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PPP for ICT development in Lebanon

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1 PPP for ICT development in Lebanon
Ahmad-Bassam OUEIDAT

2 PPP Public-private Partnerships (PPP) refers to the contractual agreements and collaboration formed between a public agency and private sector. Reduced upfront financial costs for the service delivery. Improved service delivery, by reducing the time and effort. Access to the best technical and management skills from both public and private sectors.

3 Involvement Public Administration National & Human Strategy Content
National Initiatives Public Administration Government Commerce & Services Infrastructure & Application Education Access & Content National Strategy Human Capital Private Sector

4 Pillars of the National e-Strategy ICT needs PPP
1. Public Administration Citizen-oriented administration Government effectiveness Governance improvement Effective policy making ICT Education and Training ICT Skills ICT Workforce Community and Citizen empowerment Lebanon’s Diaspora 2. Human Capital Public Administration Human Capital Private Sector Access & Content National E-Strategy 4. Access & Content Access National network Infrastructure International communications gateway Affordable connectivity for “ALL” Content Multi-lingual expertise with a focus on Arabic Multi-sectoral Information Society Rich cultural information Public Administration Move towards a proactive citizen-oriented administration: improvement of service delivery Increase government effectiveness: public administration reform, process reengineering and public sector development in Lebanon and abroad at representative international offices Policy making: modernization of legislation and regulatory frameworks Improve governance: promotion of information accessibility, transparency and accountability Human Capital Capitalize on the national resources of Lebanon and its Diaspora: technical expertise, financial capacity & networking Increase ICT education, training and awareness Develop ICT Skills in the public and private sectors Empower Communities and Citizens Improve the status of ICT Workforce Private Sector Create a high-value ICT export-oriented industry: focus on software development for e-services and business solutions; support Lebanon’s other sectors: banking, finance, trade, tourism, health, media, etc. Exploit richness of local media and promote content production industry to become a regional leader Attract local and foreign investment: promote joint ventures and strategic alliances to make Lebanon a unique regional technology zone Strengthen public-private sector partnership through implementation of National e-Strategy projects Access and Contentl Improve local network infrastructure Provide affordable connectivity for “ALL” Improve reliability and speed of international communications Improve local online content Capitalize on the multi-language expertise with a main focus on Arabic Direct Lebanon towards a multi-sectoral Information Society Advance Lebanese and Arab Culture through the use of ICT 3. Private Sector ICT export-oriented industry Media and Content production industry Unique regional technology hub Strong entrepreneurship spirit Domestic and foreign investment support

5 PPP Justification Public administrations to focus on core policy and business issues, and private partner sector takes over ICT production issues. Help to reduce risk by a formal assessment of solutions available in the market. Help E-government to improve their own services, and putting services online within the private sector. Enables the private sector to acquire knowledge of the structure and functioning of the public sector, and thereby improved specific government oriented solutions.

6 PPP for Policy and Strategy
Partnership : Government with UNDP, OMSAR, PCA, Private Sector, Academia, NGOs, Banks. National ICT Committee Ministerial Committee (Strategy orientation) Office of the PM, OMSAR (Strategy implementation) Training of civil Servant ICT skills, and functions in the Government Standard (ICT Standards in cooperation between Public/Private sector) Policies (Tax, promote ICT industries, Customs facility imports) Regulation Consultation Process (law, decree, initiative) Laws and Decree E-commerce law, Electronic Signatures, Data Privacy, Cyber Crime… Privatization Process, Private experience (Specific consultant and financial institutions)

7 PPP for ICT Projects within Government
GIS, MIS, HIS : Planning, and Services :Electricity, Telecom, Roads and Water. Call Centers : Outsourcing, training Training Centers, joint initiatives Web Hosting : Outsourcing E-procurements Facility Management : For Networks and IT projects (Operation and Maintenance), Web Sites : Ministry of Education and Higher Education, Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of Finance (Cadastre), Ministry of Labor, Ministry of Telecom…

8 PPP for Infrastructure
TRA Consultation Process with Private Sector Mobile Sector : BOT, MA, Privatization ISP and DSP : Internet Services and Broadband initiatives. Unbundling, collocation, Interconnection DSL and Wireless Providers Colocation (allow private sector to locate equipment in Public premises) Unbundling of Local Loop (private sector can use the local loop in delivering DSL service to end-user) Provides connectivity for government agencies (Rural Area) Secure Banking Networks : SIBEL (Banque du Liban)

9 PPP for Portals Government Websites and portal Gateways for different Ministries and Agencies. E-gateway, Informs (Single point for information Government – C2G) then G2G, B2G.

10 PPP in Education PC initiatives - Schoolnet
Project PC for All. Partnership: Ministry of Education, PCA, OMSAR, Banking Sector Loans to acquire Pc’s at an affordable price : Company was formed in NATIONAL PC-, Cost ~$500, with Hardware/Software/Training/Internet. Project : School-Net Deployment Interconnects all public and private schools and available libraries together with the Ministry of National Education over a state-of-the-art telecommunications infrastructure with a gateway to the global internet and supported by the latest information and communications technologies. Collaboration and Partnership with various educational networks.

11 PPP in Education PCA (Professional Computer Associate) - 1
Project PCA ICT Academy : PCA ICT Academy (PICTA) are fully equipped and staffed training and technology centers to help local community members to connect with loved ones in Lebanon and around the World, train young people to develop their ICT skills and thus open up potential job prospects, and to enhance the lives of whole communities through access to the latest communications technology. Partnership: Government Ministries (Telecom, education, economy and trade…), PCA, Microsoft, Booz Allen, Intel… "PiPOP" PCA INTERNET POINT OF PRESENCE: PiPOP is a program initiated by PCA in order to address the "digital divide" in the Lebanese society.

12 PPP in Education PCA (Professional Computer Associate) - 2
"PiPOP" Short term objectives Right to access technology and information : Creating several hubs in every region, at the disposal of non profit organizations (social clubs, municipalities, schools...) providing access to technology at a very competitive price to the maximum number of people at all ages. Acquisition of computer and IT skills : PiPOP provided for the communities a small training center, where schools who do not have a computer laboratory, started to organize classes for there students, where they can offer them access to new technology. "PiPOP" Medium to long term objectives Improving standards of living : Developing local economic initiatives through information dissemination. PCA constructed for every village a website economically oriented. Professional opportunities : Creating new Jobs and discovering new potential. Bridging the gap between urban and rural areas

13 PPP in Cooperation Partnership : Ministry of Social Affairs, UNDP, OMSAR, Microsoft. Community Access Centers : Creation of community access centers in various parts of Lebanon, in collaboration with local municipalities and the Ministry of Social Affairs.  These centers will provide ICT training courses as well as low cost Internet access to Lebanese citizens. MOU with Banks, Academy and Associations. Develop Arabic content, mainly when exchanging between citizens and government. Project Partners in Learning (PIL) in collaboration with Microsoft and Eduware Data System Equipping 16 resource centers in collaboration with CISCO and Harriri Foundation, in order to train teachers at public schools on the basic use of computers (computer literacy) Renewal and upgrading of the Microsoft Academic Agreement which ensures the provision of latest Microsoft operating system releases and other Microsoft basic products for Government Agencies. Project Pearls Microsoft which aims to train teachers on the basic uses of the computer as an educational tool, in collaboration with Intel.

14 Others PPP Berytech -1 Berytech (Technology and Health) : Lebanese incubator Partnership: Private sectors, Academy, Ministry of Economy, EU. (partners like : Saint-Joseph University, Indevco Foundation, Fondation Saradar, Sophia-Antipolis Science Park) EU funded project at the Ministry of Economy and Trade … The mission of Berytech is to provide incubation, support and hosting opportunities to the largest number of project holders as well as growing enterprises operating in the fields of Technology, Innovative Services and Health in Beirut and the region. The creation of business opportunities, employment and capacity building for its entrepreneurs. It provides them with business skill training, practical advice, mentoring, access to funding and networking based on flexible basis and a supportive environment to start and grow.

15 Berytech -2 Incubation & Company hosting :
Infrastructure: Telephone/ Data/ UPS/ electricity outlets, 24/7x365 power supply, satellite TV reception, advanced telephone and voic services, broadband connectivity and firewall protection, high speed LAN connections and an ISDN videoconferencing system. Shared Facilities: Companies enjoy access to a state of the art common space including a staffed reception area, lounges with WiFi connection and multimedia support, meeting rooms, a fully equipped multi-purpose function room which can host up to 60 participants for training, seminars and conferences. Networking & Visibility: Hosted companies are featured in Berytech’s portal with links to their individual websites. They partake in all the events that Berytech organizes to promote their activities, including:  Formal and informal functions; access to SME support programs delivered by other institutions, NGOs, or programs; Access to capacity building and accreditation programs; access to export oriented activities through workshops or trade fairs.

16 Berytech -3 Business Counselling: Any individual, project holder, team or entrepreneur, whether hosted or external, can benefit from some or all of Berytech's advisory services. These include initial project or company analysis; assistance in defining objectives, strategic positioning and marketing; elaboration and implementation of the business plan and identification of key performance indicators. Berytech may also provide advice concerning specific developmental stages of the company, help network with relevant authorities or organizations (NGOs, financial or research institutions, industrial or international partners etc), and assist in development of the corporate identity and marketing strategy. Access to Funding: Berytech provides entrepreneurs with access to funding in the form of loan, grants or equity, or through private investors and business angels. Training Services Entrepreneurial Training: Berytech identifies training needs and implements a number of training modules for existing and aspiring entrepreneurs. Technical and sector-specific training: Topics include IT related subjects such as network and wireless security, software oriented training, open source…

17 Berytech -4 Provide assistance and an attractable place for new initiatives (entrepreneurship) to be incubated inside Berytech for a limited period. Sharing infrastructures and locations… 70% of the companies in Berytech operate in different aspects of the ICT sector that include software and hardware solutions, system integration, web design, multimedia communication, etc. 20% operate in the multimedia sector of which TV and movie production, film development, tele-cine, film restoration and storage, etc. 10% function in diverse sectors such as medical, consulting, certification, process engineering, etc.

18 Berytech -5 About Public – Private cooperation:
On the public level, Berytech has in recent years opened channels of communication with various government and non-government agencies. It participates in workshops organized by different ministries and economic bodies, whose mission is to promote economic growth for SMEs. Berytech presented to Ministers of Economy and Finance on different occasions with an action plan that would help enact a favorable environment for small and growing enterprises, in a knowledge-based economy. These actions are: Liberalization of the telecom sector which constitutes an engine for economic growth Creation of support funds for micro enterprises and SMEs Export support for high potential industries to ensure a soft landing on tomorrow’s markets Tax exemptions on revenues invested in the creation of start-ups, identical to the laws that have been enacted in the US and Europe. Tax holiday for a period of 3 years on social security charges for employment contracts in micro enterprises and SMEs. A government obligation to resort to SMEs for 1/3 of its procurement (Small business act). This collective effort will result in an overall benefit for entrepreneurial development and will bridge the gap between the public and private sectors, resulting in a vibrant and innovative economy.

Lobbying group between the ICT sector and the Lebanese government, working together on improving the legal and communications infrastructures in Lebanon. The PCA has three major common objectives: Enhance cooperation and collaboration among Lebanese based ICT companies for the purpose or improving industry standards and competitiveness Expand ICT penetration and adoption in Lebanon Provider of ICT products and services in the region, forum for brainstorming, communication and interaction through several initiatives. ALSI ( Association of the Lebanese Software Industry (ALSI) is committed to improve the competitiveness of its sector by actively engaging its members in the creation, promotion and advancement of the Software Industry in Lebanon. The body of members is composed of Lebanese Software companies. Sponsoring seminars and discussion forums.  Encourages and promotes ISO certification for its members.

20 ASSOCIATIONS -2 Information Technology Society in Lebanon ( Making ICT one of the economic drivers of Lebanon, improve training opportunities building the legislative infrastructure providing guidance and support to the government and Lebanese parliament. (Member of Parliament, ICT private sector, ICT graduates professional and students, ICT governmental activities, ICT programs in Lebanon and ICT activities). A.D.I.L. The Association pour le “Droit et l'Informatique au Liban” works towards the establishing of the legal framework necessary for the development of ICT and its integration into the fabrics of society.

21 ASSOCIATIONS -3 The Lebanese Center for Policy Studies ( LCPS is an independent, non-profit research institute based in Beirut.  It is concerned with issues of political, social, and economic development, the Arab region and the world. Assembly for Professionals and Technicians In Lebanon (APTL) ( Promote the innovative spirit of web designers to meet professional and international standards, to promote intellectual and production opportunities, as well as to develop an interactive proactive and reactive community that aims at providing recognition to this e-sector in the most superlative way. Information Systems Audit & Control Association (ISACA) ( Dedicated to promote the charter of ISACA and develop awareness of IT controls, standards, audit and practices among IT professionals and users of information technology in Lebanon.  ISACA issues the Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) certification. Syndicate of IT Experts syndicate of IT experts who can give testimony in Lebanese courts.

22 NGO’s -1 IT & Internet Association – Lebanon (
Developing and promoting multi-sector systems for an electronic environment and applications based on International Business Standards. ITIA Lebanon aims at enhancing inter-company logistics and increasing trade efficiency by providing Trust on the Net, protecting Intellectual Property Rights, and supporting the use of Information Technology and the Internet. Saradar Foundation ( : Non-profit organization that sponsors ICT related educational initiatives and to provides underprivileged social groups with the opportunity to be exposed to information technology (IT) and to develop electronic skills. Saradar launched IT program, which is an ICT capacity-building project which proposes to train people in their regions. Training is provided to displaced persons in a mobile school, a caravan, tailored and built as a classroom and furnished with the necessary equipment to accommodate students of all ages, particularly children and women.

23 NGO’s -2 CRTD Center for Research and Training on Development: (http: Seeks to contribute to the social development of local communities and organizations through enhancing capacities particularly in gender analysis, gender and development, poverty and exclusion, for the purpose of contributing to creating a more just and equitable environment. An advantage of CRTD is its ability to tap into a vast network of key scholars, researchers and practitioners across the Arab World. CRTD is guided by a voluntary International Advisory Board (IAB) of highly regarded gender and development experts. IRIS Network: ( Disseminate news briefs and analysis on NGOs, poverty and social development; Promote dialogue, exchange and debate on civil society; Increase the coverage of NGOs and development issues in the media; Mainstream gender awareness in social development; Increase the effectiveness of the NGO sector through all of the above

KAFALAT: ( ) Kafalat is a Lebanese financial company with a public concern that assists small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) to access commercial bank funding. Kafalat helps SMEs by providing loan guarantees based on business plans / feasibility studies that show the viability of the proposed business activity. It processes guarantee applications for loans that are to be provided by Lebanese banks to SMEs operating throughout Lebanon. Kafalat guaranteed loans benefit from interest rate subsidies. The interest rate subsidies are financed by the Lebanese treasury and administered by the Central Bank of Lebanon. Lebanon Central Bank: ( Berytech: ( IDAL - Law 360: ( The law entrusts IDAL with “participating in the capital of joint-stock companies for the establishment and management of incubators to support innovators in the fields of technology, information technology, communication and other sectors …”

25 PPP in e-government application - design and implementation stages
BROADENING PARTICIPATION IN GOVERNMENT Design applications that are focused on the citizen. Break down complex policy issues into easy to understand components Be proactive about soliciting participation; use traditional media to publicize online consultations. Engage citizens collaboratively in the design phase. Target audiences that will have immediate use for the online services. Integrate e-government with process reform, streamlining and consolidating processes before putting them online, private sector can have a valuable input. Focus with private sector on systems that can pay off over time in terms of cost savings and increased revenue.

26 PPP in e-government application - design and implementation stages
Consolidate offline processes before putting them online. Validation with partners. Try to focus projects from the user perspective. Consider multi-technology approaches. Some communities may not be ready for the Internet, but other technologies like radio may better serve their needs. Consultations with local communities will help ensure that they benefit from technology. Forge multi-sectorial partnerships. Review and reassess laws and policies that impede public/private cooperation. Ensure that agreements with contractors and partners are equitable and can be reviewed and revised over time. Seek assistance and involvement from organizations that already have experience in providing services and information using the same or similar technologies.

27 PPP in e-government application - design and implementation stages
COLLABORATION : Governments will have to explore new relationships among government agencies as well as partnerships with the private sector and NGOs to ensure quality and accessibility of e-government. Agencies may have to overcome traditional reluctance to work with each other to maximize benefits of scale in e-government projects. Collaboration Recommendations: • In the planning phase, establish a consultative process that includes opportunities to hear from and speak with business, NGO’s and other government agencies. Explain the goals of the e-government initiative and solicit suggestions. • Take private sector advice and experience into account when designing systems. Respond to identified needs. • Create incentives for the private sector to become active participants in reform. Federal agencies and state and municipal agencies and authorities need to partner to ensure a smooth reform in services.

• Infrastructure Development (PPP collaboration) • Law and Public Policy (Experience and feasibility) • Digital Divide (PPP in training and Access) · E-literacy · Accessibility • Trust · Privacy · Security • Transparency • Interoperability (Private experience to integrate previous equipments) • Records Management (Private sector methodology and experience) • Permanent Availability and Preservation • Education and Marketing (Major Role of Private sector to promote) • Public/Private Competition/Collaboration • Workforce Issues (PPP to gather maximum competence & experience) • Cost Structures (PPP in cost structure and similar experiences) • Benchmarking/Qualitative Methods (PPP in Survey and adjust policy)

29 Where PPP in E-government can be?
Use public access kiosks and mobile centers if teledensity is low. Build on the micro enterprise model to bring connectivity to underserved areas and ensure sustainability. Consult with stakeholders to assess how existing laws may impede the desired results. Provide incentives to the private sector to donate equipment and training. Include an educational component in e-government projects. Special attention should be given to groups difficult to integrate (women, elderly, immigrants). Provide aides at access points who can train citizens in basic computer skills. Use common standards throughout the government, to shorten development time and ensure compatibility.

30 Where PPP in E-government can be?
Creation and standardization of meta-data is critical for conducting successful data searches across institutions and networks. Encourage cooperation between departments and with the private sector in collecting, storing and utilizing data, but proceed continuously with personally identifiable information. Conduct research to ensure that online services respond to actual needs and that the implementation suits the target audience. Articulate functionalities clearly and try not to add details that will push budgets into deficit. Consider the government’s current use of technology and study past successes and failures. Conduct regular audits to ensure progress is being made to achieve stated goals. Joint audit with private sector will have more impact.

31 Annexes : Examples of collaboration and Applications -1
Make Broadband Access Available Throughout the Country (xDSL), Internet Hub in Lebanon: Ministry of Telecom - ICT Infrastructure Establish Multi Purpose Community Access Centers (CACs) (subsidized and/or self-sustaining), Various (PiPop; Regional NGOs;etc): Various Government Agencies, UNDP & NGOs. Equip Public Libraries with Multimedia Centers & Free Internet Access : Relevant Ministries (Education; Culture; Social Affairs..) Provide Access to Technology in All Rural Areas Currently Outside the Telecom Backbone e.g. via mobile access units : Saradar & MercyCorps' e-Caravans; UNDP Regional Mobile Unit. And Wireless data Providers

32 Annexes : Examples of collaboration and Applications -2
Equip Public Schools with Computer Labs & Connectivity (possible usage after hours as CACs) Various Limited Initiatives Ministry of Education. Provide Low Income Families with Affordable PCs : PC for All (planning stages) OMSAR/ Private Sector. Realize Banking Secure Network Infrastructure SEBIL (BDL : Banque Du Liban). Develop & Pass a Comprehensive Set of ICT Laws including: e-signature; security; data privacy; cyber crimes; harmful content for minors; consumer online protection; anti-spam and unsolicited marketing communication ECOMLEB & ICT Parliamentary Committee : Ministry of Economy & Trade; ICT Parliamentary Committee & Private sector consultant. Implement IPR Laws on Content & ICT Solutions (inc trademarks, domain name registrations, copyrights, patents, & geographic indicators) Ministry of Economy and Trade Building Confidence, Trust, & Security with private sector.

33 Annexes : Examples of collaboration and Applications -3
Implement New Telecom Law 431 and Complete Telecom Regulatory Authority (TRA) Setup TRA Project : Ministry of Telecom & Private Telecom Provider. Reduce Taxes on ICT Equipment and Accessories Ministry of Finance to promote ICT private industry. Simplify Governmental Processes Relating to Import & Export of ICT Products. Identify Areas of Competitive Potential Based on Local Strengths and Future Regional Market Outlook, MoET/ Private Sector. Create Strategic Alliances with International Firms to Help in Knowledge Transfer and Shaping of Sector Streamline & Improve Quality of Local Hardware Production. (Intel, Cisco, Microsoft) Gather & Disseminate Best Practices & Professional Expertise in Building Software (e.g. CMM) Promote New Revenue-Sharing Models MoET… Establish Joint Government/PrivateSector/Academia R&D Modalities to Develop Local Technological Solutions "Software Center" at the CNRS Establish Incubators & Parks (with related legislation & fiscal incentives) BETZ; Berytech

34 Annexes : Examples of collaboration and Applications -4
Lebanon-Based International Call Centers: (Computer Associates, MOT) Setup Data Entry & Transcription Centers, InfoPlus Review & Improve Incentives (inc Tax Breaks) for ICT Startups (Including incentives for e-Commerce Businesses) (Law 360) - IDAL Reduce Taxes & Duties on ICT Hardware Manufacturer & Software Developers, to Encourage Export: Ministry of Finance, Customs and local private sector (Computer industries). Industry Level Participation in International Forums & Exhibitions to Promote the Industry IDAL; Export Promotion Board at the MoET. Complete All Public Schools Teacher Training: (Eduware Project); British Council; Various. Adopt Hybrid Courses in Schools & Combine Instructor-Based with Online Instruction (Dynamic Learning Environments): SchoolNet Project Ministry of Education.

35 Annexes : Examples of collaboration and Applications -5
Develop a Standard Local Needs Assessment Survey Kit, and Define Geographic Areas, Sectors, and Implementation Methodologies Proposed National ICT Steering Entity. Implement Local Surveys of ICT Needs. UNDP Regional; Saradar Foundation, Various NGOs and Government Agencies National History & Cultural Heritage Portal, Saradar Foundation; Ministry of Culture. Develop Content for Promoting the Rights of Vulnerable Groups ICT for Women & Children's Rights (UNDP & Local NGO). Create Media Campaigns and Document Success Stories Targeting Decision Makers: PCA & “Women in IT” . Setup an "ICT for SMEs" Support Program & Resource Center (Consulting Services; Funding; Training; Software..) SME Center: Ministry of Economy and Trade. Develop a National Tourist Network (What's On): Ministry of Tourism, (Tourism Sites and locations on PDA’s).

36 Annexes : Examples of collaboration and Applications -6
Trade Information Center (online): Min of Econ & Trade Trade Point for Lebanon (online): Min of Econ & Trade; Build an e-Commerce Portal: e-ComLeb Min of Econ & Trade Establish National e-Commerce Awards Scheme, USAID Awards Activate & Speed-Up E-Banking, Bankers' Association Judiciary Knowledge Base: Digital Library Citizen's Guide to Governmental Procedures, INFORMS portal Online Presence for All Ministries/ Gov Agencies, Various collaboration with private sectors. Launch Web-Based Tax Filing Forms: Min of Finance. Automate Customs Declarations –NOOR, NAJM - Min of Finance. Real Estate Register -Cadastre Project - Min of Finance. Online Commercial Registry: Min of Finance National Fund for Social Security Register. (Preliminary Phase).

37 Annexes : Examples of collaboration and Planned Applications -7
Prepaid Charge Card for Public Sector Transactions: Min of Finance. Implement National ID & Smartcard: Study Min of Interior . Online Civil & Criminal Records: Min of Interior. Residence & Work Permits: Min of Labor. Passport Issuance & Renewals: General Security. Automate Business Registrations & Renewal of Licenses. Automate Vehicle Registration & Tax Payments Automate Applications for Building Permits Automate Declarations to the Police Publish Terms of All Bids & Tenders Online. e-Billing Services for Utilities: GISEL

38 Annexes : Examples of collaboration and Planned Applications -8
Country Wide GIS Information Tool: CDR Provide Initial and Ongoing Taining for All Civil Servants inc. Public Healthcare Staff; Law Enforcement and Judiciary Staff, Various Ministries & ECOMLEB, OMSAR & ENA (Ecole Nationale de l’Administration). Centralize & Implement a Gov e-Procurement Application. Implement ICT Standards & Guidelines: LIBNOR; OMSAR. Improve Project Management in ICT Units: ARLA(EU) & OMSAR. Link All Government Networks Together. Link Lebanese Government to all Its Diplomatic Missions. Implement ERP Applications, Including Financial, Human Resource Management, & Property Management Systems. Develop Governmental Knowledge Management Systems, including Document Management & Archiving. Automate Preparation and Control of National Budgets.

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