Presentation on theme: "Cooperation in Promoting Universality: Regional Human Rights Mechanisms & Civil Society in ASEAN Yuyun Wahyuningrum, Senior Advisor on ASEAN and Human."— Presentation transcript:
1 Cooperation in Promoting Universality: Regional Human Rights Mechanisms & Civil Society in ASEAN Yuyun Wahyuningrum, Senior Advisor on ASEAN and Human Rights at HUMAN RIGHTS WORKING GROUP (HRWG) Indonesia,
2 It is about building a democratic dialogue in ASEAN Since the adoption of ASEAN Charter in 2008, much was said about engaging civil society, respecting human rights, promoting democracy and about good governance in ASEAN’s high-level statements and documents.
3 ASEAN Guideline for the Engagement with Civil Society 2006’S GUIDELINE2012’S GUIDELINEGenerally better than the 2006’sAs a general rule, only a CSO whose membership is confined to ASEAN nationals may be considered for accreditation with ASEAN;Approval of application for accreditation of a CSO with ASEAN shall be based primarily upon the assessment of the positive contribution which such a CSO could make to the enhancement, strengthening and realisation of the aims and objectives of ASEANMember states are still in control of deciding who can in and who cannotThe participation is perceived as privilegeThe participation is not understood as RIGHT. It is more like “stick” and “carrot”The affiliation is used as a way to controlThe affiliation to ASEAN is a political issue rather than a only administrative requirementCSOs are not seen as partners in developing ASEAN Community
4 CSO Platforms in engaging ASEAN NamefrequentEngaging the bodyACSC/APFannuallyASEAN SUMMITHead of States/GovernmentsASEAN Disability Forum (ADF)ASEAN Youth ForumASEAN Grass-root People AssemblyASEAN Community DialogueASEAN Committee Permanent Representatives (CPR)CPRCivil Society Forum to AMM on human rightsASEAN Ministers Meeting (AMM)Foreign MinistersInformal Dialogue between CSO and ASG on human rightsASEAN Secretary General (ASG)Secretary GeneralJakarta Human Rights Dialogue in ASEANASEAN Human Rights MechanismsAICHR, ACWCGO-NGO Forum on Social Welfare & DevelopmentASEAN Senior Official Meeting on SWDSOM officials
5 History of Human Rights in ASEAN History of civil society engagement with ASEAN. It is a journey of believing that engagement can make change.History of interaction between national and international efforts and dialogue on human rights.History of national political opening contribute to the political space at regional level.Journey of believing that a human rights commission can be created in context of the region with no respect of values of democracy and human rights.
6 The 3Cs in Human Rights Architecture ASEAN Human Rights SystemsConventions: Norms/InstrumentsCommission/CommitteeASEAN Human Rights Court??The 3Cs in Human Rights ArchitectureAICHR 2009ACWC 2010ACMW 2008
7 1st C: “Commissions” AICHR ACWC Created based on Article 14, Charter Established: 23 Oct 200910 Representatives14 MandatesNo individual complaintProvide advises to ASEAN sectorial government upon requestCan obtain information on HR issues from Member StatesConsult stakeholdersSubmit Annual ReportCreated based on SC BlueprintEstablished: 7 April 201020 Representatives (Women Rights and Child Rights)13 MandatesNo individual complaintProvide advises to ASEAN sectorial government upon requestConsult CS, women, childrenAdvocate on behalf of women and children & encourage ASEAN Member States to improve their situationSubmit Annual Report
8 AICHR & ACWC MODALITIES, PRINCIPLES, NATURE non-interferenceevolutionary approachconsultationconsensusconsultativeinter-governmental body
9 Current CS Engagement with Human Rights Mechanisms AICHRACWCAICHR only want to meet with those who are affiliated with the ASEAN CharterThe newly adopted AICHR Guideline of Operation silent on CS engagementTwo consultations o AHRD: June 22, and Sept 12Consultation only happen in Indonesia, Thailand and the PhilippinesCS continue to submit inputs, reports, papers to AICHRCS is a sensitive issue in AICHR, but during their visit to US, they met US-based CSOsAICHR is developing Guideline for the engagement with civil society group (draft 0)Started with Informal Dinner (2011), Informal Session (2011), Joint-Workshop (2012), Formal Session (2012)Informal Session: 9 out of 20 Reps attendedInformal Session: 16 out 20 Reps attendedJoint-Workshop: 18 out of 20 Reps attendedFormal Session: 20 Reps attendedGood Result, Good process, substantive discussion, cordial ambianceInputs from CS have been included in the reference documents of the ACWCThe initial suggestion to erase civil society” & international standards” in TOR ACWC has been put downACWC uses inputs from CS in formulating their positions
10 ACMW: An Overview Mandated by the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Blueprint 2007 Jan - ASEAN Declaration on the protection and promotion of the rights of migrant workers (ASEAN Summit/AMM)2007 July - ASEAN Statement of the establishment of the ASEAN Committee on the implementation of the ASEAN Declaration2007 October - formation of the ACMW (ALMM/SLOM)stalled discussion over the Instrument for the protection of migrant workersThe 4th ACMW DT Meeting in Manila, September 2011agreed to continue discussing gradually through Phases and to find issues that have commonalities and comfortable to all:Phase 1: regular migrant workers (by end 2012)Phase 2: irregular migrant workers (by end 2013)Phase 3: legal status of the Instrument (by end of 2014)
11 Norms/Instruments Children Women Trafficking Migrant workers Declaration on Commitments on for Children in ASEAN (August 2001)Ha Noi Declaration on The Enhancement of Welfare and Development of ASEAN Women and Children ; 28 Oct 2010WomenDeclaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women in the ASEAN Region; 30 June 2004Ha Noi Declaration on The Enhancement of Welfare and Development of ASEAN Women and Children ; 28 October 2010Trafficking1997 ASEAN Transnational CrimeASEAN Declaration Against Trafficking in Persons Particularly Women and Children; 29 November 2004ASEAN Practitioner Guidelines on Effective Criminal Justice Responses to Trafficking in Persons (2007)Leaders Joint Statements on TIPs in Southeast Asia, May 2011.Migrant workersASEAN Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers 13 January 2007, Cebu, Philippines
12 2nd C: “Convention”: Standard-Setting Scenario ASEAN Charter, Article 14, 2008Terms of Reference on AICHR, 2009ASEAN Declaration on Human Rights, 2012Conventions on Human Rights in ASEAN?2nd C: “Convention”: Standard-Setting ScenarioArticle 4.2 of the TOR AICHR: “to develop an ASEAN Human Rights Declaration with a view to establishing a framework for human rights cooperation through various ASEAN conventions and other instruments dealing with human rights”Is adopted on 18 November 2012, during the 21st ASEAN SummitIs the effort to universalize human rights at the regional level, or regionalize the universal political commitment of human rights
13 ASEAN HUMAN RIGHTS DECLARATION Is A TWO-IN-ONE DOCUMENT: 1) PHNOM PENH STATEMENT, and 2) AHRDPHNOM PENH STATEMENT with signatures of ASEAN Leaders, Article 3:“REAFFIRM further our commitment to ensure that the implementation of the AHRD be in accordance with Our commitment with the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, The Vienna Declaration and its Programme of Action, and other international human rihts instrument to which ASEAN Members Sttes are parties,as well as relevant ASEAN declarations and instruments pertaining to human rights”
14 ASEAN Human Rights Declaration IS CONSISTED OF:PreambleGeneral PrinciplesCivil and Political RightsEconomic, Social and Cultural RightsRight to PeaceRight to DevelopmentCooperation on the Promotion and Protection of Human RightsGENERALLY, THE CONTENT IS GOOD. Some Article has good formulation of rights, compare with the UDHR
15 ASEAN HUMAN RIGHTS DECLARATION WEAK PART OF THE DECLARATION:The balance between Rights & Responsibilities. The enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms must be balanced with the duties of individuals, the community and the society where one lives, Article 6National and Regional particularities. The realisation of human rights must be considered in the regional and national context …, Article 7Limitation of Rights. The exercise of human rights and fundamental freedoms shall be subject only to such limitations … and to meet the just requirements of national security, public order, public health, public safety, public morality, …Article 8Erasure of Freedom of Association, Article 24
16 INCLUSION OF CSO’S INPUTS IN AHRD Article 9: …. The process of such realisation shall take into account peoples’ participation, inclusivity and the need for accountability.Article 22: ... All forms of intolerance, discrimination and incitement of hatred based on religion and beliefs shall be eliminated.Article 27 (3) …Those who employ children and young people in work harmful to their morals or health, dangerous to life, or likely to hamper their normal development, including their education should be punished by law.Article 36: …ASEAN Member States should adopt meaningful people-oriented and gender responsive development programmes aimed at poverty alleviationTotal erasure on the section on duties and responsibilities
17 CSO’s positions toward AHRD IgnoreRejectDisappointed but continue to engage
18 AFTERTHOUGHTSAHRD is a political document with the context of democratic deficits in ASEANThe challenge is now how to make AHRD promote reform in domestic politics & how to use AHRD to make ASEAN function as a ruled-based organizationWe should not be idealistically naive, but rather more tactical and strategic when dealing with ASEAN. We know how the game is played or unfairly played, so let us play it wellLet us look at the declaration as a means to an end, a living evolving document.Many international law and standards including in the field of human rights continue to expand with time as cultural norms evolved. New demands would be made for legal instrument to keep up with the development
19 Promoting Universality of Human Rights in AHRD? The content of AHRD is a reflection of difficult negotiation between two extreme positions on human rights and democracy in ASEANAHRD starts with REAFFIRMATION of state’s international obligation to human rights, and ends with the recognition of non-derogable rights. But the general principles of AHRD are not inline with international human rights standards.The process had been closed for civil society. Two consultations with CSOs were conducted and two consultations with ASEAN sectoral bodies without sharing the working draftPublic only know the final draft after the adoption, Nov 18, 2012
20 What next? ACCOUNTABILITY EXERCISE: We are of the opinion that AICHR should not rush to draft any convention on human rights. Not now, maybe in next yearsAnnual Report on Human Rights in ASEANPut all mandates of AICHR, especially Article 4.10 of AICHR to obtain information from Member States into reality by using AHRDMonitor ASEAN Ministerial Meeting proceeding to what extent AHRD has been used to bring human rights issues on the table (using its Joint Communique)Review TOR AICHR in 2014
21 TOR AICHR REVIEW in 2014It is the time when we can work together to make AICHR as an INDEPENDENT HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISM by changing the selection process of AICHRTo make AICHR accessible by pushing the body to finalize a democratic guideline on engaging civil society, including receiving complaints on human rights and sharing information to publicTo make AICHR a responsive body by changing its mandate to be be able to respond the issues by having a fact-finding mission, investigation
22 Civil Society Involvement during & after the drafting of TOR AICHR 1st Consultation in Manila, Sept 20082nd Consultation in Kuala Lumpur, March 20093rd Consultation in Jakarta, July 2009Annual Report of AICHR PerformanceMonitoring & Pressure for the implementation of TOR AICHRReview 2014?
23 TOR AICHR & Its Timelines July 2008 HLP was establishedDec 2008, First SubmissionJuly 2009 Final SubmissionOct 2009 Launched TOR AICHR2014 Review TORProtection of HRsPromotion of HRstechnical assistanceadvisory servicesstandard settingDissemination and educationConsult with national, regional, and international inst, and entities concerned with hrs protection and promotionObtain Information
24 What to Review? Based-on Cha-Am Declaration Objective of the Review: to strengthen the mandate and functions of the AICHR in order to further develop mechanisms on both the protection and promotion of human rights.Indicator 1: Has AICHR provide an ASEAN’s commitment to pursue forward-looking strategies to strengthen regional cooperation on human rights?Indicator 2: Has AICHR serve as a vehicle for progressive social development and justice, the full realization of human dignity and the attainment of a higher quality of life for ASEAN peoples?Indicator 3: Has AICHR receive full support and provision of adequate resources by ASEAN Member States?Indicator 4: Has AICHR acknowledge contribution of stakeholders in the promotion and protection of human rights in ASEAN, and encourage their continuing engagement and dialogue with the AICHR?Indicator 5: Has ASEAN cooperation on human rights support the evolution of AICHR as an overarching institution?