Presentation on theme: "Plurilingualism and the Intercultural dialogue in the EU"— Presentation transcript:
1Plurilingualism and the Intercultural dialogue in the EU Karel de Grote-Hogeschool AntwerpenPlurilingualism and the Intercultural dialogue in the EUMarleen Coutuer Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Jerusalem, 1 May 2007
2Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen The Union must become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion (European Council, Lisbon, March 2000)."Education and Training 2010" integrates all actions in the fields of education and training at European level, including vocational education and training (the "Copenhagen process"). As well, the Bologna process, initiated in 1999 is crucial in the development of the European Higher Education Area. Both contribute actively to the achievement of the Lisbon objectives and are therefore closely linked to the "Education and Training 2010" work programme.
3Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen 27 EU Members official languagesбългарски (Bălgarski) - BG - BulgarianČeština - CS - CzechDansk - DA - DanishDeutsch - DE - GermanEesti - ET - EstonianElinika - EL - GreekEnglish - ENEspañol - ES – SpanishFrançais – FR – FrenchGaeilge - GA – IrishItaliano - IT - ItalianLatviesu valoda - LV - LatvianLietuviu kalba - LT - LithuanianMagyar - HU - HungarianMalti - MT - MalteseNederlands - NL - DutchPolski - PL - PolishPortuguês - PT - PortugueseRomână - RO - RomanianSlovenčina - SK - SlovakSlovenščina - SL - SloveneSuomi - FI - FinnishSvenska - SV - Swedish
4European Day of Languages Karel de Grote-Hogeschool AntwerpenEuropean Day of LanguagesThe Day has a wide variety of aims following on from those of the European Year of Languages, in particular:Alerting the public to the importance of language learning and diversifying the range of languages learnt in order to increase plurilingualism and intercultural understanding;Promoting the rich linguistic and cultural diversity of Europe, which must be preserved and fostered;Encouraging lifelong language learning
5Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Multilingualismrefers to the presence in a geographical area, large or small, of more than one 'variety of language' i.e. the mode of speaking of a social group whether it is formally recognised as a language or not; in such an area individuals may be monolingual, speaking only their own variety.
6Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Plurilingualismrefers to the repertoire of varieties of language which many individuals use, and is therefore the opposite of monolingualism; it includes the language variety referred to as 'mother tongue' or 'first language' and any number of other languages or varieties. Thus in some multilingual areas some individuals are monolingual and some are plurilingual.
7coordinated by Directorate General Press and Communication Karel de Grote-Hogeschool AntwerpenEurobarometer 2006The survey was requested by Directorate General for Education and Culture andcoordinated by Directorate General Press and Communication
8Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen EurobarometerToday the European Union is home to 450 million people from diverse ethnic,cultural and linguistic backgrounds. The linguistic patterns of European countries are complex - shaped by history, geographical factors and the mobility of people. At present, the European Union recognises 23 official languages and about 60 other indigenous and non-indigenous languages are spoken over the geographical area.
9Eurobarometer Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Which languages do you speak well enoughin order to be able to have a conversation excludingyour mother tongue?At least one language: 56%At least two languages: 28%At least three languages: 11%None: 44%
11European Council Language Policy Division Karel de Grote-Hogeschool AntwerpenEuropean Council Language Policy DivisionThe Council of Europe’s activities to promote linguistic diversity and language learning in the field of education are carried out within the framework of the European Cultural Convention, (1954) ratified by 48 states.The Language Policy Division (Strasbourg) implements intergovernmental medium-term programmes with a special emphasis on policy development. The Division’s programmes are complemented by those of the European Centre for Modern Languages (Graz, Austria).
12Council of Europe language education policies aim to promote: Karel de Grote-Hogeschool AntwerpenCouncil of Europe language education policies aim to promote:PLURILINGUALISM: all are entitled to develop a degree of communicative ability in a number of languages over their lifetime in accordance with their needs.LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY: Europe is multilingual and all its languages are equally valuable modes of communication and expressions of identity; the right to use and to learn one’s language(s) is protected in Council of Europe ConventionsMUTUAL UNDERSTANDING: the opportunity to learn other languages is an essential condition for intercultural communication and acceptance of cultural differencesDEMOCRATIC CITIZENSHIP: participation in democratic and social processes in multilingual societies is facilitated by the plurilingual competence of individualsSOCIAL COHESION: equality of opportunity for personal development, education, employment, mobility, access to information and cultural enrichment depends on access to language learning throughout life
13European Council Language Policy Division Karel de Grote-Hogeschool AntwerpenEuropean Council Language Policy DivisionPolicy instrumentsCEFELPPolicy Guide and Studies : towardsplurilingual educationLanguage Education Policy Profiles
14Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen The Common European Framework of Reference forLanguages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment,(CEF)The CEF is a key instrument for establishing a European educational space in the field of modern languages. Its main aim is to facilitate transparency and comparability in the provision of language education and qualifications. It is availabe in over 30 language versions.
15Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Relating Language Examinations to the CEF: Manual and illustrations of Levelsto help national and international providers ofexaminations to relate their certificates anddiplomas to the CEFR. Illustrative material isbeing developed for a number of languages.
16European Language Portfolio Karel de Grote-Hogeschool AntwerpenEuropean Language PortfolioThe ELP is a personal document in which languagelearners can record and reflect on their languagelearning and cultural experiences. ELPs varyaccording to countries and educational contexts.However they all share common criteria and are allexamined by a European Validation Committeewhich accords an accreditation number.
17EuroIntegrELP project Karel de Grote-Hogeschool AntwerpenEuroIntegrELP projectassessment.
19Reference Level Descriptions for National or Regional Languages Karel de Grote-Hogeschool AntwerpenReference Level Descriptions for National or Regional LanguagesThe Reference Level Descriptions describe indetail the linguistic competences forindividual languages corresponding to the sixlevels of the CEF. They are particularlyhelpful in planning language programmes andassessment.
20Policy Guide and Studies: Towards Plurilingual Education Karel de Grote-Hogeschool AntwerpenPolicy Guide and Studies: Towards Plurilingual EducationAimed at policy deciders, the Guide describeshow language education policies can promotea global and coherent approach toplurilingual education. The Guide isaccompanied by a series of thematic studies.
21Language Education Policy Profiles Karel de Grote-Hogeschool AntwerpenLanguage Education Policy ProfilesAt the request of national or regionalauthorities, the Council of Europe providesexpert assistance with the development of aProfile – a process of analysis and reflectionleading to proposals to support a global andcoherent approach to language learning andteaching, and involving all languages in education.
22European Commission Languages of Europe Karel de Grote-Hogeschool AntwerpenEuropean Commission Languages of Europe
23Action Plan: 2004 -2006 the key objective of extending the benefits of Karel de Grote-Hogeschool AntwerpenAction Plan:the key objective of extending the benefits oflanguage learning to all citizens as alifelong activity;the need to improve the quality of languageteaching at all levels;the need to build in Europe an environmentwhich is really favourable to languages.
24Life long learning Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen European Commission: Directorate Education and CultureA new generation of EU programmes for education and training, youth, culture and citizenship inFor Comenius: To involve at least three million pupils in joint educational activitiesFor Erasmus: To have supported an overall total of three million individual participants in student mobilityFor Leonardo da Vinci: To increase placements in enterprises to 80,000 per yearFor Grundtvig To support the mobility of 7,000 individuals involved in adult education per year
25Languages of School Education Karel de Grote-Hogeschool AntwerpenLanguages of School EducationThe Language Policy Division in Strasbourg is launching a new activity with a view to promoting social cohesion in the follow-up to the 3rd Summit of Heads of State and Government (Warsaw, May 2005). It is concerned with the development of effective skills in the language(s) of instruction which are essential for successful learning across the whole curriculum. This project deals with the language(s) of instruction in school which is most often the national or official language(s) and also the mother tongue of the majority of students; in a number of contexts this language is of course their second language where they have a different mother tongue. Within the wider concept of plurilingualism and respect for linguistic diversity, the project will also address the needs of these learners with regard to competence in the national/official language.(conferences)
26Language Education Policies for Minorities and Migrants Karel de Grote-Hogeschool AntwerpenLanguage Education Policies for Minorities and MigrantsThe Division carries out reviews of education policy for minorities in anumber of member states and itsexpert assistance is regularlysolicited.
27Language Education Policies for Minorities and Migrants Karel de Grote-Hogeschool AntwerpenLanguage Education Policies for Minorities and MigrantsAn increasing number of countries now require adult migrants to demonstrate proficiency in the language of the host country before granting residence or work permits or citizenship. The level of proficiency required is usually based on the CEFR and a language test may be obligatory. The approach to testing varies and there is a considerable difference in the levels of proficiency required – ranging from A1 to B1 or even B2 (oral) of the CEFR.The Language Policy Division, in partnership with appropriate Council of Europe sectors and INGOs with participatory status is developing policy guidelines for language education and certification where this is required. The aim is to support all directly concerned in developing a needs-based approach and in following best professional practice so as to ensure transparency and fairness, in particular concerning ‘high stake’ situations concerning language requirements for citizenship, work or long term residency purposes.
28Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Language deathCrystal begins by looking at the scale of the threat to minority languages. There are debates over the definition of "language" and estimates of the number of languages vary, but a figure somewhere around 6000 is plausible. Perhaps more important is the distribution of speakers, with 4% of languages accounting for 96% of people and 25% having fewer than 1000 speakers. There are different ways of classifying "danger levels", but there is no doubt that a large number of languages face extinction in the immediate future, while in the longer-term even quite widely spoken languages may be in danger.
29Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Language deathWhy should we care about language death? Crystal presents five arguments: from the general value of diversity, from the value of languages as expressions of identity, as repositories of history, as part of the sum of human knowledge, and as interesting subjects in their own right. None of these are likely to convince either aggressive monolingualists or the apathetic, but Crystal includes some thought-provoking details and quotes.
30Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen Language deathHow do languages die? Obviously a language dies if all of its speakers die as the result of genocide or natural disasters, or are scattered in such a way as to break up the language community. More commonly languages die through cultural change and language replacement, by assimilation to a "dominant" culture and language. This process is broad and complex, but one major factor is negative attitudes to a language, both in government policy and local communities.
31David Crystal (professor of linguistics) Karel de Grote-Hogeschool AntwerpenLanguage deathWhat can be done about this? Crystal looks first at general needs: gathering information, raising awareness (both in local communities and in the international community), and fostering positive community attitudes (sometimes people don't want to save their own language). Any approach must promote the authenticity of the whole community (accepting change and recognising all dialects) and consider language as part of broader culture.Crystal suggests six key themes in language revitalization: increasing the prestige, wealth, and power of language speakers; giving the language a strong presence in the education system; giving the language a written form and encouraging literacy; and access to electronic technology (the latter being more of a "possibility" than a reality in most cases). He also argues for a stronger emphasis on descriptive linguistics and fieldwork, and stresses the need to build a rounded "revitalization team", involving a broad range of community leaders, teachers, and other specialists as well as linguists.Language DeathDavid Crystal (professor of linguistics)Cambridge University Press 2000
32Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen The Role of English Language Teaching: Linguistic Imperialism or Linguistic Empowerment?Over the years, different people have proposed that English language teaching (ELT) carries with it imperialistic influences. At times this has been in relation to the imposition of an outside language on native languages, resulting in their allocation to a secondary status along with the cultures they represent. At other times, the teaching of English was seen as a tool to propagate the economic, cultural or religious values of dominant world powers. Counter to this have been other studies, research and theories which propose either that such imperialism was or is not at the heart of ELT, or that the relationship between language, politics and economics has evolved into something different than it once was. Yet others have held that the English language classroom serves as the ideal arena in which such possibilities can be examined by students and teacher alike.TESL-EJ Forum = teachers of English as a second language
33HELP: Higher education Language Policy Karel de Grote-Hogeschool AntwerpenHigher educationENLU: European Network for the Promotion of Language Learning among all undergraduatesHELP: Higher education Language Policy