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Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Plurilingualism and the Intercultural dialogue in the EU Marleen Coutuer Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Jerusalem,

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Presentation on theme: "Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Plurilingualism and the Intercultural dialogue in the EU Marleen Coutuer Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Jerusalem,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Plurilingualism and the Intercultural dialogue in the EU Marleen Coutuer Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Jerusalem, 1 May 2007

2 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen The Union must become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion (European Council, Lisbon, March 2000). "Education and Training 2010" integrates all actions in the fields of education and training at European level, including vocational education and training (the "Copenhagen process"). As well, the Bologna process, initiated in 1999 is crucial in the development of the European Higher Education Area. Both contribute actively to the achievement of the Lisbon objectives and are therefore closely linked to the "Education and Training 2010" work programme.

3 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen български (Bălgarski) - BG - Bulgarian Čeština - CS - Czech Dansk - DA - Danish Deutsch - DE - German Eesti - ET - Estonian Elinika - EL - Greek English - EN Español - ES – Spanish Français – FR – French Gaeilge - GA – Irish Italiano - IT - Italian Latviesu valoda - LV - Latvian Lietuviu kalba - LT - Lithuanian Magyar - HU - Hungarian Malti - MT - Maltese Nederlands - NL - Dutch Polski - PL - Polish Português - PT - Portuguese Română - RO - Romanian Slovenčina - SK - Slovak Slovenščina - SL - Slovene Suomi - FI - Finnish Svenska - SV - Swedish 27 EU Members - 23 official languages

4 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen European Day of Languages The Day has a wide variety of aims following on from those of the European Year of Languages, in particular: Alerting the public to the importance of language learning and diversifying the range of languages learnt in order to increase plurilingualism and intercultural understanding; Promoting the rich linguistic and cultural diversity of Europe, which must be preserved and fostered; Encouraging lifelong language learning

5 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Multilingualism refers to the presence in a geographical area, large or small, of more than one 'variety of language' i.e. the mode of speaking of a social group whether it is formally recognised as a language or not; in such an area individuals may be monolingual, speaking only their own variety.

6 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Plurilingualism refers to the repertoire of varieties of language which many individuals use, and is therefore the opposite of monolingualism; it includes the language variety referred to as 'mother tongue' or 'first language' and any number of other languages or varieties. Thus in some multilingual areas some individuals are monolingual and some are plurilingual.

7 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Eurobarometer 2006 The survey was requested by Directorate General for Education and Culture and coordinated by Directorate General Press and Communication

8 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Eurobarometer Today the European Union is home to 450 million people from diverse ethnic,cultural and linguistic backgrounds. The linguistic patterns of European countries are complex - shaped by history, geographical factors and the mobility of people. At present, the European Union recognises 23 official languages and about 60 other indigenous and non-indigenous languages are spoken over the geographical area.

9 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Eurobarometer Which languages do you speak well enough in order to be able to have a conversation excluding your mother tongue? At least one language: 56% At least two languages: 28% At least three languages: 11% None: 44%

10 Mother tongue Foreign Language Total English13%38%51% German18%14%32% French12%14%26% Italian13%3%16% Spanish9%6%15% Polish9%1%10% Russian6%1%7%

11 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen European Council Language Policy Division The Council of Europes activities to promote linguistic diversity and language learning in the field of education are carried out within the framework of the European Cultural Convention, (1954) ratified by 48 states. The Language Policy Division (Strasbourg) implements intergovernmental medium-term programmes with a special emphasis on policy development. The Divisions programmes are complemented by those of the European Centre for Modern Languages (Graz, Austria).

12 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Council of Europe language education policies aim to promote: PLURILINGUALISM: all are entitled to develop a degree of communicative ability in a number of languages over their lifetime in accordance with their needs. LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY: Europe is multilingual and all its languages are equally valuable modes of communication and expressions of identity; the right to use and to learn ones language(s) is protected in Council of Europe Conventions MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING: the opportunity to learn other languages is an essential condition for intercultural communication and acceptance of cultural differences DEMOCRATIC CITIZENSHIP: participation in democratic and social processes in multilingual societies is facilitated by the plurilingual competence of individuals SOCIAL COHESION: equality of opportunity for personal development, education, employment, mobility, access to information and cultural enrichment depends on access to language learning throughout life

13 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen European Council Language Policy Division Policy instruments CEF ELP Policy Guide and Studies : towards plurilingual education Language Education Policy Profiles

14 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen The Common European Framework of Reference forLanguages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment,(CEF) The CEF is a key instrument for establishing a European educational space in the field of modern languages. Its main aim is to facilitate transparency and comparability in the provision of language education and qualifications. It is availabe in over 30 language versions.

15 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Relating Language Examinations to the CEF: Manual and illustrations of Levels to help national and international providers of examinations to relate their certificates and diplomas to the CEFR. Illustrative material is being developed for a number of languages.

16 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen European Language Portfolio The ELP is a personal document in which language learners can record and reflect on their language learning and cultural experiences. ELPs vary according to countries and educational contexts. However they all share common criteria and are all examined by a European Validation Committee which accords an accreditation number.

17 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen EuroIntegrELP project assessment.

18 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen TOOLproject

19 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Reference Level Descriptions for National or Regional Languages The Reference Level Descriptions describe in detail the linguistic competences for individual languages corresponding to the six levels of the CEF. They are particularly helpful in planning language programmes and assessment.

20 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Policy Guide and Studies: Towards Plurilingual Education Aimed at policy deciders, the Guide describes how language education policies can promote a global and coherent approach to plurilingual education. The Guide is accompanied by a series of thematic studies.

21 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Language Education Policy Profiles At the request of national or regional authorities, the Council of Europe provides expert assistance with the development of a Profile – a process of analysis and reflection leading to proposals to support a global and coherent approach to language learning and teaching, and involving all languages in education.

22 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen European Commission Languages of Europe lang/languages/index_en.html

23 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Action Plan: the key objective of extending the benefits of language learning to all citizens as a lifelong activity; the need to improve the quality of language teaching at all levels; the need to build in Europe an environment which is really favourable to languages.

24 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Life long learning European Commission: Directorate Education and Culture A new generation of EU programmes for education and training, youth, culture and citizenship in For Comenius: To involve at least three million pupils in joint educational activities For Erasmus: To have supported an overall total of three million individual participants in student mobility For Leonardo da Vinci: To increase placements in enterprises to 80,000 per year For Grundtvig To support the mobility of 7,000 individuals involved in adult education per year

25 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Languages of School Education The Language Policy Division in Strasbourg is launching a new activity with a view to promoting social cohesion in the follow-up to the 3rd Summit of Heads of State and Government (Warsaw, May 2005). It is concerned with the development of effective skills in the language(s) of instruction which are essential for successful learning across the whole curriculum. This project deals with the language(s) of instruction in school which is most often the national or official language(s) and also the mother tongue of the majority of students; in a number of contexts this language is of course their second language where they have a different mother tongue. Within the wider concept of plurilingualism and respect for linguistic diversity, the project will also address the needs of these learners with regard to competence in the national/official language.3rd Summit (conferences)

26 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Language Education Policies for Minorities and Migrants The Division carries out reviews of education policy for minorities in a number of member states and its expert assistance is regularly solicited.

27 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Language Education Policies for Minorities and Migrants An increasing number of countries now require adult migrants to demonstrate proficiency in the language of the host country before granting residence or work permits or citizenship. The level of proficiency required is usually based on the CEFR and a language test may be obligatory. The approach to testing varies and there is a considerable difference in the levels of proficiency required – ranging from A1 to B1 or even B2 (oral) of the CEFR. The Language Policy Division, in partnership with appropriate Council of Europe sectors and INGOs with participatory status is developing policy guidelines for language education and certification where this is required. The aim is to support all directly concerned in developing a needs-based approach and in following best professional practice so as to ensure transparency and fairness, in particular concerning high stake situations concerning language requirements for citizenship, work or long term residency purposes.

28 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Language death Crystal begins by looking at the scale of the threat to minority languages. There are debates over the definition of "language" and estimates of the number of languages vary, but a figure somewhere around 6000 is plausible. Perhaps more important is the distribution of speakers, with 4% of languages accounting for 96% of people and 25% having fewer than 1000 speakers. There are different ways of classifying "danger levels", but there is no doubt that a large number of languages face extinction in the immediate future, while in the longer-term even quite widely spoken languages may be in danger.

29 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Language death Why should we care about language death? Crystal presents five arguments: from the general value of diversity, from the value of languages as expressions of identity, as repositories of history, as part of the sum of human knowledge, and as interesting subjects in their own right. None of these are likely to convince either aggressive monolingualists or the apathetic, but Crystal includes some thought-provoking details and quotes.

30 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Language death How do languages die? Obviously a language dies if all of its speakers die as the result of genocide or natural disasters, or are scattered in such a way as to break up the language community. More commonly languages die through cultural change and language replacement, by assimilation to a "dominant" culture and language. This process is broad and complex, but one major factor is negative attitudes to a language, both in government policy and local communities.genocide

31 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Language death What can be done about this? Crystal looks first at general needs: gathering information, raising awareness (both in local communities and in the international community), and fostering positive community attitudes (sometimes people don't want to save their own language). Any approach must promote the authenticity of the whole community (accepting change and recognising all dialects) and consider language as part of broader culture. Crystal suggests six key themes in language revitalization: increasing the prestige, wealth, and power of language speakers; giving the language a strong presence in the education system; giving the language a written form and encouraging literacy; and access to electronic technology (the latter being more of a "possibility" than a reality in most cases). He also argues for a stronger emphasis on descriptive linguistics and fieldwork, and stresses the need to build a rounded "revitalization team", involving a broad range of community leaders, teachers, and other specialists as well as linguists. Language Death David Crystal (professor of linguistics) Cambridge University Press 2000

32 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen The Role of English Language Teaching: Linguistic Imperialism or Linguistic Empowerment? Over the years, different people have proposed that English language teaching (ELT) carries with it imperialistic influences. At times this has been in relation to the imposition of an outside language on native languages, resulting in their allocation to a secondary status along with the cultures they represent. At other times, the teaching of English was seen as a tool to propagate the economic, cultural or religious values of dominant world powers. Counter to this have been other studies, research and theories which propose either that such imperialism was or is not at the heart of ELT, or that the relationship between language, politics and economics has evolved into something different than it once was. Yet others have held that the English language classroom serves as the ideal arena in which such possibilities can be examined by students and teacher alike. TESL-EJ Forum = teachers of English as a second language

33 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Higher education ENLU: European Network for the Promotion of Language Learning among all undergraduates HELP: Higher education Language Policy

34 Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Toda raba

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