Presentation on theme: "LIFE Third Countries Development of Methods and Tools for the Establishment of Good Environmental Performance in the Tourist Accommodation Sector in Jordan."— Presentation transcript:
LIFE Third Countries Development of Methods and Tools for the Establishment of Good Environmental Performance in the Tourist Accommodation Sector in Jordan – Implementation of pilot studies GREEN-TAS Tourism in Jordan Actors and Stakeholders in Jordan Tourism Some Implications Suggested for Achieving Sustainability of Resources and Energy in the Hotels of Jordan
Tourism has been growing around the world as a major source of income and employment to many countries, and Jordan is one of them.
According to information given by Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities for the year 2005, it is the Kingdom's largest export sector, its second largest private sector employer, and it's second highest producer of foreign exchange. Tourism contributes more than US$800 million to Jordans economy and accounts for approximately 10 % of the country's gross domestic product (GDP).
Tourism has generated 1,021.6 millions in 2005 as an income, which is 8.3% more than the value of 2004, which was 943millions JD. About 29,394 jobs were offered as a direct employment by tourism sector, which is 24.8% more than the 23,544 jobs offered in 2004; all these numbers show the importance of tourism to the economy of Jordan.
There are some objectives stated by Jordans National Tourism Strategy , these can be listed as follows: Increase tourism receipts from JD570 million in 2003 to 1.3 billion (US$ 1.84 billion) Increase tourism-supported jobs from 40,791 in 2003 to 91,719, thus creating over 51,000 jobs. Achieve taxation yield to the government of more than JD455 million (US$637 million)
There are four guiding principles that lead the progress of tourism sector in Jordan: Understanding that tourism is a prime component of the Jordanian economy. There is a willingness to diversify tourism attractions, and transforming them from antiquities to that of a general culture base, which is a requirement of new forms of tourism becoming so familiar around the world. Positive and sustainable conservation of different resources. Maximizing the complementary nature of both governmental and private sectors.
There are many strengths and opportunities that contribute to the fast growth of tourism sector in Jordan: The availability (even partially) of infrastructure and potential. The fact that tourism contributes to a significant amount of the GDP of Jordan. Tourism has been and is still acting as a major earner of hard currencies and contributes to Government and revenues and the national balance of payments.
The great diversity of natural and cultural resources and destination in Jordan: Natural Resources: these include areas of significant land/seascapes, these include Aqaba, Wadi Rum and natural reserves spreading in many regions. Cultural Resources: these include mainly archaeological/historical sites, shopping and galleries, events, and handcrafts. Therapeutic Resources: these are composed of the Dead Sea and some locations where waterfall and hot springs are found.
Being distributed over a wide range of sites, including urban, rural and remote areas.
Tourism requires a wide variety of professional, technical, craft and operative staff, indicating then a big number of jobs opening and a good source of income for different segments in the society. Tourism encourages the sustainability of some basic cultural aspects as traditions and handcrafts
The fact that Royal Family of Jordan is well known all over the world, and it has its wide range of international participation, which will eventually give a positive image for the country.
The good climate with high possibility to provide destinations that will fulfill the needs of different markets of visitors all around the year. The friendly population and their great sense of hospitality.
The high level of security and safety if compared to some other countries in the region, which are severely suffering from political instability. Although of the small area of the country (89,342 sq.km), it has an acceptable system of transportation facilities. The availability of many accommodations and facilities types, as restaurants, travel agencies, transportation countries, guiding staff and other services. The existing of unique and only of their kinds destinations, as Dead Sea, Petra, Jesus Baptism Site, the Mosaic Map of Madaba, and many others. The availability of health and wellness sites as hot springs and Dead Sea.
There are some main problems and threats regarding tourism development in Jordan The unawareness by a big segment in the Jordanian society about the importance of tourism and its activities. The lack of inclusion of Jordan within tour operators catalogues; it has been treated as an extension of neighboring countries regarding tour packages and trade. The lack of facilities in many sites and destinations, and if existed, there is an inadequate distribution of them. The lack of promotional campaigns and marketing representatives abroad.
The high cost of domestic tourism, especially with the low income of a considerable segment in the Jordanian society. The weak organizational structure for many frameworks involved in tourism development with lack of funding. Problems in training staff and employees, especially when it comes to some services and sustainability of resources.
Regarding the growth and progress of tourism in Jordan, some measurements and indicators can be presented here: Number of Arrivals and Average Length of Stay The Profiles of Visitors Numbers of Visitors to Main Destinations Numbers of Facilities and Services Locations (General Description for Accommodations) Employees: Numbers and Characteristics Accommodation Sector in Jordan (More Detailed)
Total Employees BedRoom No. of Hotels Non Jordanian Jordanian Classification FemalesMalesFemalesMales 6, ,6349,4135,29521 Five Stars 2, ,3195,3192,87222 Four Stars 1, ,4625,8593,00843 Three Stars ,0072,01149 Two Stars ,0331,49363 One Star 11, ,07427,63114,679198Total Classified Table 2: Some Details about the Hotels in Jordan
, Apartments B ,7442,39483 Apartments C Suites A Suites B Suites C ,8984, Total Apart. Suite
Issues to be Considered Unfortunately, there is either a decline or a slight increase in visitation by locals in many sites, which reflects the problem of low public awareness about tourism activities and destinations of the country. Females mainly work at hotels (962 employees), tourists restaurants (872 employees) and travel agencies. They were not found in tour guiding service in the records of Add to this a restricted presence in some services; this can be seen in diving centers (4 employees) and water sports (1 employee only).
Employees working in tourism services are mostly distributed in Amman (22,108 employees), Aqaba (2,316 employees), Petra (1,398 employees), Dead Sea (1,135 employees), and Wadi Rum (962 employees), the rest are distributed over other locations, the same can be said about tourism services (Mainly hotels). Many locations lack the presence of either the service or its employees, it becomes important then to supply areas with tourism services and to train local people to work in them, which will enhance living quality in these areas. There is an urging need to provide locals with affordable types of accommodation in different areas.
There is a need to focus on some markets; this can be implemented through increasing promotion representatives over seas in addition to developing web marketing. There should be more spread of awareness regarding the behavior of visitors in different kinds of destinations, an issue that might significantly affect growth of tourism in them.
Stakeholders Involved in Tourism
Putting overall policies and plans, coordination with different stakeholders regarding institutional, organizational and financial aspects; all are to be conducted by the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities, Ministry of Planning, Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Transport and Communication.
Transportation and infrastructure construction and maintenance are mainly the responsibility of: Ministry of Public Works and Housing Greater Amman Municipality, Aqaba and Petra Regional Authorities, Jordan Valley Authority Municipalities within each governorate, Ministry of Transport, Private tourism transport companies, Hijaz and Aqaba Railway Corporations, Aqaba Port Corporation, Arab Bridge Maritime, Civil Aviation Authority and Royal Jordanian.
Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities (MOTA) Preserve and develop touristic sites (lands, buildings and mineral water resorts). License and classify touristic professions. Facilitate formalities relevant to tourists in cooperation with the competent authorities and touristic organizations inside and outside the Kingdom, and provide them with the recreational and care facilities. Set up comprehensive and integrated programs for touristic publication and execute and supervise the same, as well as promote the Kingdom in terms of tourism in collaboration with the authorities concerned. Encourage and organize internal tourism and touristic investment, and observe and organize touristic programs for this purpose to acquaint citizens with the kingdoms landmarks.
Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities (MOTA) Arrange to secure manpower and technical potential required for touristic professions in order to upgrade performance level and efficiency of work in these professions in cooperation with the competent international and local institutions, organizations and bodies. Prepare studies and researches dedicated for the development and promotion of touristic professions. Establish colleges and institutions for teaching sciences relevant to tourism in pursuance of the provisions and requirements of the operative higher education law, and organize administrative, financial and other affairs related to these colleges and institution under regulations issued in accordance with the provisions of this law and any other observed laws.
The Department of Antiquities of Jordan (DOA) is the official institutional authority mandated by law to be responsible for the protection, conservation and presentation of antiquities in Jordan.
Jordan Tourism Board This board was established as a marketing representative on both local and international scales. It aims at achieving the following: Promoting tourism and increasing its awareness and cooperating with the ministry and other sectors to achieve this goal. Preparing all interpretation and promotion methods as brochures, movies, and books regarding tourism, as well as distributing and selling them. That is in addition to magazines and bulletins. Preparing marketing and statistical researches and studies, and applying them by financing them directly or by international and nongovernmental organizations.
Suggesting projects to improve tourism destinations and developing them in Jordan. Participating in training human labor in tourism business and services. Establishing a national information center to gather information and data regarding local and international tourism. Contributing to events and activities related tourism as in the case of festivals and conferences, as well as national events for what relates to the directions and objectives of the board.
The Jordan Inbound Tour Operators Association (JITOA) was established in 2003 to enhance the professionalism and profitability of its members through effective representation in tourism industry and government affairs, education and training, and by identifying and meeting the needs of inbound tourism.
Jordan Hotel Association is a non-profit association representing over 400 hotels (Classified and Unclassified) throughout Jordan. The association was established in 1969 and seeks to promote cooperation and good relation among proprietors of the hospitality industry, in addition to assisting members in maintaining a high standard for their establishments to meet international standards.
Jordan Tour Guides Association (JTA): This association was established to supervise and improve the career of tour guiding in Jordan through the training of its members (guides) and providing them with necessary health and social rights and insurances.
There is a number of Jordanian Universities that have established departments of archaeology and tourism, these departments have the role of teaching these fields of science, as well as participating in activities as excavations and museum work, some of them operate archaeological museums on their campuses to display archaeological material, especially what has been found in the excavations they conducted.
The Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature is a semi-official body that is responsible for several natural reserves that are scattered over Jordan. The Royal Scientific Society is a national institution that conducts research and provides services in different technical and business fields; it has both state and private funding. One of its achievements to relate to tourism is the work conducted on the architectural heritage of the city of Salt, which is a great documentation project that aimed getting and saving information regarding this heritage, especially with the great urbanization movement witnessed in the country.
The Natural Resources Authority (NRA): This authority is a department that belongs to the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources. It has conducted highly technical and geotechnical studies and geological mapping at different locations as Petra and Kerak, there were different standard procedures for environmental and cultural resources impact assessments for feasibility studies and to measure effects of any proposed projects on different resources, this authority has signed a cooperation agreement with the Department of Antiquities for such purposes.
The Friends of Archaeology: This is a non-governmental organization and a pressure group that aims to build awareness regarding the significance of antiquities in education and tourism in Jordan, it has over 400 members including Jordanians and expatriates living in Jordan, it runs a program of different cultural events.
Jordan Environment Society (JES): This is an NGO with over 2000 members and over 60 institutions/companies that are organized into 16 local branches. This society is responsible for environmental education and public awareness, which comes through the National Environmental Information and Education Program, as well as the Water Awareness Program
United Nations: UNESCO sponsored an integrated management plan for an archaeological park in Petra, which is responsible now for the development and the protection of Petra Site (PAP: Petra Archaeological Park). The UN affiliate, the International Council on Monuments and Sites, has designated two sites in Jordan as World Heritage Sites; these are Petra Qasr 'Amra (one of the Umayyad desert castles in Jordan). Educational Institutions. Transportation Sectors.
Implications of Sustaining Resources and Energy in Hotels
Sustainability and Hotels Why Should we consider such issue? If sustainability existed, then we will have: Reduced resource consumption and reduced costs. Customer loyalty and enhanced public image. Attracting and retaining dedicated staff. Avoid sanctions from environmental authorities. Improve competitiveness in the world markets. Long-term business benefits.
Factors Affecting the Environmental Impacts & Consumption of Energy in Hotels (a) Facility Characteristics including: Type of facility urban hotels, vocational villages, restaurants, etc, Facility category (1-5 stars), and size (number of guest rooms) and the facility area. (b) The facility site, the location of the tourist facility mainly affects: Climatic conditions, consequently the peak load time and the level of energy consumption particularly for space climatization, and water heating. It also affects the types of the available energy supply options on or nearby the site.
(c) The facility zoning areas, a hotel can be divided to three distinct zones all serving distinctly different purposes and utilizing different forms and level of energy.
By looking at these factors, it can be indicated that improving environmental performance and energy consumption may become achievable through three main approaches, these are: Services and facilities. Design. Management and Training of Staff. Other Approaches as Monitoring and Sub Meters.
Facilities and Services: One of the main problems facing some hotels in Jordan is the high consumption of energy caused by HVAC systems and lighting, this is due to the lack of insulation techniques as well as the lack of sensors sensitive to the presence of individuals within rooms or any areas in hotels.
Lighting seems to be more acceptable in terms of lights used in most hotels in Jordan, though; some hotels are still using inefficient energy types of light bulbs inside guest rooms, after asking one of the employees in the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities in the Research Department, it was found that it is not preferable to use neon lights in hotels since they are not strong enough. Recommendations were given regarding this issue.
HVAC Systems The followings are some practical implications that can improve the efficiency of HVAC system: Insulation: when insulating all heating and cooling lines/vessels using appropriate insulation thickness, minimizing heat gains or losses becomes possible. Building Envelope: measures as false ceilings and segregation of critical areas for air conditioning by air curtains all can optimize the effective space requiring air conditioning. Building Heat Load Minimization: Minimizing the air conditioning loads can be done by some procedures as roof cooling, roof reflectance, efficient lighting, and optimal thermostat setting of temperature of air conditioned spaces, sun film applications, etc.
Solar Heat Gain Control: Such control can be achieved by installing awnings, overhangs, or low e- coated windows with low Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC). Select high-efficiency units when replacing HVAC equipment: Although some high-efficiency units may be more expensive than average-efficiency units, the higher initial payment can be recovered through increased energy savings in a very short time. It is necessary to conduct a proper maintenance of HVAC systems, such as cleaning filters and maintaining proper refrigerant charge on wall units and packaged systems.
Energy-efficient fluorescent lamps instead of "conventional" fluorescent lamps. Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) instead of incandescent lamps. Installation of high pressure sodium vapor (HPSV) lamps for applications where color rendering is not critical. Mercury vapor lamps should also be considered. LED exit signs instead of incandescents. Microprocessor-based controllers. Optimum usage of day-lighting in new designs. Lighting
High frequency (HF) electronic ballasts instead of conventional ballasts. Occupancy sensors, an affordable way to guarantee that unneeded lights do not remain on. Photocells, devices that automatically detect the natural light level in a room, consequently the artificial light intensity will accordingly be adjusted. An automatic device, such as a key tag system, will improve housekeeping energy management.
Another important issue in Jordan hotels is the great consumption of energy caused by heating water; this is due to the lack of insulation techniques as well as the lack of using solar system and other types of renewable types of energy sources.
Procedures to be taken by investors: Insulating hot water storage tanks and piping to reduce heat loss. Evaluating the use of decentralized small water heaters to reduce the peak load of the main water heating system or that of the electric generators, which supply electricity for heating water. Evaluating and installing as appropriate waste heat recovery systems on large generating units, laundry, etc. As appropriate, solar water heating systems should be installed for guest rooms, swimming pools, and other services equipment.
For management and staff, the following should be done: Setting water heaters thermostats at not more than ºC, for guest room water. Using a booster heater for higher water temperatures for dishwaters and laundry equipment use. Minimizing temperature of water used for cleaning utensils (without reducing the temperature below the permissible level). Adopting a regular boiler tuning program Adjusting fuel / air ratio to maintain higher efficiencies.
Checking toilets, faucets and showerheads for water leaks and repair immediately. Using low-flow shower-heads (2 ½ to 3 gallons per minute are recommended) Checking and maintaining gas boilers and water heaters twice a year to reduce scales and increase efficiency. Replacing inefficient water heating systems. Considering water treatment to prevent scaling.
Unfortunately, many hotels in Jordan are still not using water saving aerators or showerheads, not even low-flow toilets. Another serious matter is the limited use of any water treatment so water can be reused.
Ultra Low-Flow Toilets Toilet Dams or Other Water Displacement Devices Low-Flow Showerheads Efficient Faucet Aerators Landscape Water: The following techniques are the most effective ways to control outdoor water use: - Keeping only native, drought-tolerant plants that can thrive with minimal water on a property (Xeriscaping plants). - Moisture sensors in soils. - Controllers on irrigation systems
Design as a Tool of Sustainability Consider a whole building approach, where the architectural design is integrated with the building's energy systems design. Consider carefully the physical layout of the facility and clustering of service areas to minimize electrical distribution systems, centralize plumbing and water supply and minimize transportation requirements. Ensure guest satisfaction through using reliable and efficient power & water supplies. Enhance staff information on the need to upgrade energy efficiency and promote their participation in the development process of the facility.
In addition to the tasks mentioned previously about the role of management in using and maintaining different tools and systems in hotels, education and training are essential part s of the energy management program, they are considered as an efficient and cost-effective way to reduce energy use in tourist facilities, such approach is based on involving personnel. We need to focus on Front Office, Public areas and services, housekeeping, and swimmimg pools and spas.
Some other approaches: Sub Metering and System Monitoring Recording - Measuring and recording of different forms of energy consumption. Analyzing - Correlating and relating energy consumption to a measured output, such as occupancy, and so to know the factors behind consuming some particular amounts of energy. Comparing - Comparing energy consumption to a specific standard or benchmark.
Setting Targets - Setting targets to reduce or control energy consumption. Monitoring - Comparing energy consumption to the set target on a regular basis. Reporting - Reporting the results, and comparing all variances from the targeted standard values or standards. Controlling - Implementing management procedures to correct any variances which reflect any deficiency.
Other Sections in the report included laundry and kitchens, as well as some other departments in the hotel. A list of Some practical procedures that can be done by managers and departments supervisors is also added.