Presentation on theme: "Training agenda Literature review – What and why"— Presentation transcript:
1Developing Literature Review Training Module for Institute of Research Promotion (IRP)
2Training agenda Literature review – What and why Searching and finding print and online sourcesEvaluating sources for relevance and reliabilityReading criticallyAnalyzing and synthesizing findingsWriting and presenting literature reviewCiting sources in text and reference list / bibliographyAvoiding plagiarism
3Literature review - Definition A body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge on a particular topicA comprehensive survey of publications in a specific field of study or related to a particular line of researchNon-quantitative summary of existing published literature made by experts who select and weigh findings available from the literatureA summary and interpretation of research findings reported in the literatureA process and documentation of the current relevant research literature regarding a particular topic or subject of interest
4Purposes of literature review Define and limit problemDevelop familiarity with topicLimit research to a subtopic within larger body of knowledgePlace study in historical perspectiveAnalysis of way in which study relates to existing knowledgeAvoid unintentional and unnecessary replicationAwareness of prior studies so as to avoid unneeded replicationReplication is reasonable if it is needed to verify prior results, investigate results that failed to be significant, or relate problem to a specific site
5Purposes of literature review Select promising methods and measuresKnowledge of and insight into specific research designs for investigating a problemAwareness of specific instruments, sampling procedures, and data analysesRelate findings to previous knowledge and suggest future research needsRelating prior research to what is known places current study in perspectiveThis knowledge allows researcher to focus problem on what is not knownDevelop research hypothesesSuggestions for specific research hypotheses
6Literature review designs Narrative reviewSelective review of the literature that broadly covers a specific topic.Does not follow strict systematic methods to locate and synthesize articles.Systematic reviewUtilizes exacting search strategies to make certain that the maximum extent of relevant research has been considered.Original articles are methodologically appraised and synthesized.Meta-analysisQuantitatively combines the results of studies that are the result of a systematic literature review.Capable of performing a statistical analysis of the pooled results of relevant studies.
7When we need to do a literature review At the beginning of the research projectProposalChapter 2, 1 & 3 (LR, Intro, Methd)Constantly update during the researchWhen writing the discussion and conclusion chapters
8What is literature Books Journals Conference papers Theses and dissertationsBibliographiesMapsInternetIndexes/AbstractsAudio-visual materialCDs/DVDsElectronic databasesGovernment reportsMagazinesNewspapersGrey literatureInterviews and other unpublished research
10Structure of review articles Literature reviews are in reality a type of researchShould conform to the anatomy of a typical scholarly articleAbstractIntroductionMethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionReferences
11Structure of literature review IntroductionGives a quick idea of the topic of the literature review, such as the central theme or organizational pattern.BodyContains your discussion of sources.Conclusions/RecommendationsDiscuss what you have drawn from reviewing literature so far. Where might the discussion proceed?
12Organization of literature review A general organization looks like a funnelBroader topicsSubtopicsStudies like yours
13Making links between studies AgreementsSimilarly, author B points to…Likewise, author C makes the case that…Author D also makes this point…Again, it is possible to see how author E agrees with author D…DisagreementsHowever, author B points to…On the other hand, author C makes the case that…Conversely, Author D argues…Nevertheless, what author E suggests…
14Review the Literature Selected If you don’t have a theoretical framework of themes in mind to start with, use separate sheets of paper for each article or book.Theoretical FrameworkConceptual Framework
15Theoretical Framework Examine the literature can be a never ending taskAs you start reading the literature:You will discover that the problem you wish to investigate have its roots in a number of theories that have been developed from different perspectiveInfo obtained from different books and journals now needs to be sorted under the main themes and theories
16Theoretical Framework Highlighting agreements and disagreements among the authors and identifying the unanswered questions or gaps.Literature deals with a number of aspects that have direct or indirect bearing on your research topicLit Review should sort out the information, within the frameworkUnless you review the lit in relation to this framework, you will not be able to develop a focus in your lit search.
17Theoretical Framework Until you go through the literature you cannot develop a theoretical framework and until you have developed a theoretical framework, you can not effectively review the literature.Please discuss given material…..
18Conceptual FrameworkConceptual FW stems from the T-FW and concentrates, usually, on one section of that T-FW which becomes the basis of your study.The T-FW includes all the theories that have been put forward to explain the relationship between fertility and mortality. However, out of these, you may be planning to test only one, the fear of non-survival. Hence the conceptual FW grows out of the T-FW; and relates to the specific RP concerning the fear of non-survival theory.
19The Writing ProcessRough DraftFinal DraftEditEdit Again
20A Good Literature Review is: Focused - The topic should be narrow. You should only present ideas and only report on studies that are closely related to topic.Concise - Ideas should be presented economically. Don’t take any more space than you need to present your ideas.Logical - The flow within and among paragraphs should be a smooth, logical progression from one idea to the nextDeveloped - Don’t leave the story half told.Integrative - Your paper should stress how the ideas in the studies are related. Focus on the big picture. What commonality do all the studies share? How are some studies different than others? Your paper should stress how all the studies reviewed contribute to your topic.Current - Your review should focus on work being done on the cutting edge of your topic.
21Common errors in reviewing literature Hurrying through review to get started could mean that you will miss something that will improve your research.Relying too heavily upon secondary sources.Concentrating on findings rather than methods.Overlooking sources other than academic journals. Don’t forget newspaper articles, magazines, blogs, etc.Searching too broad or too narrow of a topic.Inaccuracy in the compiling of bibliographic information.