6 Process of Promotion Through a creative, behavior-centered process, promotion is designed and developed that is: Problem-defined Research-based Objective-focused Consumer-driven Environment-supported Services-backed Strategy-led
7 Requirements for Promotion Infrastructure, Products and Service Improvements Appropriate Promotional Approach Supportive Environment
8 Appropriate Promotional Approaches Infrastructure, Products, & Services Supportive Environment Ensuring that all needed pieces are in place at the same time in the same place, increases, likelihood of behavior change. Maximum potential for change exists here. Increasing the Likelihood of Change
9 Infrastructure, Products and Service Improvements Infrastructure: Sewerage treatment plant Water kiosks Water pipes Sewer lines Service Improvements: Extended hours 24/7 hotline Special weekend hours Desludge trucks Products: Septic tanks Water facets Latrines Soap Wash basins Sinks Toilets Water tablets
10 Appropriate Promotional Approaches Information and education Behavior change communication Social marketing Training Advocacy Mobilization
11 Supportive Environment National policies – water, sanitation, hygiene Strategies and plans Institutional strengthening Organizational capacity building Financing and funding schemes Public-private partnerships
12 Infrastructure No Process Process
13 Products No Process Process
14 Service Improvements No Process Process
15 Promotion No Process
16 Emptying is convenient: Schedule a regular visit with your water district desludge service. Emptying is affordable. You choose: Pay once when desludged, up to a maximum of Peso 1500, depending on the size of your septic tank. Pay monthly an additional Peso 20 with your water bill. CONTACT your water representative at (phone number) and SIGN UP for the septic tank program TODAY!! For a healthier family, EMPTY Your Septic Tank Regularly! Process
17 Feasible Practice No Process Process
18 What is Promotion? Promotion brings about and sustains change by ensuring that all needed elements are available at the right time in the right place for the right people. Infrastructure, Products, and Service Improvements Promotional Approaches Supportive Environment CHANGE
10-Step Promotion Toolkit for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Overview
20 The Toolkit Advantage Enables users to focus on the essentials Helps users develop an appropriate and complete promotion package Assists users in talking with, listening to, and reviewing results with the consumers Allows users to look at the bigger picture into which their promotion will fit Guides users through good decision making Provides users with international best practices and fundamental behavior change principles
10 STEPS 21
22 Promotion Team – Roles and Descriptions RolesBrief Description Team LeaderManages and coordinates team and promotion program process (Steps 1 through 10); responsible for focusing initial program ideas and discussions – Step 1 – and maintaining FOCUS throughout. Research SupervisorOrganizes and oversees conduct of research – Step 2. Behavior AnalystFollows behavior analysis process to lead team to appropriate feasible practice to promote – Step 3. Change Strategy SupervisorPrepares for and facilitates the development of the Broad Change Strategy and assists with cultivating potential partners – Step 4. Budgeting/Finance OfficerAssists with budgeting process throughout – Steps 2-10 Print Materials CoordinatorOversees and manages the development of all print materials – Steps 5-7 Non-Print Materials CoordinatorOversees and manages the development of all non-print materials and activities – Steps 5-7 Pretest SupervisorOrganizes and manages all materials/activities pretest sessions – Step 7 Distribution, Airing, and Activities Manager Organizes and supervises all agreed upon training, needed distribution and airing and general implementation activities – Step 8 Monitoring SupervisorOrganizes and supervises all monitoring activities – Step 9 Evaluation CoordinatorOrganizes and supervises all evaluation activities – Step 10
Step 1: DEFINE 23
24 Step 1: Outputs Product 1: Plan of Action Product 2: Overview of Research, Part A. Research Background
25 Plan of Action Timeframe Steps to be Completed Month (Total Months = 8-12) Level of Effort (Total Days= ) ORGANIZE: Select team members, organize team and review toolkit Month days STEP 1: DEFINE problem, potential audiences and ideal behaviors5 days STEP 2: GATHER needed informationMonth days STEP 3: FOCUS on one feasible practice for one audience and problem Month 3 5 days STEP 4: STRATEGIZE long-term change goal, objectives, and impact5 days STEP 5: PLAN short-term promotion plan5 days STEP 6: CREATE promotional materials and activities Month days STEP 7: PRETEST and finalize materials and activities15-21 days STEP 8: IMPLEMENT the promotion campaign Months days STEP 9: MONITOR promotion process and outcomes2-3 days per month STEP 10: EVALUATE promotion outcomes and improveMonths 6 and days
26 Promotion Program using FOUR, Facilitated, Guiding Workshops over 12 months Phase 1Phase 2Phase 3Phase 4Phase 5Phase 6Phase 7 Month 1Month 2-3Month 4Month 5Month 6Month 7-11Month 12 Workshop 1FIELDWORKWorkshop 2FIELDWORKWorkshop 3FIELD WORKWorkshop 4 2-day workshop 4-day workshop 3-day workshop INTRODUCE, DEFINE, AND GATHER Finalize the team and complete Step 2 Research and Summarize Data/Informati on Collected FOCUS, DESIGN, AND DEVELOP Complete Step 6 Development and Step 7 Pretest and Finalize materials/activi ties ORGANIZE IMPLEMENT Rollout activities, monitor and conduct final evaluation – completing Step 8, Step 9 and Step 10 PRESENT EVALUATION RESULTS AND MOVE FORWARD Complete Organize the Team, Step 1 and Start Step 2 Complete Steps 3-5, Start 6, and Train on Step 7 Complete Step 8 budget, planning for launch, etc. and Step 9 Present results from Step 10 Provide additional out-of- workshop sessions as appropriate
27 Promotion Program using THREE, Facilitated, Guiding Workshops over 8 months Phase 1Phase 2Phase 3Phase 4Phase 5 Month 1Month 2-3Month 4Month 5-7Month 8 Workshop 1FIELDWORKWorkshop 2FIELDWORKWorkshop 3 2-day workshop5-day workshop3-day workshop INTRODUCE, DEFINE, AND GATHER Finalize the team and complete Step 2 Research and Summarize Data/Information Collected FOCUS, DESIGN, DEVELOP, ORGANIZE IMPLEMENTATION Complete Step 7 Pretest and Finalize materials/activities AND Rollout activities, monitor and conduct final evaluation – completing Step 8, Step 9 and Step 10 PRESENT EVALUATION RESULTS AND MOVE FORWARD Complete Organize the Team, Step 1 and Start Step 2 Complete Steps 3- 6,Train on Step 7, Complete Step 8 budget, planning for launch, etc. and Step 9 Present results from Step 10 Provide additional out-of-workshop sessions as appropriate
28 Importance of Focusing an Effort Identifies organizational priority – at the moment Helps to avoid assumptions Sets the context for the promotion Ensures resources will be available for the promotion
29 Elements of a Problem Statement What is the priority area? – FOCUS What is happening? – PROBLEM/PRACTICE How much of it happens? – DATA Where does it happen? – WHERE When does it happen? – WHEN To whom does it happen? – AUDIENCE Why does it happen? – CAUSE What are the consequences of what is happening? – RESULT
30 Potential Audiences Who is directly affected by the problem identified? Who is/might have been directly involved in the origins of the problem? What groups might be useful in solving this problem?
31 Behavior Ideal Behavior: Best, in an ideal world Corresponds to international standards Feasible Practice: Most doable Reflects international standards, but corresponds to local context
Step 2: GATHER 32
33 Step 2: Outputs Product 2: Overview of Research, Part B. Research Design and Part C. Research Results Product 6: Budget, Part A. Overall Budgets, (3) Research
34 Consumer Factors to Understand - AIM AbilityInfluenceMotivation 1.Knowledge 2.Social Support 3.Skills 4.Confidence in Ability 1.Availability 2.Characteristics 3.Appeals 4.Social Norm 1.Attitudes and Beliefs 2.Intention 3.Expectations 4.Threat 5.Willingness and Ability to Pay
35 Requirements Infrastructure, Products and Service Improvements Appropriate Promotional Approach Supportive Environment Infrastructure, Products, and Service Improvements Promotional Approaches Supportive Environment CHANGE
36 Factors of the Requirements to Understand Infrastructure, Products and Service Improvements PromotionSupportive Environment Actual product use Existing services Existing infrastructure Existing products Costs of services and products Capacity of providers Actual hygiene practices Existing hygiene promoters Training materials available Capacity of promoters Existing materials Existing capacities to implement strategy Financing options Policies Key supporting players
37 Organizing the Research 1.Select research methods – at least 1 quantitative and 1 qualitative method – 3 methods maximum 2.Choose research audiences 3.Determine research sample sizes 4.Develop initial research budget 5.Consider outsourcing 6.Develop research instruments for methods selected
38 Characteristics of Research Quantitative: Answers how many Relationship between variables Numbers and statistics to aggregate, describe, and compare data Broad generalization to a larger population Qualitative: Answers why In-depth study on issues or events through direct quotation, interaction, and observations Exploratory and probing Emotions, perceptions, attitudes, motivators
39 Confidence in Research Results Confidence level - represents how often a percentage of the population with the selected characteristics would pick certain answers 90% confidence level means you can be certain that 90% of the time, members of this population would respond in this manner WHAT DO WE WANT? 90% or 85% confidence
40 Considerations for Question Development What method are you using? Quantitative, Qualitative, survey, observation, interview… Who are you talking to? Appropriate language How many will you be conducting? Number of questions to essentials only
41 Developing Research Questions from Gaps Identified – Skills – Question: What is the present capacity of providers and promoters? Quantitative: Who presently provides you with your water? (choices) How did you hear about these services? (choices) How long have you been using these services? (choices) How long do you plan to continue to use these services? (choices) Qualitative: Who presently provides you with your water? (open-ended) What do you think of these services? (open-ended) Why? (probing) How would you change these services? (open-ended) Why? (probing)
42 Differences between Quantitative and Qualitative Research Collection Quantitative Requires one person Requires good questioning skills and ability to follow questionnaire/survey provided as it is detailed Requires good listening skills Takes 45 minutes to 60 minutes to administer ONE One person can administer up to 6 per day effectively Requires training in familiarization with and use of form Requires ability to take responses as given and not interpret responses Requires due diligence to complete the entire survey and seek appropriate target audience members Qualitative Requires two-persons – one interviewer/facilitator and one note taker Requires good facilitation and/or note taking skills Requires good listening skills Takes 1½ to 2 hours to conduct ONE Team can conduct up to 3 per day effectively Requires training in facilitation and note taking skills Requires ability to be able to synthesize data as discussion is happening Requires flexibility and ability to go with the flow of the discussion/interview
43 Skills Needed to Collect Information Use appropriate body language Begin and end well Ask questions Explore answers Reflect and resume
44 Basics of Summarizing Data Quantitative: Compile raw data by characteristic – gender, age, household type, service type, etc. Start with the percentage or number Follow with a short, abbreviated phrase Be consistent in presenting statistics Avoid bar charts/line graphs when bulleted lists will do Compare across characteristics only when essential to understanding Qualitative: Compile raw data by characteristic Start with qualifiers like - Lack of, Inadequate, Believes, Seems, Substantial, Positive, Supportive Follow with short, abbreviated phrase Be consistent in presenting statements Make no comparisons across characteristics Compile by ability, influence, motivation Compile by intervention factors only when essential
PRIORITY Questions to Answer for a KEY Summary Current Practice What are they actually, currently doing? Ability How aware is our target audience of the topic or issue? What do they know? How do they know it? Who/what agency supports this knowledge? What are they able to do? What is needed? To what extent do they believe they are capable of carrying out this practice? Influence To what extent are needed products and services available? Where, by whom? What characteristics and features of the practice/product/service do they like? In general, what do they like? In general, what influences them/attracts them? What is the community around them doing, practicing, and or purchasing? What is presently acceptable? Motivation How do they feel about the topic and/or what is being proposed? To what extent do they believe that the topic or practice will change things? Have they indicated any intention to practice what is being promoted? What impact do they feel the practice will have? What risks and/or dangers to they feel will result from practicing what is being promoted? To what extent have they expressed willingness to pay for practice? To what extent are they actually able to pay for practice based on current income, expenses, and spending patterns? Communication What do they cite as their preferred communication channels? (in order of preference) 45
46 Sample Summary of Key Findings KEY FINDINGS SUMMARY Priority Focus: Septic Tank Desludging for fee Date: April 2010 Research Audience: Male Heads of Households in Manila, Philippines Type of Research: Quantitative (86 surveys) Qualitative (30 in-depth interviews) Current Actual Practices AbilityInfluenceMotivationCommunication 80% desludge every 7-8 years 65% report septic tank overflows 23% use chemical treatment to desludge 34% observed households emitted foul odor around tank area Substantial awareness of need to empty tank Inadequate knowledge on when and how to desludging 22% could cite a desludge service 33% were aware that the local utility provided desludge services Most stated that their neighbors dont desludge either Most felt that desludging was too expensive to do often Many stated they would desludge more regularly if it was easy and affordable 82% cited improved health as reason to desludge 45% like radio 32% like TV 87% like to talk to and learn from neighbors 23% read newspapers Most stated they preferred personal contact over mass media
49 Elements of a Problem Statement What is the priority area? – FOCUS What is happening? – PROBLEM/PRACTICE How much of it happens? – DATA Where does it happen? – WHERE When does it happen? – WHEN To whom does it happen? – AUDIENCE Why does it happen? – CAUSE What are the consequences of what is happening? – RESULT
50 Redefined Problem Statement Priority Area in Which Work (PRIORITY AREA) What happens? PROBLEM How much of it happens? DATA Where does it happen? WHERE When does it happen? WHEN To whom does it happen? AUDIENCE Why does it happen? CAUSE What are its most important consequences? RESULT New Decisions based on Research: FINAL Problem Statement:
51 Two Priority Causes Causes Why does this Problem happen? Prioritize based on: Importance to Audience Importance to Agency Value to Audience Value to Agency TOTAL
52 Audience Segmentation Differing perspectives Different characteristics Different experiences Different needs, wants, desires Differing attitudes and beliefs
53 Audience Types Primary audience, at whom the feasible practice is targeted; Secondary audiences, with whom the promotion works to assist the primary audience in adopting the feasible practice; and Tertiary audiences, with whom the promotion shares the work for approval, assistance, policy direction, etc.
Possible Characteristic Categories for Primary Audience Segmentation 1.Gender 2.Marital Status 3.Age Range 4.Family Size 5.Customer-type 6.Age of Children 7.Location-type 8.Housing-type 9.Education 10.Income-level 54
55 Behavior Ideal Behavior: Best, in an ideal world Corresponds to international standards Feasible Practice: Most doable Reflects international standards, but corresponds to local context
56 Turning Focused Causes into a Feasible Practice Focused CauseReworded as Feasible Practice Example: (CAUSE) Broken, blocked pipes (RESULT) sewerage flooding onto streets and into homes - Install new pipes OR - Repair blocked pipes Cause 1: Cause 2:
57 Behavior Change – What and How Since a program wants to turn intention into action, it must ensure that it understands the following: What competing concerns its audience has. What other behavior changes are they facing/being encouraged to adopt? How its audience perceives the result of the behavior being recommended. Is it a reward? What value the audience places on that result. Is it worth it? How the program makes its desired behavior change a "worthwhile reward." What incentives does the audience need/want?
58 Purpose of Promotion The PURPOSE of promotion is to bring about change. While it might be necessary to raise awareness, inform and educate, motivate and persuade BEFORE an action or new practice will be adopted, the ultimate goal of any promotion should be to bring about the adoption of this action or new practice and to sustain the use of the practice
60 Current Practices - Sample Majority wash hands daily About one quarter use soap to wash hands Most wash hands after using the toilet Some wash before eating Few purchase handwashing soap weekly
61 Promotion Approaches ApproachPurpose Information and EducationRaise Awareness Inform and Educate Behavior Change CommunicationRaise Awareness Inform and Educate Persuade Trigger Action Social MarketingRaise Awareness Inform and Educate Persuade Trigger Action TrainingInform and Educate AdvocacyInform and Educate Persuade MobilizationRaise Awareness Inform and Educate Trigger Action
Step 4: STRATEGIZE 62
63 Step 4: Outputs Product 4: Broad Change Strategy Product 6: Budget, Part A. Overall Budgets, (1) Strategy
64 Strategy vs. Plan Strategy: developed to achieve an overall goal big picture and can cover three, five or even ten years of activities phased approach with multiple, small efforts carried out over a long period of time made up of smaller plans that allow program teams to accomplish the different activities of a strategy. Plans: types – monitoring and evaluation, promotion, implementation, media specific actions to undertake to accomplish the objectives (thus achieving the strategy goal) practical application of the strategy
65 Necessity of Both a Strategy and Plans The strategy tells you where to go from here. The plans tell you how to get there. You cannot have plans without a strategy. And a strategy without plans is a waste of time.
66 Requirements for Promotion Infrastructure, Products and Service Improvements Appropriate Promotional Approach Supportive Environment
67 Appropriate Promotional Approaches Infrastructure, Products, & Services Supportive Environment Ensuring that all needed pieces are in place at the same time in the same place, increases, likelihood of behavior change. Maximum potential for change exists here. Increasing the Likelihood of Change
68 Infrastructure, Products and Service Improvements Infrastructure: Sewerage treatment plant Water kiosks Water pipes Sewer lines Service Improvements: Extended hours 24/7 hotline Special weekend hours Desludge trucks Products: Septic tanks Water facets Latrines Soap Wash basins Sinks Toilets Water tablets
69 Supportive Environment National policies – water, sanitation, hygiene Strategies and plans Institutional strengthening Organizational capacity building Financing and funding schemes Public-private partnerships
70 What is a Goal? A goal is a statement describing what the organization or agency wishes to achieve over a longer timeframe (3 to 10 years). The goal corresponds directly to the impact a program wishes to have.
71 Example Goals By 2010, improve sanitation and hygiene for 400,000 urban household members in traditional and informal housing settlements - 175,000 persons in Lilongwe and 225,000 persons in Blantyre (approximately 75,000 households). Over five years, ECO-Asia intends to strengthen access to sewerage desludging services for public sewerage utilities customers in five Asian countries.
72 Detailing a Goal Organization Name Action to Take Focus AreaAudienceTimeframe Write organization name here Include this phrase Circle the verb that best matches the broad action to be taken Write in the priority focus area identified Step 1, Activity 1.2 Choose one and circle Write in the broad audience(s) identified in Step 1, Activity 1.4 Choose one and circle: intends toStrengthen Foster Expand Enhance Augment Improve Heighten Encourage Extend for with by of in 3 years in 5 years in 10 years
73 SMART Objectives Specify a single audience Specify expected changes in behavior of the audience List criteria against which success can be judged Provide a specific end point which determines that the objective has been met Describe expected results in measurable and observable terms Be specific and precise
74 Sample SMART Objectives By 2010, increase the percentage of household members washing their hands with soap after using the toilet from a reported 20% to an observed 45% By 2010, double the number of observed household members who daily wash their hands with soap before eating
75 Sample SMART Objectives by year By 2012, increase by 30% the number of mothers with children under five who use piped water in wards 2 and 4 By 2013, increase by 35% the number of mothers with children under five who use piped water in wards 1, 3, and 5 By 2014, increase by 40% the number of mothers with children under five who use piped water in wads 6, 7, and 8
77 Possible Partners for Our Strategy and Promotion Intervention Area 1: Access to Infrastructure and Products and Service Improvements Intervention Area 2: Promotion Intervention Area 3: Supportive Environment World Bank (construction)UNICEF (training)Ministry of Health (policy revision)
78 Sample Impact Indicators % increase in the improved level of water quality % decrease in wastewater seepage to groundwater % decrease in number of deaths in children under five due to diarrheal disease % decrease in the number of days of work missed due to diarrheal diseases % reduction in pollutants % of population using hygienic sanitation facilities % increase in quantity of water used per capita per day
79 Strategy Budget - General Infrastructure, Products, Service Improvements Supportive Environment Activities Staffing and Personnel Monitoring and Evaluation Promotion Implementation
80 Line Item Specifics – for Overarching Strategy 1.Outside Evaluators 2.Supplies and Equipment 3.Site Rentals 4.Transportation and Travel 5.Refreshments 6.Press Kit 7.Training 8.Launch 9.Monitoring 10.Marketing 11.Advocacy 12.Direct Costs 13.Overhead
Step 5: PLAN 81
82 Step 5: Outputs Product 5: Promotion Brief, Part A. Creative Brief 1-2 additional Parts of Product 5: Promotion Plan Part B. Marketing Tactics Part C. Training Directions Part D. Advocacy Techniques Part E. Mobilization Schemes Product 6: Budget, Part A. Overall Budgets, (2) Promotion Plan and Part B. Promotion-Specific Budgets
83 In-Common Components 1.Refined Problem Statement 2.Primary Audience 3.Secondary and Tertiary Audiences 4.Feasible Practice 5.Motivators 6.Barriers 7.Promotion Approaches 8.Key Promise and Message 9.Objectives 10.Tone 11.Media Channels 12.Creative Considerations 13.Mandatories
84 Key Promise and Message Examples Key Promise (Appeal) - WHYKey Message (Practice) - WHAT For the health of your children, Be respected, Life is simple, life is good - Protect your children - tomorrows leaders Respect begins at home - Easy access - reasonably priced, Lead the way, Have a positive impact – Be the future Popular Product Sales: Make believe Just do it Lets do amazing Live young wash your hands with soap after using the toilet desludge regularly safely drink your water straight from the tap wash your hands with soap dispose of your garbage in provided garbage containers connect your home to central water today connect today clean your yard go green today Product: Sony Nike HP Evian bottled water
86 SMART Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic Timely
87 Objective Examples for Water Supply Behavior StagesWater Awareness-Is Aware Increase ##% of parents who report that clear water does not mean it is safe for drinking from ##% to ##% Knowledge- Knows Double ##% of fathers who can cite the cost of connecting Encouragement-Is Encouraged Double the ##% of fathers who state that having a household water connection is safer for their wives than fetching water from a stand post Intention-Intends to Try Double the ##% of mothers who state that they intend to save money for a water connection Behavior StagesWater ACTION-Has Tried [Action Objectives are the strategy objectives for the year in which the promotion is to take place] Triple the ##% of household water connections Increase the ##% of mothers who discontinue use of land water sources from ##% to ##% Evaluation-Has Evaluated Triple the ##% of community members who state that piped water is (1) safe for drinking, (2) is regularly tested, and (3) works when no electricity Reinforcement-Is Reinforced Increase the ##% of women who tell their friends that they have safer, cleaner drinking water from piped water from ##% to ##%
88 Designing Promotion-Specific Objectives Write in from Product 3: Behavior AnalysisDetermine: Feasible Practice to Promote Target Audience StageSpecificMeasurableAchievableRealisticTimely
89 Tone of Promotion Types of Tone 1.Emotional 2.Rational 3.Positive 4.Mass 5.Individual 6.Humorous 7.Serious 8.Direct Argument 9.Indirect Argument 10.Repetitive Appeal 11.One-Time Appeal 12.One-Sided 13.Balanced 14.Didactic 15.Discussion 16.Authoritative 17.Peer Description 1.Attracts attention, elicits an emotional response 2.Convinces audience through facts 3.Suggests control, hope, and action 4.Is group appeal, everybody else is doing it 5.Appeals to one person and his/her uniqueness 6.Helps attract favorable attention and increase recall 7.Communicates the grave nature of an issue 8.Points to a certain conclusion by stating it frankly 9.Points to a certain conclusion without explicitly stating it 10.Repeats the message in many ways at many times. Increases the amount of information an audience can remember 11.Holds a day or event to present the appeal once 12.Presents only one viewpoint on a case 13.Presents both sides of a case and allows audience to make own decision 14.Presents straightforward case 15.Allows for presentation of arguments 16.Commands that an action be taken 17.Appeals to those with demographics in common
90 Types of Media 1.Print 2.Non-print 3.Traditional 4.Interpersonal
91 Approach-Specific Components Part B. Marketing Tactics Part C. Training Direction Part D. Advocacy Techniques Part E. Mobilization Schemes A.Products B.Providers C.Persuasion D.Pricing E.Packaging F.Place I.(1) Topics and (2) Skills II.Purpose III.Materials IV.Timeframe i.What do they need to hear? ii.From whom do they need to hear it? iii.How can the point best be made? a.Activities b.Purpose c.Roles d.Needs e.Phase
Step 6: DEVELOP 92
93 Step 6: Outputs All draft materials and/or activities ready to pretest
95 Elements of Creativity 1.Establish a Personality 2.Position Clearly 3.Feature the Most Compelling Benefit 4.Break the Pattern 5.Generate trust 6.Appeal to both the heart and the head
96 Creativity and Inventiveness Creativity New Unconventional Inventiveness Resourceful Imagination
97 Examples of Inventiveness Worldwide 1.Vietnam 2.Madagascar 3.Kyrgyzstan 4.Morocco 5.Senegal 6.Kazakhstan 7.Philippines 8.India 9.Pakistan 1. hand fan with handwashing instructions and message 2.life-size puppets to demonstrate proper latrine use and maintenance 3.30-second water supply spot with the sound of running water in the background 4.brochure on septic tank use and installation in the shape of the local, promoted septic tank 5.hand and soap costumes and handwashing skits looking like two hands and a bar of soap 6.sanitation TV series shot through an open toilet seat 7.laminated leaflet in the shape of a porcelain toilet seat 8.bar soap shaped erasers to remind students to wash their hands 9.handwashing danglers for youth cell phones
98 Rules for Print Design/Layout Present only one message per illustration Leave plenty of white space. Arrange messages in logical sequence Use illustrations to support the text Text Use simple language in audience vocabulary Repeat the KEY message Illustrations/Photographs Use appropriate colors Use familiar images Use simple illustrations Illustrate objects in scale and in context Use appropriate symbols and styles Use a positive approach – show what you want them to do
99 Guidelines for Non-Print, Interpersonal, Traditional 1.Present one idea 2.Use credible source 3.Break the mold 4.Touch the heart as well as the mind of the listener 5.Stretch the listener's/viewers/participants imagination 6.Write for the ear 7.Write to the individual 8.Ask audience members to take action 9.Provide consistency
100 Making Best Use of Space Simplify the illustration, photo or images Present one idea per page Leave white space Put objects in scale and in context Order illustrations, photos or images in a way that people can easily read Make pictures large enough for people to see. Limit the size and length
101 What to Include on a Storyboard KEY Promise and Message – at least once Mandatories Visual Description Basic Content Location in/on Material/Activity
102 Good Content is/should: Directed toward the objective Clear to the audience Compatible with capabilities of the audience Specific Accurate Appropriate to the media Attractive to the audience Applicable Action-oriented Simple Consistent Address barriers in a positive manner. Reinforce motivators. Make illustrations talk. Use few words. Stick to the ESSENTIALS.
103 Simplify, simplify, simplify Before: We want you to go to the store when you can so that you can buy soap to wash your hands. (21 words) You should desludge when your septic tank is fill so that it does not overflow. (15 words) After: Buy handwashing soap every time you go to the store. (10 words) Desludge a filled septic tank. (5 words)
104 Preparing Visuals Stage photos if necessary Keep the flow simple and straightforward Tell ONLY the story told in the written content Try color AND black and white before deciding which to use Ask the following questions: 1.Do the visuals tell the story WITHOUT the written content? [To the extent possible, you want to be able to answer yes to this question.] 2.How can the visuals reinforce the written content? 3.How can the visuals accurately portray the feasible practice being promoted?
105 Staged Photos
106 Why We Need a Promotion-Specific Logo? 1.Would a promotion key promise logo strengthen the effort? How? Why? 2.Will it improve understanding of our Key Promise? How? Why? 3.What are the places (materials, signs, banners, etc.) where we could display this logo? Will this help promote our effort? How? Why?
Step 7: PRETEST 107
108 Step 7: Outputs Product 6: Budget, Part A. Overall Budgets, (2) Promotion Plan revisions and (4) Pretest Product 7: Media Plan All FINALIZED Promotion Materials and Activities
109 Pretest Basics 1.What is the objective of pretesting? 2.What are the methods of pretesting? 3.What methods should we use? 4.With whom should we conduct pretests? 5.How many pretests should we conduct? 6.Are the second and third rounds of pretest essential? 7.How long should the pretest process take?
110 Pretest Composition and Team Roles Two-person teams – one interviewer/facilitator and one note taker For BOTH individual and group pretests of materials and activities Unbiased and objective about the materials and activities Interviewer/FacilitatorNote taker Asks questions from pretest guide Ensures that note taker has recorded important points using agreed upon silent method Passes around materials Organizes the room/space/site for the session Makes the individual/group feel comfortable Encourages all to speak without judging responses Records short, concise responses to questions on Pretest Recording form Organizes all equipment needed for pretest session Starts and stops cassette/DVD player, TV as needed Remains quiet throughout the session
111 Pretest Specifics to Remember Select 6-10 persons to conduct pretests, put into teams of two persons, and assign team roles. Train and practice conducting pretests among the group for both materials and activities using both individual and group methods. Remember pretest teams need to be thoroughly familiarized with the purpose and intent of each piece they are to pretest so that they can explain each as directed during the pretest sessions.
112 Objective of a Pretest At least 80% of the target audience find the material understandable, acceptable, and appropriate and are inspired by the material or activity to try and to adopt the promoted feasible practiced if you pretest with 20 persons at least 16 of them need to : Find the piece interesting - Attractive Understand the message and promise - Comprehensible Find the piece compatible with cultural norms - Acceptable Feel that the piece is directed to them – Identifiable Agree to try the feasible practice promoted - Motivational
113 Helpfulness of an Analysis Tool Tabulate total possible response of respondents in numbers and percentages. Compare the results with established criteria for success. Look for patterns across photo/text pieces. Compare results with original promotion program objectives. Decide whether to recommend changes or to keep it AS IS.
Media Plan itemizes the specific details of the media to take place allows the person coordinating and supervising the media activities to stay focused on the media distribution, airing, and logistics 114
115 Media Plan Components 1.Budget 2.Production 3.Timing 4.Logistics
116 Allowable Changes to Final Materials Punctuation Spelling Grammar Logos Dates Translation
Step 8: IMPLEMENT 117
118 Step 8: Outputs REVISED Product 6: Budget, Part A. Overall Budgets, (1) Strategy and (2) Promotion Plan and Part B. Promotion-Specific Budgets Product 8: Implementation Plan
119 Implementation Considerations Implementation takes into consideration three main issues: (1) logistics, (2) media, and (3) supplies. This means assuring that the timing has been discussed and agreed upon; that one person has been assigned responsibility for each issue area; and that activities happen at the right time, with the right people, in the right places.
Implementation Plan details activities such launching, training, and monitoring and supervision allows the program team to oversee the roll out and conduct of all activities 120
121 Implementation Guidelines All monitoring activities should be included on this implementation plan. Supervision and monitoring activities can be combined into one visit each time Periodic adjustments to this plan might be required due to circumstances beyond your control, BE FLEXIBLE. Add new activities or tasks as agreed upon as they happen to ensure that the implementation plan is always up-to-date.
122 Non-Print Airing NON-PRINT materials must be aired on time – day of the week and time of the day – on the stations agreed upon
123 Print Distribution and Storage Distribution: Develop a distribution system to include: name of materials number of copies site for delivery date of delivery transportation to be used Arrange with printers to package materials in needed number of copies- size boxes Storage - If some materials are to be stored until they are distributed: Estimate: size of space needed Length of time space needed Times – when and how many – the space will need to be accessed Contact possible storage facilities for prices and specifics. PRINT materials must be distributed on time to the right places and the right people.
124 Purpose of a Launch Provide the initial momentum for any promotion effort Inspire those involved to pursue a common goal Share with partners, the community, and others what you hope to achieve with your promotion effort, who you intend to reach, etc. Ensure that the target audience you plan to reach is prepared
125 What is Enough? A launch can be big, medium or small. Purpose is to share with those involved and ignite that initial momentum. This can be done with a 2-hour meeting, a 2-hour press conference, a ½-day event, a Day, or even a week-long series of activities. It can be as big or as small as you can organize and afford. Do what you can do with what you have, but do it well!
126 Sample Launch Formats 2-hour meeting 2-hour press conference ½-day event Day event Week-long series of activities Others? What are you thinking?
127 Launch Requirements Space Invitations Supplies Equipment Preparation Level of Effort (LOE) Refreshments Budget Materials – The only materials that should be distributed are those that were developed for your promotion effort. A brochure on your organization can be included, but only if it does not conflict with the Key Promise and Key Message of your Promotion Plan. Typically, the only type of new material that is added might be a pen, key chain, banner and/or folder with the Key Promise and Key Message. However, these as well MUST reflect the Promotion Plan.
Step 9: MONITOR 128
129 Step 9: Outputs Product 9: Monitoring and Evaluation Plan
130 Monitoring and Evaluation – How do they differ? Monitoring Answers these questions: What is happening to the delivery system/training? Why is it happening? (flaws, gaps) What are the interim effects? (in the primary audience, in the personnel, in the service) How can it be fixed, corrected, redesigned? Purposes: Correct, reorient, or redesign delivery systems. Readjust strategy and messages. Schedule: Monitoring begins as soon as possible, when a plan is implemented and continues through the promotion. Data collection is periodic and frequent, at preset intervals or when the occasion permits it. Data are analyzed as needed and used immediately for program correction. Evaluation Answers these questions: What happened as a result of the promotion? What behavior changes took place? What portion of the primary audience adopted the new feasible practice? Why did they adopt it? What was the impact? (if program was more than one year of implementation) Purposes: Determine the level of behavior adoption Demonstrate the impact of program (if more than one year of implementation) Schedule: Evaluation happens at least ONCE – at the end of the promotion, but often TWICE – at the halfway point (interim) and at the end (final). Data collection is planned to allow sufficient time for intervention impact to take place. Data are analyzed and compared against the baseline established during promotion research.
131 Types of Monitoring and Evaluation Process Outcome Impact
132 Sample Process and Outcome Indicators PROCESS - Process indicators assess how well a program is being implemented. For example: Training conducted - number of trainings fully completed, number of personnel trained, number of personnel certified Activities conducted - number of activities fully carried out, percentage of primary audience participation at these activities Distribution of materials - number of materials distributed/aired [where, when, and according to plan] Distribution/purchase of products required - number of products distributed/purchased [where, when, and according to plan] OUTCOME - Outcome indicators assess a change in something due to the promotion program. For example: Awareness - percentage who can cite handwashing with soap as an important personal hygiene practice Knowledge - number who can name the five critical times to wash your hands Encouragement - percentage who state that handwashing with soap is vital means to reduce diarrhea Intention – percentage who state that they plan to wash their hands regularly with soap Trial – percentage who demonstrate the ability to wash their hands properly (properly being well- defined) or percentage who report or are observed washing their hands with soap after defecation Evaluation – percentage who state that now that they wash their hands with soap their children are healthier Reinforcement – percentage who are recommending washing hands with soap to their friends
133 Monitoring Collection Tool Reminders Remember methods you are using to collect information Write Outcome and Process indicators at the top to remind you of what you are monitoring Develop ONE form not exceed four pages. Include instructions for the use of each section of the monitoring tool directly above each section. Include the following information at the top of every monitoring form completed: Program Title Program Timeframe Name of Monitor Date of Monitoring Form completion Location of Monitoring
Step 10: EVALUATE 134
135 Step 10: Outputs Product 6: Budget, Part A. Overall Budgets, (5) Evaluation Product 10: Suggested Promotion Program Changes
136 Why Evaluate? An evaluation answers the following questions: What happened as a result of the promotion? What behavior changes took place? What portion of the primary audience adopted the new feasible practice? Why did they adopt it? What was the impact? (if the length of the program was more than one year)
137 Outside Evaluator - Terms of Reference Considerations Ask them: Why are they the best choice? What is their background in topic? How would they approach the evaluation? What changes/adaptation would they recommended to provided information (About the Work to be Done List)? Who would actually conduct the work (and provide resumes)? Deliverables: Final Report (maximum 30 pages) Slide Presentation (optional) Provide about the Work to be done: Clear timeframe and dates for 1 or 2 evaluations Maximum budget amount Budget Template Key Findings Summary Behavior Analysis Promotion Plan Monitoring and Evaluation Plan Suggested Evaluation Methods and Possible Questions Suggested Evaluation Report Outline Draft Evaluation Instruments
138 Success Stories – Ways and Means Hold a community event Hold a series of community meetings in target areas Write 1, 30-second radio announcement about one success and pass to the local station for free public service announcement airing Write 2 short columns on two successes for the local newspaper and have it published Interview one team member on another success and have it played on the TV or radio Prepare a newsletter article and send it out via to all involved promotion program partners Hold a press conference
139 The Way Forward Correct present program? Continue to the next phase? Begin a new promotion program? Finished for the time being?