Presentation on theme: "10-Step Promotion Program"— Presentation transcript:
110-Step Promotion Program Facilitator's Guide for 10-Step Toolkit(Revised September 2011)10-Step Promotion ProgramSlides for Facilitator’s GuideFor Use with the 10-Step Promotion Toolkit(Revised September 2011)10-Step Promotion Program
2Facilitator's Guide for 10-Step Toolkit (Revised September 2011)What is Promotion?10-Step Promotion Program
3OverviewPurpose of PromotionProcess of PromotionRequirements of PromotionWhat is Promotion?
4The purpose of promotion is to bring about change.
6Process of PromotionThrough a creative, behavior-centered process, promotion is designed and developed that is:Problem-definedResearch-basedObjective-focusedConsumer-drivenEnvironment-supportedServices-backedStrategy-led
7Requirements for Promotion Infrastructure, Products and Service ImprovementsAppropriate Promotional ApproachSupportive Environment
8Increasing the Likelihood of Change Facilitator's Guide for 10-Step Toolkit(Revised September 2011)Increasing the Likelihood of ChangeAppropriate Promotional ApproachesInfrastructure, Products, & ServicesEnsuring that all needed pieces are in place at the same time in the same place, increases, likelihood of behavior change.Presenter Notes:Part 3: At-Scale Hygiene Behavior Change Efforts (5 minutes)Putting the two together – behavior first considerations and at-scale characteristics, what does this mean for at-scale behavior change efforts?Use slide above to discuss at-scale behavior change needs.Part 4: Needs Survey (5 minutes)Distribute and collect Needs Survey.Ask participants to note down one priority needs to use later in “Next Steps” session.Maximum potential for change exists here.Supportive Environment10-Step Promotion Program
9Infrastructure, Products and Service Improvements Facilitator's Guide for 10-Step Toolkit(Revised September 2011)Infrastructure, Products and Service ImprovementsInfrastructure:Sewerage treatment plantWater kiosksWater pipesSewer linesService Improvements:Extended hours24/7 hotlineSpecial weekend hoursDesludge trucksProducts:Septic tanksWater facetsLatrinesSoapWash basinsSinksToiletsWater tabletsLet’s look at some specifics for each requirements.Examples of infrastructure, others?Examples of Products, others?Examples of Service Improvements, others?10-Step Promotion Program
10Appropriate Promotional Approaches Facilitator's Guide for 10-Step Toolkit(Revised September 2011)Appropriate Promotional ApproachesInformation and educationBehavior change communicationSocial marketingTrainingAdvocacyMobilizationThere are six types of promotion. Which is used depends on present knowledge, attitudes and practices, segmented audience, feasible practice to promote, requirements, etc.1-3 approaches can be used effectively in combination or 1 can be well-used alone.10-Step Promotion Program
11Supportive Environment Facilitator's Guide for 10-Step Toolkit(Revised September 2011)Supportive EnvironmentNational policies – water, sanitation, hygieneStrategies and plansInstitutional strengtheningOrganizational capacity buildingFinancing and funding schemesPublic-private partnerships10-Step Promotion Program
12Facilitator's Guide for 10-Step Toolkit (Revised September 2011)InfrastructureProcessNo ProcessLeft-side No Process:Only 6 months oldNo researchInfrastructure built with no promotionFully subsidizedRight-side:3 years oldProper distance from householdWell-cared for due to promotionBuilt by household with minimal financial help10-Step Promotion Program
13Facilitator's Guide for 10-Step Toolkit (Revised September 2011)ProductsNo ProcessProcess10-Step Promotion Program
14Facilitator's Guide for 10-Step Toolkit (Revised September 2011)Service ImprovementsNo ProcessProcess10-Step Promotion Program
15Facilitator's Guide for 10-Step Toolkit (Revised September 2011)PromotionNo Process10-Step Promotion Program
16Facilitator's Guide for 10-Step Toolkit (Revised September 2011)For a healthier family,EMPTY Your Septic Tank Regularly!Emptying is convenient:Schedule a regular visit with your water district desludge service.Emptying is affordable. You choose:Pay once when desludged, up to a maximum of Peso 1500, depending on the size of your septic tank.Pay monthly an additional Peso 20 with your water bill.CONTACT your water representative at (phone number) and SIGN UP for the septic tank program TODAY!!Process10-Step Promotion Program
18What is Promotion?Promotion brings about and sustains change by ensuring that all needed elements are available at the right time in the right place for the right people.Infrastructure, Products, and Service ImprovementsPromotional ApproachesCHANGESupportive Environment
1910-Step Promotion Toolkit for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Overview
20The Toolkit Advantage Enables users to focus on the essentials Helps users develop an appropriate and complete promotion packageAssists users in talking with, listening to, and reviewing results with the consumersAllows users to look at the bigger picture into which their promotion will fitGuides users through good decision makingProvides users with international best practices and fundamental behavior change principles
22Promotion Team – Roles and Descriptions Brief DescriptionTeam LeaderManages and coordinates team and promotion program process (Steps 1 through 10); responsible for focusing initial program ideas and discussions – Step 1 – and maintaining FOCUS throughout.Research SupervisorOrganizes and oversees conduct of research – Step 2.Behavior AnalystFollows behavior analysis process to lead team to appropriate feasible practice to promote – Step 3.Change Strategy SupervisorPrepares for and facilitates the development of the Broad Change Strategy and assists with cultivating potential partners – Step 4.Budgeting/Finance OfficerAssists with budgeting process throughout – Steps 2-10Print Materials CoordinatorOversees and manages the development of all print materials – Steps 5-7Non-Print Materials CoordinatorOversees and manages the development of all non-print materials and activities – Steps 5-7Pretest SupervisorOrganizes and manages all materials/activities pretest sessions – Step 7Distribution, Airing, and Activities ManagerOrganizes and supervises all agreed upon training, needed distribution and airing and general implementation activities – Step 8Monitoring SupervisorOrganizes and supervises all monitoring activities – Step 9Evaluation CoordinatorOrganizes and supervises all evaluation activities – Step 10
24Step 1: OutputsProduct 1: Plan of ActionProduct 2: Overview of Research, Part A. Research Background
25Plan of Action Timeframe Steps to be CompletedMonth(Total Months =8-12)Level of Effort(Total Days=80-110)ORGANIZE: Select team members, organize team and review toolkitMonth 14-5 daysSTEP 1: DEFINE problem, potential audiences and ideal behaviors5 daysSTEP 2: GATHER needed informationMonth 221-28 daysSTEP 3: FOCUS on one feasible practice for one audience and problemMonth 3STEP 4: STRATEGIZE long-term change goal, objectives, and impactSTEP 5: PLAN short-term promotion planSTEP 6: CREATE promotional materials and activitiesMonth 45-10 daysSTEP 7: PRETEST and finalize materials and activities15-21 daysSTEP 8: IMPLEMENT the promotion campaignMonths 5-12STEP 9: MONITOR promotion process and outcomes2-3 days per monthSTEP 10: EVALUATE promotion outcomes and improveMonths 6 and 11
26Promotion Program using FOUR, Facilitated, Guiding Workshops over 12 months Phase 1Phase 2Phase 3Phase 4Phase 5Phase 6Phase 7Month 1Month 2-3Month 4Month 5Month 6Month 7-11Month 12Workshop 1FIELDWORKWorkshop 2Workshop 3FIELD WORKWorkshop 42-day workshop4-day workshop3-day workshopINTRODUCE, DEFINE, AND GATHERFinalize the team and complete Step 2 Research and Summarize Data/Information CollectedFOCUS, DESIGN, AND DEVELOPComplete Step 6 Development and Step 7 Pretest and Finalize materials/activitiesORGANIZE IMPLEMENTRollout activities, monitor and conduct “final” evaluation – completing Step 8, Step 9 and Step 10PRESENT EVALUATION RESULTS AND MOVE FORWARDComplete Organize the Team, Step 1 and Start Step 2Complete Steps 3-5, Start 6, and Train on Step 7Complete Step 8 budget, planning for launch, etc. and Step 9Present results from Step 10Provide additional “out-of-workshop” sessions as appropriate
27Promotion Program using THREE, Facilitated, Guiding Workshops over 8 months Phase 1Phase 2Phase 3Phase 4Phase 5Month 1Month 2-3Month 4Month 5-7Month 8Workshop 1FIELDWORKWorkshop 2Workshop 32-day workshop5-day workshop3-day workshopINTRODUCE, DEFINE, AND GATHERFinalize the team and complete Step 2 Research and Summarize Data/Information CollectedFOCUS, DESIGN, DEVELOP, ORGANIZE IMPLEMENTATIONComplete Step 7 Pretest and Finalize materials/activitiesANDRollout activities, monitor and conduct “final” evaluation – completing Step 8, Step 9 and Step 10PRESENT EVALUATION RESULTS AND MOVE FORWARDComplete Organize the Team, Step 1 and Start Step 2Complete Steps 3-6,Train on Step 7, Complete Step 8 budget, planning for launch, etc. and Step 9Present results from Step 10Provide additional “out-of-workshop” sessions as appropriate
28Importance of Focusing an Effort Identifies organizational priority – at the momentHelps to avoid assumptionsSets the context for the promotionEnsures resources will be available for the promotion
29Elements of a Problem Statement What is the priority area? – FOCUSWhat is happening? – PROBLEM/PRACTICEHow much of it happens? – DATAWhere does it happen? – WHEREWhen does it happen? – WHENTo whom does it happen? – AUDIENCEWhy does it happen? – CAUSEWhat are the consequences of what is happening? – RESULT
30Potential AudiencesWho is directly affected by the problem identified?Who is/might have been directly involved in the origins of the problem?What groups might be useful in solving this problem?
31Behavior Ideal Behavior: Best, in an ideal world Corresponds to international standardsFeasible Practice:Most doableReflects international standards, but corresponds to local context
33Step 2: OutputsProduct 2: Overview of Research, Part B. Research Design and Part C. Research ResultsProduct 6: Budget, Part A. Overall Budgets, (3) Research
34Consumer Factors to Understand - AIM AbilityInfluenceMotivationKnowledgeSocial SupportSkillsConfidence in AbilityAvailabilityCharacteristicsAppealsSocial NormAttitudes and BeliefsIntentionExpectationsThreatWillingness and Ability to Pay
35Infrastructure, Products and Service Improvements RequirementsInfrastructure, Products and Service ImprovementsAppropriate Promotional ApproachSupportive EnvironmentInfrastructure, Products, and Service ImprovementsPromotional ApproachesCHANGESupportive Environment
36Factors of the Requirements to Understand Infrastructure, Products and Service ImprovementsPromotionSupportive EnvironmentActual product useExisting servicesExisting infrastructureExisting productsCosts of services and productsCapacity of providersActual hygiene practicesExisting hygiene promotersTraining materials availableCapacity of promotersExisting materialsExisting capacities to implement strategyFinancing optionsPoliciesKey supporting players
37Organizing the Research Select research methods – at least 1 quantitative and 1 qualitative method – 3 methods maximumChoose research audiencesDetermine research sample sizesDevelop initial research budgetConsider outsourcingDevelop research instruments for methods selected
38Characteristics of Research Quantitative:Answers how manyRelationship between variablesNumbers and statistics to aggregate, describe, and compare dataBroad generalization to a larger populationQualitative:Answers whyIn-depth study on issues or events through direct quotation, interaction, and observationsExploratory and probingEmotions, perceptions, attitudes, motivators
39Confidence in Research Results Confidence level - represents how often a percentage of the population with the selected characteristics would pick certain answers90% confidence level means you can be certain that 90% of the time, members of this population would respond in this mannerWHAT DO WE WANT? 90% or 85% confidence
40Considerations for Question Development What method are you using?Quantitative, Qualitative, survey, observation, interview…Who are you talking to?Appropriate languageHow many will you be conducting?Number of questions to essentials only
41Developing Research Questions from Gaps Identified – Skills – Question: What is the present capacity of providers and promoters?Quantitative:Who presently provides you with your water? (choices)How did you hear about these services? (choices)How long have you been using these services? (choices)How long do you plan to continue to use these services? (choices)Qualitative:Who presently provides you with your water? (open-ended)What do you think of these services? (open-ended)Why? (probing)How would you change these services? (open-ended)
42Differences between Quantitative and Qualitative Research Collection Requires two-persons – one interviewer/facilitator and one note takerRequires good facilitation and/or note taking skillsRequires good listening skillsTakes 1½ to 2 hours to conduct ONETeam can conduct up to 3 per day effectivelyRequires training in facilitation and note taking skillsRequires ability to be able to synthesize data as discussion is happeningRequires flexibility and ability to go with the flow of the discussion/interviewQuantitativeRequires one personRequires good questioning skills and ability to follow questionnaire/survey provided as it is detailedRequires good listening skillsTakes 45 minutes to 60 minutes to administer ONEOne person can administer up to 6 per day effectivelyRequires training in familiarization with and use of formRequires ability to take responses as given and not interpret responsesRequires due diligence to complete the entire survey and seek appropriate target audience members
43Skills Needed to Collect Information Use appropriate body languageBegin and end wellAsk questionsExplore answersReflect and resume
44Basics of Summarizing Data Quantitative:Compile raw data by characteristic – gender, age, household type, service type, etc.Start with the percentage or numberFollow with a short, abbreviated phraseBe consistent in presenting statisticsAvoid bar charts/line graphs when bulleted lists will doCompare across characteristics only when essential to understandingQualitative:Compile raw data by characteristicStart with “qualifiers” like - Lack of, Inadequate, Believes, Seems, Substantial, Positive, SupportiveFollow with short, abbreviated phraseBe consistent in presenting statementsMake no comparisons across characteristicsCompile by ability, influence, motivationCompile by intervention factors only when essential
45PRIORITY Questions to Answer for a KEY Summary Current PracticeWhat are they actually, currently doing?AbilityHow aware is our target audience of the topic or issue?What do they know? How do they know it? Who/what agency supports this knowledge?What are they able to do? What is needed?To what extent do they believe they are capable of carrying out this practice?InfluenceTo what extent are needed products and services available? Where, by whom?What characteristics and features of the practice/product/service do they like? In general, what do they like?In general, what influences them/attracts them?What is the community around them doing, practicing, and or purchasing? What is presently acceptable?MotivationHow do they feel about the topic and/or what is being proposed?To what extent do they believe that the topic or practice will change things?Have they indicated any intention to practice what is being promoted?What impact do they feel the practice will have?What risks and/or dangers to they feel will result from practicing what is being promoted?To what extent have they expressed willingness to pay for practice?To what extent are they actually able to pay for practice based on current income, expenses, and spending patterns?CommunicationWhat do they cite as their preferred communication channels? (in order of preference)
46Sample Summary of Key Findings KEY FINDINGS SUMMARYPriority Focus: Septic Tank Desludging for feeDate: April 2010Research Audience: Male Heads of Households in Manila, PhilippinesType of Research: Quantitative (86 surveys) Qualitative (30 in-depth interviews)Current Actual PracticesAbilityInfluenceMotivationCommunication80% desludge every 7-8 years65% report septic tank overflows23% use “chemical treatment” to desludge34% observed households emitted foul odor around tank areaSubstantial awareness of need to empty tankInadequate knowledge on when and how to desludging22% could cite a desludge service33% were aware that the local utility provided desludge servicesMost stated that their neighbors don’t desludge “either”Most felt that “desludging” was too expensive to do oftenMany stated they would desludge more regularly if it was easy and affordable82% cited “improved health” as reason to desludge45% like radio32% like TV87% like to talk to and learn from neighbors23% read newspapersMost stated they preferred personal contact over mass media
49Elements of a Problem Statement What is the priority area? – FOCUSWhat is happening? – PROBLEM/PRACTICEHow much of it happens? – DATAWhere does it happen? – WHEREWhen does it happen? – WHENTo whom does it happen? – AUDIENCEWhy does it happen? – CAUSEWhat are the consequences of what is happening? – RESULT
50Redefined Problem Statement Priority Area in Which Work(PRIORITY AREA)What happens?PROBLEMHow much of it happens?DATAWhere does it happen?WHEREWhen does it happen?WHENTo whom does it happen?AUDIENCEWhy does it happen?CAUSEWhat are its most important consequences?RESULTNew Decisions based on Research:FINAL Problem Statement:
51Why does this Problem happen? Importance to Audience Two Priority CausesCausesWhy does this Problem happen?Prioritize based on:Importance to AudienceImportance to AgencyValue to AudienceValue to AgencyTOTAL
53Audience TypesPrimary audience, at whom the feasible practice is targeted;Secondary audiences, with whom the promotion works to assist the primary audience in adopting the feasible practice; andTertiary audiences, with whom the promotion shares the work for approval, assistance, policy direction, etc.
54Possible Characteristic Categories for Primary Audience Segmentation GenderMarital StatusAge RangeFamily SizeCustomer-typeAge of ChildrenLocation-typeHousing-typeEducationIncome-level
55Behavior Ideal Behavior: Best, in an ideal world Corresponds to international standardsFeasible Practice:Most doableReflects international standards, but corresponds to local context
56Turning Focused Causes into a Feasible Practice Reworded as Feasible PracticeExample: (CAUSE) Broken, blocked pipes (RESULT) sewerage flooding onto streets and into homes- Install new pipes OR- Repair blocked pipesCause 1:Cause 2:
57Behavior Change – What and How Since a program wants to turn intention into action, it must ensure that it understands the following:What competing concerns its audience has. “What other behavior changes are they facing/being encouraged to adopt?”How its audience perceives the result of the behavior being recommended. “Is it a reward?”What value the audience places on that result. “Is it worth it?”How the program makes its desired behavior change a "worthwhile reward." “What incentives does the audience need/want?”
58The PURPOSE of promotion is to bring about change. While it might be necessary to raise awareness, inform and educate, motivate and persuade BEFORE an action or new practice will be adopted, the ultimate goal of any promotion should be to bring about the adoption of this action or new practice and to sustain the use of the practice
63Step 4: OutputsProduct 4: Broad Change StrategyProduct 6: Budget, Part A. Overall Budgets, (1) Strategy
64Strategy vs. Plan Plans: Strategy: types – monitoring and evaluation, promotion, implementation, mediaspecific actions to undertake to accomplish the objectives (thus achieving the strategy goal)practical application of the strategyStrategy:developed to achieve an overall goalbig picture and can cover three, five or even ten years of activitiesphased approach with multiple, small efforts carried out over a long period of timemade up of smaller plans that allow program teams to accomplish the different activities of a strategy.
65Necessity of Both a Strategy and Plans The strategy tells you where to go from here.The plans tell you how to get there.You cannot have plans without a strategy. And a strategy without plans is a waste of time.
66Requirements for Promotion Infrastructure, Products and Service ImprovementsAppropriate Promotional ApproachSupportive Environment
67Increasing the Likelihood of Change Facilitator's Guide for 10-Step Toolkit(Revised September 2011)Increasing the Likelihood of ChangeAppropriate Promotional ApproachesInfrastructure, Products, & ServicesEnsuring that all needed pieces are in place at the same time in the same place, increases, likelihood of behavior change.Presenter Notes:Part 3: At-Scale Hygiene Behavior Change Efforts (5 minutes)Putting the two together – behavior first considerations and at-scale characteristics, what does this mean for at-scale behavior change efforts?Use slide above to discuss at-scale behavior change needs.Part 4: Needs Survey (5 minutes)Distribute and collect Needs Survey.Ask participants to note down one priority needs to use later in “Next Steps” session.Maximum potential for change exists here.Supportive Environment10-Step Promotion Program
68Infrastructure, Products and Service Improvements Facilitator's Guide for 10-Step Toolkit(Revised September 2011)Infrastructure, Products and Service ImprovementsInfrastructure:Sewerage treatment plantWater kiosksWater pipesSewer linesService Improvements:Extended hours24/7 hotlineSpecial weekend hoursDesludge trucksProducts:Septic tanksWater facetsLatrinesSoapWash basinsSinksToiletsWater tabletsLet’s look at some specifics for each requirements.Examples of infrastructure, others?Examples of Products, others?Examples of Service Improvements, others?10-Step Promotion Program
69Supportive Environment Facilitator's Guide for 10-Step Toolkit(Revised September 2011)Supportive EnvironmentNational policies – water, sanitation, hygieneStrategies and plansInstitutional strengtheningOrganizational capacity buildingFinancing and funding schemesPublic-private partnerships10-Step Promotion Program
70The goal corresponds directly to the impact a program wishes to have. What is a Goal?A goal is a statement describing what the organization or agency wishes to achieve over a longer timeframe (3 to 10 years).The goal corresponds directly to the impact a program wishes to have.
71Example GoalsBy 2010, improve sanitation and hygiene for 400,000 urban household members in traditional and informal housing settlements - 175,000 persons in Lilongwe and 225,000 persons in Blantyre (approximately 75,000 households).Over five years, ECO-Asia intends to strengthen access to sewerage desludging services for public sewerage utilities customers in five Asian countries.
72Detailing a Goal Organization Name Action to Take Focus Area Audience TimeframeWrite organization name hereInclude this phraseCircle the verb that best matches the broad action to be takenWrite in the priority focus area identified Step 1, Activity 1.2Choose one and circleWrite in the broad audience(s) identified in Step 1, Activity 1.4Choose one and circle:intends toStrengthenFosterExpandEnhanceAugmentImproveHeightenEncourageExtendforwithbyofin 3 yearsin 5 yearsin 10 years
73SMART ObjectivesSpecify a single audienceSpecify expected changes in behavior of the audienceList criteria against which success can be judgedProvide a specific end point which determines that the objective has been metDescribe expected results in measurable and observable termsBe specific and precise
74Sample SMART Objectives By 2010, increase the percentage of household members washing their hands with soap after using the toilet from a reported 20% to an observed 45%By 2010, double the number of observed household members who daily wash their hands with soap before eating
75Sample SMART Objectives by year By 2012, increase by 30% the number of mothers with children under five who use piped water in wards 2 and 4By 2013, increase by 35% the number of mothers with children under five who use piped water in wards 1, 3, and 5By 2014, increase by 40% the number of mothers with children under five who use piped water in wads 6, 7, and 8
76Partner TypesTechnical assistanceTrainingFinancingOutreachServices and DeliveryTransportationStorageDistributionOther?
77Possible Partners for Our Strategy and Promotion Intervention Area 1:Access to Infrastructure and Products and Service ImprovementsIntervention Area 2:PromotionIntervention Area 3:Supportive EnvironmentWorld Bank (construction)UNICEF (training)Ministry of Health (policy revision)
78Sample Impact Indicators % increase in the improved level of water quality% decrease in wastewater seepage to groundwater% decrease in number of deaths in children under five due to diarrheal disease% decrease in the number of days of work missed due to diarrheal diseases% reduction in pollutants% of population using hygienic sanitation facilities% increase in quantity of water used per capita per day
79Strategy Budget - General Infrastructure, Products, Service ImprovementsSupportive Environment ActivitiesStaffing and PersonnelMonitoring and EvaluationPromotionImplementation
80Line Item Specifics – for Overarching Strategy Outside EvaluatorsSupplies and EquipmentSite RentalsTransportation and TravelRefreshmentsPress KitTrainingLaunchMonitoringMarketingAdvocacyDirect CostsOverhead
82Product 5: Promotion Brief, Part A. Creative Brief Step 5: OutputsProduct 5: Promotion Brief, Part A. Creative Brief1-2 additional Parts of Product 5: Promotion PlanPart B. Marketing TacticsPart C. Training DirectionsPart D. Advocacy TechniquesPart E. Mobilization SchemesProduct 6: Budget, Part A. Overall Budgets, (2) Promotion Plan and Part B. Promotion-Specific Budgets
83In-Common Components Refined Problem Statement Primary Audience Secondary and Tertiary AudiencesFeasible PracticeMotivatorsBarriersPromotion ApproachesKey Promise and MessageObjectivesToneMedia ChannelsCreative ConsiderationsMandatories
84Key Promise and Message Examples Key Promise (Appeal) - WHYKey Message (Practice) - WHATFor the health of your children,Be respected,Life is simple, life is good -Protect your children - tomorrow’s leadersRespect begins at home -Easy access - reasonably priced,Lead the way,Have a positive impact –Be the futurePopular Product Sales:Make believeJust do itLet’s do amazingLive youngwash your hands with soap after using the toiletdesludge regularlysafely drink your water straight from the tapwash your hands with soapdispose of your garbage in provided garbage containersconnect your home to central water todayconnect todayclean your yardgo green todayProduct:SonyNikeHPEvian bottled water
85Seven Behavior Change Stages-Which is our audience’s? AwarenessKnowledgeEncouragementIntentionActionEvaluationReinforcement
87Objective Examples for Water Supply Behavior StagesWaterAwareness-Is AwareIncrease ##% of parents who report that clear water does not mean it is safe for drinking from ##% to ##%Knowledge-KnowsDouble ##% of fathers who can cite the cost of connectingEncouragement-Is EncouragedDouble the ##% of fathers who state that having a household water connection is safer for their wives than fetching water from a stand postIntention-Intends to TryDouble the ##% of mothers who state that they intend to save money for a water connectionBehavior StagesWaterACTION-Has Tried[Action Objectives are the strategy objectives for the year in which the promotion is to take place]Triple the ##% of household water connectionsIncrease the ##% of mothers who discontinue use of land water sources from ##% to ##%Evaluation-Has EvaluatedTriple the ##% of community members who state that piped water is (1) safe for drinking, (2) is regularly tested, and (3) works when no electricityReinforcement-Is ReinforcedIncrease the ##% of women who tell their friends that they have safer, cleaner drinking water from piped water from ##% to ##%
88Designing Promotion-Specific Objectives Write in from Product 3: Behavior AnalysisDetermine:Feasible Practice to PromoteTargetAudienceStageSpecificMeasurableAchievableRealisticTimely
89Tone of Promotion Types of Tone Description Emotional Rational PositiveMassIndividualHumorousSeriousDirect ArgumentIndirect ArgumentRepetitive AppealOne-Time AppealOne-SidedBalancedDidacticDiscussionAuthoritativePeerDescriptionAttracts attention, elicits an emotional responseConvinces audience through factsSuggests control, hope, and actionIs group appeal, everybody else is doing itAppeals to one person and his/her uniquenessHelps attract favorable attention and increase recallCommunicates the grave nature of an issuePoints to a certain conclusion by stating it franklyPoints to a certain conclusion without explicitly stating itRepeats the message in many ways at many times. Increases the amount of information an audience can rememberHolds a “day” or event to present the appeal oncePresents only one viewpoint on a casePresents both sides of a case and allows audience to make own decisionPresents straightforward caseAllows for presentation of argumentsCommands that an action be takenAppeals to those with demographics in common
90Types of MediaPrintNon-printTraditionalInterpersonal
91Approach-Specific Components Part B.Marketing TacticsPart C.Training DirectionPart D.Advocacy TechniquesPart E.Mobilization SchemesProductsProvidersPersuasionPricingPackagingPlace(1) Topics and (2) SkillsPurposeMaterialsTimeframeWhat do they need to hear?From whom do they need to hear it?How can the point best be made?ActivitiesRolesNeedsPhase
93Step 6: OutputsAll draft materials and/or activities ready to pretest
94Effective Communication – 4 Basics MessageSenderChannelAudience
95Elements of Creativity Establish a PersonalityPosition ClearlyFeature the Most Compelling BenefitBreak the PatternGenerate trustAppeal to both the heart and the head
96Creativity and Inventiveness NewUnconventionalInventivenessResourcefulImagination
97Examples of Inventiveness Worldwide VietnamMadagascarKyrgyzstanMoroccoSenegalKazakhstanPhilippinesIndiaPakistan“hand” fan with handwashing instructions and messagelife-size puppets to demonstrate proper latrine use and maintenance30-second water supply spot with the sound of running water in the backgroundbrochure on septic tank use and installation in the shape of the local, promoted septic tankhand and soap costumes and handwashing skits looking like two hands and a bar of soapsanitation TV series shot through an open toilet seatlaminated leaflet in the shape of a porcelain toilet seatbar soap shaped erasers to remind students to wash their handshandwashing danglers for youth cell phones
98Rules for Print Design/Layout Present only one message per illustrationLeave plenty of white space.Arrange messages in logical sequenceUse illustrations to support the textTextUse simple language in audience vocabularyRepeat the KEY messageIllustrations/PhotographsUse appropriate colorsUse familiar imagesUse simple illustrationsIllustrate objects in scale and in contextUse appropriate symbols and stylesUse a positive approach – show what you want them to do
99Guidelines for Non-Print, Interpersonal, Traditional Present one ideaUse credible sourceBreak the moldTouch the heart as well as the mind of the listenerStretch the listener's/viewer’s/participant’s imaginationWrite for the earWrite to the individualAsk audience members to take actionProvide consistency
100Making Best Use of Space Simplify the illustration, photo or imagesPresent one idea per pageLeave white spacePut objects in scale and in contextOrder illustrations, photos or images in a way that people can easily readMake pictures large enough for people to see.Limit the size and length
101What to Include on a Storyboard KEY Promise and Message – at least onceMandatoriesVisual DescriptionBasic ContentLocation in/on Material/Activity
102Good Content is/should: Directed toward the objectiveClear to the audienceCompatible with capabilities of the audienceSpecificAccurateAppropriate to the mediaAttractive to the audienceApplicableAction-orientedSimpleConsistentAddress barriers in a positive manner.Reinforce motivators.Make illustrations “talk.”Use few words.Stick to the ESSENTIALS.
103Simplify, simplify, simplify Before:We want you to go to the store when you can so that you can buy soap to wash your hands. (21 words)You should desludge when your septic tank is fill so that it does not overflow. (15 words)After:Buy handwashing soap every time you go to the store. (10 words)Desludge a filled septic tank. (5 words)
104Preparing Visuals Stage photos if necessary Keep the flow simple and straightforwardTell ONLY the story told in the written contentTry color AND black and white before deciding which to useAsk the following questions:Do the visuals tell the story WITHOUT the written content? [To the extent possible, you want to be able to answer “yes” to this question.]How can the visuals reinforce the written content?How can the visuals accurately portray the feasible practice being promoted?
106Why We Need a Promotion-Specific Logo? Would a promotion key promise logo strengthen the effort? How? Why?Will it improve understanding of our Key Promise? How? Why?What are the “places” (materials, signs, banners, etc.) where we could display this logo? Will this help promote our effort? How? Why?
108Step 7: OutputsProduct 6: Budget, Part A. Overall Budgets, (2) Promotion Plan revisions and (4) PretestProduct 7: Media PlanAll FINALIZED Promotion Materials and Activities
109Pretest BasicsWhat is the objective of pretesting?What are the methods of pretesting?What methods should we use?With whom should we conduct pretests?How many pretests should we conduct?Are the second and third rounds of pretest essential?How long should the pretest process take?
110Pretest Composition and Team Roles Two-person teams – one interviewer/facilitator and one note takerFor BOTH individual and group pretests of materials and activitiesUnbiased and objective about the materials and activitiesInterviewer/FacilitatorNote takerAsks questions from pretest guideEnsures that note taker has recorded important points using agreed upon silent methodPasses around materialsOrganizes the room/space/site for the sessionMakes the individual/group feel comfortableEncourages all to speak without judging responsesRecords short, concise responses to questions on Pretest Recording formOrganizes all equipment needed for pretest sessionStarts and stops cassette/DVD player, TV as neededRemains quiet throughout the session
111Pretest Specifics to Remember Select 6-10 persons to conduct pretests, put into teams of two persons, and assign team roles.Train and practice conducting pretests among the group for both materials and activities using both individual and group methods.Remember pretest teams need to be thoroughly familiarized with the purpose and intent of each piece they are to pretest so that they can explain each as directed during the pretest sessions.
112Objective of a PretestAt least 80% of the target audience find the material understandable, acceptable, and appropriate and are inspired by the material or activity to try and to adopt the promoted feasible practicedif you pretest with 20 persons at least 16 of them need to :Find the piece interesting - AttractiveUnderstand the message and promise - ComprehensibleFind the piece compatible with cultural norms - AcceptableFeel that the piece is directed to them – IdentifiableAgree to try the feasible practice promoted - Motivational
113Helpfulness of an Analysis Tool Tabulate total possible response of respondents in numbers and percentages.Compare the results with established criteria for success.Look for patterns across photo/text pieces.Compare results with original promotion program objectives.Decide whether to recommend changes or to keep it “AS IS.”
114Media Plan itemizes the specific details of the media to take place allows the person coordinating and supervising the media activities to stay focused on the media distribution, airing, and logistics
115Media Plan ComponentsBudgetProductionTimingLogistics
116Allowable Changes to Final Materials PunctuationSpellingGrammarLogosDatesTranslation
118Step 8: OutputsREVISED Product 6: Budget, Part A. Overall Budgets, (1) Strategy and (2) Promotion Plan and Part B. Promotion-Specific BudgetsProduct 8: Implementation Plan
119Implementation Considerations Implementation takes into consideration three main issues:(1) logistics,(2) media, and(3) supplies.This means assuring that the timing has been discussed and agreed upon; that one person has been assigned responsibility for each issue area; and that “activities happen at the right time, with the right people, in the right places.”
120Implementation Plandetails activities such launching, training, and monitoring and supervisionallows the program team to oversee the roll out and conduct of all activities
121Implementation Guidelines All monitoring activities should be included on this implementation plan.Supervision and monitoring activities can be combined into one visit each timePeriodic adjustments to this plan might be required due to circumstances beyond your control, BE FLEXIBLE.Add new activities or tasks as agreed upon as they happen to ensure that the implementation plan is always up-to-date.
122Non-Print AiringNON-PRINT materials must be aired on time – day of the week and time of the day – on the stations agreed upon
123Print Distribution and Storage PRINT materials must be distributed on time to the right places and the right people.Distribution:Develop a distribution system to include:name of materialsnumber of copiessite for deliverydate of deliverytransportation to be usedArrange with printers to package materials in “needed number of copies”-size boxesStorage - If some materials are to be stored until they are distributed:Estimate:size of space neededLength of time space neededTimes – when and how many – the space will need to be accessedContact possible storage facilities for prices and specifics.
124Purpose of a LaunchProvide the initial momentum for any promotion effortInspire those involved to pursue a common goalShare with partners, the community, and others what you hope to achieve with your promotion effort, who you intend to reach, etc.Ensure that the target audience you plan to reach is prepared
125“Do what you can do with what you have, but do it well!” What is Enough?A launch can be big, medium or small.Purpose is to share with those involved and ignite that initial momentum.This can be done with a 2-hour meeting, a 2-hour press conference, a ½-day event, a “Day,” or even a week-long series of activities.It can be as big or as small as you can organize and afford.“Do what you can do with what you have, but do it well!”
126Sample Launch Formats2-hour meeting2-hour press conference½-day event“Day” eventWeek-long series of activitiesOthers? What are you thinking?
127Launch Requirements Space Invitations Supplies Equipment Preparation Level of Effort (LOE)RefreshmentsBudgetMaterials – The only materials that should be distributed are those that were developed for your promotion effort. A brochure on your organization can be included, but only if it does not conflict with the Key Promise and Key Message of your Promotion Plan. Typically, the only type of “new” material that is added might be a pen, key chain, banner and/or folder with the Key Promise and Key Message. However, these as well MUST reflect the Promotion Plan.
129Step 9: OutputsProduct 9: Monitoring and Evaluation Plan
130Monitoring and Evaluation – How do they differ? Answers these questions:What happened as a result of the promotion?What behavior changes took place?What portion of the primary audience adopted the new feasible practice? Why did they adopt it?What was the impact? (if program was more than one year of implementation)Purposes:Determine the level of behavior adoptionDemonstrate the impact of program (if more than one year of implementation)Schedule:Evaluation happens at least ONCE – at the end of the promotion, but often TWICE – at the halfway point (interim) and at the end (final).Data collection is planned to allow sufficient time for intervention impact to take place.Data are analyzed and compared against the baseline established during promotion research.MonitoringAnswers these questions:What is happening to the delivery system/training?Why is it happening? (flaws, gaps)What are the interim effects? (in the primary audience, in the personnel, in the service)How can it be fixed, corrected, redesigned?Purposes:Correct, reorient, or redesign delivery systems.Readjust strategy and messages.Schedule:Monitoring begins as soon as possible, when a plan is implemented and continues through the promotion.Data collection is periodic and frequent, at preset intervals or when the occasion permits it.Data are analyzed as needed and used immediately for program correction.
131Types of Monitoring and Evaluation ProcessOutcomeImpact
132Sample Process and Outcome Indicators OUTCOME - Outcome indicators assess a change in something due to the promotion program. For example:Awareness - percentage who can cite handwashing with soap as an important personal hygiene practiceKnowledge - number who can name the five critical times to wash your handsEncouragement - percentage who state that handwashing with soap is vital means to reduce diarrheaIntention – percentage who state that they plan to wash their hands regularly with soapTrial – percentage who demonstrate the ability to wash their hands properly (properly being well-defined) or percentage who report or are observed washing their hands with soap after defecationEvaluation – percentage who state that now that they wash their hands with soap their children are healthierReinforcement – percentage who are recommending washing hands with soap to their friendsPROCESS - Process indicators assess how well a program is being implemented. For example:Training conducted - number of trainings fully completed, number of personnel trained, number of personnel certifiedActivities conducted - number of activities fully carried out, percentage of primary audience participation at these activitiesDistribution of materials - number of materials distributed/aired [where, when, and according to plan]Distribution/purchase of products required - number of products distributed/purchased [where, when, and according to plan]
133Monitoring Collection Tool Reminders Remember methods you are using to collect informationWrite Outcome and Process indicators at the top to remind you of what you are monitoringDevelop ONE form not exceed four pages.Include instructions for the use of each section of the monitoring tool directly above each section.Include the following information at the top of every monitoring form completed:Program TitleProgram TimeframeName of MonitorDate of Monitoring Form completionLocation of Monitoring
135Step 10: OutputsProduct 6: Budget, Part A. Overall Budgets, (5) EvaluationProduct 10: Suggested Promotion Program Changes
136Why Evaluate? An evaluation answers the following questions: What happened as a result of the promotion?What behavior changes took place?What portion of the primary audience adopted the new feasible practice? Why did they adopt it?What was the impact? (if the length of the program was more than one year)
137Outside Evaluator - Terms of Reference Considerations Ask them:Why are they the best choice?What is their background in topic?How would they approach the evaluation?What changes/adaptation would they recommended to provided information (About the Work to be Done List)?Who would actually conduct the work (and provide resumes)?Deliverables:Final Report (maximum 30 pages)Slide Presentation (optional)Provide about the Work to be done:Clear timeframe and dates for 1 or 2 evaluationsMaximum budget amountBudget TemplateKey Findings SummaryBehavior AnalysisPromotion PlanMonitoring and Evaluation PlanSuggested Evaluation Methods and Possible QuestionsSuggested Evaluation Report OutlineDraft Evaluation Instruments
138Success Stories – Ways and Means Hold a community eventHold a series of community meetings in target areasWrite 1, 30-second radio announcement about one success and pass to the local station for free public service announcement airingWrite 2 short columns on two successes for the local newspaper and have it publishedInterview one team member on another success and have it played on the TV or radioPrepare a newsletter article and send it out via to all involved promotion program partnersHold a press conference
139The Way ForwardCorrect present program?Continue to the next phase?Begin a new promotion program?Finished for the time being?