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Intergovernmental and Non-Governmental Organizations

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Presentation on theme: "Intergovernmental and Non-Governmental Organizations"— Presentation transcript:

1 Intergovernmental and Non-Governmental Organizations

2 Questions to Consider Are nonstate actors becoming more or less important in world politics? Will the “decline of States” be the cure to global problems or a curse?


4 IGOs and NGOs IGOs: Intergovernmental organizations; members are states; have authority from state governments to make decisions regarding particular problems 262 in 2012 36 universal membership NGOs: Nongovernmental organizations; members are private individuals or groups who focus on specific aspects of the global agenda IGOs are established by treaties requiring member ratification, and which act as the charter for the group. They are distinct from task groups or simple coalitions such as the G8. Well-known IGOs include the United Nations, Interpol, the European Union and the African Union. 4

5 Trends in the Number of IGOs and States Since 1900
The seeming decline in the number of IGOs in the late 1980s is the result of the merger of several previously independent IGOs. 5

6 The United Nations Founded in 1945; successor to League of Nations
193 members (South Sudan) Managing global “anarchy” Maintain international peace and security Promote peaceful relations between states Promote cooperation for solving international problems Encourage human rights and freedoms Collective security—paralyzed during the Cold War The official languages of the United Nations are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish. 6

7 The Changing Membership of the United Nations

8 UN’s Agenda Six fundamental values
Freedom Equality Solidarity Tolerance Respect for nature Sense of shared responsibility Expansive issues, from security to desertification 8

9 Organization of the UN The General Assembly (GA) The Secretariat
193 members, all with an equal vote Resolutions not considered law Power over the small UN budget The Secretariat 8,900 employees (~44,000 total) Secretary General The UN Security Council 15 members, “permanent five” have veto powers 9

10 The UN’s Headquarters and Global Network

11 Aspects of the United Nations
General Assembly dominated by the Global South Controversy over size and nature of UN budget Dominance of U.S. Budget problems North–South differences over perceived priorities Controversy over dues amounts: Richest 20% of states pay 95% U.S. 22%, Russia 1.6%, Japan 12.5% Controversy over inefficiency of UN bureaucracies 11

12 The Global Goals (next 15 years)

13 Four Views of the UN UN as world government The UN as irrelevant
The UN as a tool for states The UN as a source of norms 13

14 World Trade Organization
Successor to GATT (1947) Promotes stable international economic order and smooth international trade Formal decision-making powers over trade disputes Decreases state sovereignty Dominated by major powers The WTO is headquartered in Geneva, and has 153 members. It functions primarily as a negotiating forum on trade for member nations. 14

15 World Bank Created at 1944 Bretton Woods conference
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) Private and governmental loans to developing countries Upholds international economic system Promotes economic/political development and environmental sustainability Ultra Mega Power Plants The World Bank functions as a cooperative, with 186 member countries. Shareholders are represented by a board of governors who meet annually. The five largest shareholders are France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. 15

16 International Monetary Fund
1944 Bretton Woods; now a UN agency Stabilizes international monetary exchange rates Lender of last resort; balance of payments problems Dominated by wealthier states: weighted voting Conditionality Tension with Global South 16

17 The European Union

18 European Union ~28 members
Neoliberal theory: promote peace and prosperity through IGOs 1951 European Coal and Steel Community Single economy with a common currency Most western European states; most east European states also Third Way The European Union is both an economic and a political partnership. Its goal is increased peace, prosperity and freedom for its citizens. 18


20 The Expansion of the European Union, 1951–2014
From few, to many. Expansion of the European Union has allowed it to emerge as a superpower.

21 European Union Components
Council of Ministers ~Final authority over decisions European Commission Propose laws, execute Council decisions European Parliament Elected in member states, increasing power Court of Justice Interprets EU law Members of the European Parliament do not sit in national blocks, but in Europe-wide political groups. 21

22 The European Union’s Governmental Structure

23 Competitive Liberalization


25 Functionalism Remove the rationale for war through political integration Peace by pieces Use IGOs, shared sovereignty Collaborate to solve technical transnational problems Cooperation in one area would spill over into other areas Cooperation based on self-interest 25

26 Neofunctionalism IGOs created to manage common problems provide benefits that exert pressures for further political integration, creation of new IGOs, and increased interdependence Leads to regional integration Spillover—momentum builds Political, Technical, Geographical European Union 26

27 Others Intergovernmentalism Liberal intergovernmentalism
Critiques neo-functionalism for viewing states as passive or unaware of their gradual, but inexorable loss of sovereignty “Illusion of integration” Sovereignty that counts (high politics) Liberal intergovernmentalism Constructivism The EU is expected not to just constrain the range of choices available to member states, but also the way in which they define their identity and thus their interests

28 EU Decision-Making Challenges
Henry Kissinger in the 1970s: "If I want to talk to Europe, who do I phone?“ Multiple decision-making procedures: consultation, cooperation, co-decision How far and how fast should a process of pooled sovereignty proceed? “Permissive consensus” “Enlightened despotism” “Integration by fiat” How much should the EU’s membership expand? 28

29 Other Regional IGOs NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization
APEC: Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation ASEAN: Association of Southeast Asian Nations CARICOM: Caribbean Community and Common Market ECOWAS: Economic Community of West African States CAEU: Council of Arab Economic Unity OIC: Organization of the Islamic Conference 29

30 Nongovernmental Organizations
Private interest groups Allow individuals to participate in global affairs About 8,500 total (conventional) Often work with IGOs such as the UN Challenge state sovereignty 30

31 Trends in the Number of NGOs Since 1956

32 Indigenous Ethnic Groups
Nonstate nations in the Fourth World Ethnopolitical groups: Common nationality, language, cultural tradition, kinship ties Form cultural domains that can cross national borders 283 minority groups (18.5% of global population) Challenge Realism’s billiard ball conception of IR (unitary states) Kurds in Turkey, Iraq, Syria There are an estimated 650 million indigenous people worldwide, scattered in more than seventy countries. 32

33 The Indigenous Cultures of the World

34 Religious Movements (1 of 2)
Politically active organizations based on strong religious convictions Dual loyalties and transnational communities but also competition Theocracy Extreme militant religious movements They view existing government authority as corrupt and illegitimate because it is secular They attack the inability of government to address the domestic ills of the society They believe that government and all its domestic and foreign activities must be in the hands of believers They are universalists (views are part of everyone who is a believer) They are exclusionists (all conflicting opinions marginalized) They are militant 34

35 Religious Movements (2 of 2)
Militant religious movements tend to stimulate five specific types of international activities: Irredentism Secession or separatist revolts Migration Diasporas International terrorism 35

36 Transnational Terrorist Groups
Terrorism today very different from the past Indiscriminate More lethal Waged by civilians Technology Postmodern terrorism Difficulty in defining terrorism 36

37 Multinational Corporations
Primary agents of globalization of production 82,000 parent firms control 810,000 foreign affiliates Foreign direct investment Reduce political borders Distribute wealth unevenly Impact domestic politics Globally integrated enterprise Strategic corporate alliances 37

38 Issue-Advocacy and Global Civil Society: Can NGOs Transform World Politics?
Problem, Solution, Action Networks of NGOs have contributed to the emergence of global civil society (diffusion of power away from states) Stronger in low politics Single issue NGOs more influential NGOs compete with one another to influence decision makers 38

39 Questions for Critical Thinking (1 of 2)
In what ways do IGOs and NGOs affect the structure of the international system? In what ways and in which issue areas could NGOs conceivably be more effective than IGOs? How do IGOs reinforce the divisions between the North and the South? 39

40 Questions for Critical Thinking (2 of 2)
What are the prospects that the UN will become a more powerful and more effective institution? In what ways do the WTO, World Bank, and IMF affect the Global South? Could the EU replace the United States as the world’s hegemon? 40

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