Presentation on theme: "Hybridisation Some atoms form a different number of covalent bonds than the electron configurations of those atoms might suggest they should form."— Presentation transcript:
hybridisation Some atoms form a different number of covalent bonds than the electron configurations of those atoms might suggest they should form.
hybridisation In general, when we look at the electron configuration for an atom, we can infer they type of bonding that it will undergo. However, certain atoms like carbon, beryllium, and boron, react differently than is expected.
hybridisation Carbon has an electron configuration of 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2. That indicates that there are 4 electrons in its valence shell. The 2s orbital is full, and there are there are 2 half-filled p- orbitals.
hybridisation The two half-filled p-orbitals would suggest that carbon would form two covalent bonds. However, scientific research proves otherwise.
hybridisation It appears that carbon will promote one of the electrons from the 2s orbital to the 2p orbital, leaving it with 4 half- filled orbitals. This gives carbon the ability to form 4 covalent bonds.
hybridisation hybridisation Chemists describe this unusual behavior as hybridisation. Hybridisation is the rearrangement of electrons within the valence orbitals of atoms during a chemical reaction.
Hybridisation sp 3 hybrid orbital In carbon, the four half-filled orbitals all have identical energies, and each is referred to as an sp 3 hybrid orbital. There are a total of 4 sp 3 hybrid orbitals, as is illustrated by adding the superscripts (a 1 is assumed for the s).
Hybridisation Once hybridisation has taken place, any one of the four is equivalent to any other. All four orbitals have new bond characteristics that are different from the characteristics of the s and p orbitals.
hybridisation hybridisation also occurs in compounds of beryllium. The electron configuration if Be is 1s 2 2s 2. It would appear to have no half-filled orbitals with which to form covalent bonds.
hybridisation However, Be can form 2 covalent bonds by promoting one of the electrons in the 2s orbital into the 2p orbital, giving it 2 half-filled orbitals.
hybridisation sp hybrid orbitals The new half-filled orbitals formed by Be are referred to as sp hybrid orbitals. There are 2 sp hybrid orbitals.
hybridisation Boron also undergoes a type of hybridisation. The electron configuration of B is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1. Boron will promote one of the 2s electrons, giving it 3 half- filled orbitals in its valence shell, allowing it to form 3 covalent bonds.
hybridisation sp 2 hybridisation This kind of hybridisation is referred to as sp 2 hybridisation.
Metallic Bonding Metallic atoms, which have few valence electrons and low ionization energies, cannot achieve the inert gas configuration by sharing electrons or donating them to other metallic atoms.
Metallic Bonding metallic bonding Therefore, neither ionic nor covalent bonding is possible between metallic atoms. However, a relatively strong type of bonding, called metallic bonding, does occur in metals.
Metallic Bonding Metals consist of a crystalline lattice in which positive ions are arranged in fixed patterns, and the valence electrons are free to move. These electrons do not belong to individual atoms, but rather to the crystal as a whole.
Metallic Bonding The sea of electrons produces an attractive force that fixes the positions of the metallic ions. Because the electrons can move about freely, metals are good conductors of heat and electricity.