absolute rulers – With the use of the Warrior Aristocracy – Allowed for people of other beliefs as advisors – Like the Caliphate, the Sultans will grow more corrupt over time Day to day activity was left to the large Bureaucracy – Headed by the grand vizier Sometimes leaving him with more power than the sultan Inherited Islamic Principle of Political Succession: – Vague and easily contested – Death of the Sultan = Warfare between sons

8 Constantinople Constantinople is the culmination of an Empire of diverse cultures – Mehmed II took it in 1453 – Restored to in former glory with great achievements in architecture – Grand Bazaar with stuff from everywhere

9 The fall Empire begins a gradual decline that would last until its eventual death in 1920 (end of WWI) – Lasted 600 years – Held off the combined efforts of Russia, Eastern/Western Europeans and Safavids to conquer them – Extent of the empire probably made it impossible to govern Compounding issues – Corruption developed from the inside – Problems with succession: a series of weak leaders – Lavish lifestyle – Unwillingness to adapt to changes in technology – Inherit a contempt for all things western – Impact of Portuguese trade (loss of wealth) and Spanish Silver

10 Ottoman Vocab Sultans: – Absolute rulers, but had to appease various political factions to retain power Janissaries – Soldiers taken from conquered regions and forcibly converted to Islam – Become the cornerstone of the army and a political power in their own right Dhimmi: people of the book Vizier: head of the Ottoman central bureaucracy



13 The Beginning Came from the struggles of rival Turkic nomadic groups in the wake of Mongol invasion – Persia and present day Iran Safavids were Shia – The struggle between Sunni Ottomans and Shia Safavids will be a pivotal part of Islamic History Began with a Mystic Sufi Family – Sail al-Din: started to reform Islam and spread it thorugh the tribes – Red Heads: Safavids followers because of the head gear

14 The Good Times Shah Abbas I (Great) – Under his leadership was the height of the Safavid Empire – Created a slave army similar to the Janissaries – Wanted to create an Empire at the center of International trade and Islamic Culture Roads and rest houses were built Isfahan: the capital

15 The Fall Rapid decline Abbas so paranoid he killed all potential successors Ottomans and Mughals were taking territory March 1722: Afghani tribes besieged Isfahan

16 Like the Ottomans, they... Gain power after departure of Mongols Are warriors of Islam Fall victim to a lavish lifestyle once they have gained power Make use of a feudal system Lose political power to foreign advisors Adopt foreign slaves as soldiers Use religion as a political tool – Practices of the mullahs Promoted the arts and global trade Suffer from internal problems that cause their collapse Women were socially limited – Harem and veil Developed a paranoia of their heirs

17 Unlike the Ottomans, they... Were Shia rather than Sunni Were founded by religious leaders (Sufis) Leaders are referred to as shahs rather than sultans Lacked the military power to establish a vast empire Were willing to acknowledge and make use of Western ideas (weapons and tactics) Adopted the use of Persian, which the Ottomans discard Were unable to maintain their empire, ultimately falling in 1722.



20 The Beginning Babur: founder of the Mughal Dynasty – Descendant of Mongol Khans and Turkic Warriors – Used the existing bureaucratic system of the conquered areas to build a new empire Little to do with religion

21 The Good times Akbar greatest ruler of the Mughals – Great military commander and expanded the empire – Brilliant Administration system to bring together the Muslims and Hindus so they could share the region Reconciliation and cooperation with Hindu princes Encouraged intermarriage Ordered Muslims to respect cows

22 A new faith Akbar did many things to bring the two religions together Din-i-Ilahi – Tried to combine Islam and Hindu to create something new – Did not work so well

23 Excess Two Shahs were consumed by Art and Pleasure – Jahangir and Shah Jahan – Spent lavishly in art, music, architecture, gardens, women, etc – Left the running of the empire to subordinates



26 The Fall Years of excess leaves the Empire struggling Shah Jahans successor inherited – Empire in decay from the inside – Growing danger from external enemies – Years of the Shahs ignoring reform – Corrupt Bureaucracy and backward army – Awful conditions for the poor Rebellion in the West: Marattas A new Sect in the Northwest: Sikhs

27 Like the Ottomans/Safavids, they... Succeed through the use of gunpowder (artillery/muskets) Shared an Islam heritage Made use of a feudal system Had a significant gap between upper and lower classes Unwillingness to adopt Western advances and innovations Support the arts Fall victim to a lavish lifestyle that results in the fall of the empire Decline as a result of their addiction to military conquest

28 Unlike the Ottomans/Safavids they... Claimed to be descendents of Mongols Had no desire for religious conquest…motivated by desire for territory Promoted/protected Hinduism over Islam, and attempted adoption of new religion (Din-i-Ilahi) Attempted to improve status of women Were economically dominant, even with the West Have a series of upper class women that are able to achieve a significant degree of political power – nur Jahan and Mumtax mahal Gave fewer rights to average women – Practice of sati Also declined because of religious division

29 WOMEN In both the Ottoman and Safavid Empires – Women faced legal and social disadvantages – Subordinated to fathers and husbands – Little outlets for artistic expression – Seclusion and veiling continued Especially elites For the Mughals – Akbar Encouraged widows to marry and discouraged child marriages Waned to end Sati and give women more freedom outside the home – After Akbar's death many of these practices go back full force if not even worse.

30 Good stuff to keep in mind Stuff from this chapter that goes with the APWH Themes


32 Key Concept 2. New forms of social organization and modes of production

33 As new social and political elites changed, they also restructured new ethnic, racial and gender hierarchies – The power of existing political and economic elites (such as the zarnidars in the Mughal Empire, the nobility in Europe or the daimyo in Japan) fluctuated as they confronted new challenges to their ability to affect the policies of the increasingly powerful monarchs and leaders

34 Key Concept 3: State Consolidation and Imperial Expansion

35 Rulers used a variety of methods to legitimize and consolidate their power – Visual displays of political power (such as monumental architecture, urban plans, courtly literature or the visual arts) helped legitimize and support rulers – Rulers used religious ideas (such as European notions of divine right, the Safavid use of Shiism, the Mexican or Aztec practice of human sacrifice, the Songhai promotion of Islam or the Chinese emperors public performance of Confucian rituals) to legitimize their rule – States treated different ethnic and religious groups in ways that utilized their economic contributions while limiting their ability to challenge the authority of the state (such as the Ottoman treatment of non-Muslim subjects, Manchu policies toward Chinese or the Spanish creation of a separate Republica de Indios) – Recruitment and use of bureaucratic elites, as well as the development of military professionals (such as the Ottoman devshime, Chinese examination system or salaried samurai), became more common among rulers who wanted to maintain centralized control over their populations and resources

36 Imperial expansion relied on the increased use of gunpowder, cannons and armed trade to establish large empires in both hemispheres – Land empires, including the Manchu's, Mughals, Ottomans and Russians expanded dramatically in size

37 Competition over trade routes (such as Omani-European rivalry in the Indian Ocean or piracy in the Caribbean), state rivalries (such as the Thirty Years War, and the Ottoman- Safavid conflict) and local resistance (such as bread riots) all provided significant challenges to state consolidation and expansion

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