5 Leadership: General Colin Powell's Rules It ain't as bad as you think. It will look better in the morning.Get mad, then get over it.Avoid having your ego so close to your position that when your position falls, your ego goes with it.It can be done!Be careful what you choose. You may get it.Don't let adverse facts stand in the way of a good decision.You can't make someone else's choices. You shouldn't let someone else make yours.Check small things.Share credit.Remain calm. Be kind.Have a vision. Be demanding.Don't take counsel of your fears or naysayers.Perpetual optimism is a force multiplier
6 Leadership Styles Vision Passion and self-sacrifice Articulate an ideological vision congruent with the deeply-held values of followers, a vision that describes a better future to which the followers have an alleged moral rightPassion and self-sacrificeDisplay a passion for, and have a strong conviction of, what they regard as the moral correctness of their vision; engage in outstanding or extraordinary behavior and make extraordinary self-sacrifices in the interest of their vision and missionConfidence, determination, and persistenceDisplay a high degree of faith in themselves and in the attainment of the vision they articulate; have a very high degree of self-confidence and moral conviction because their mission usually challenges the status quo and, therefore, may offend those who have a stake in preserving the established orderSource: House, R., Podsakoff, P.M., Leadership Effectiveness: Past Perspectives and Future Direction Research, in Greenberg, J. Organizational Behavior: The State of the Science, Erlbaum, NJ, 1994.
7 Leadership Styles Image-building Role-modeling External representation Self-conscious about their own image; recognize the desirability of followers perceiving them as competent, credible, and trustworthyRole-modelingFollowers identify with the values of role models whom they perceived in positive termsExternal representationAct as spokespersons for their respective organizations and symbolically represent those organizations to external constituenciesSource: House, R., Podsakoff, P.M., Leadership Effectiveness: Past Perspectives and Future Direction Research, in Greenberg, J. Organizational Behavior: The State of the Science, Erlbaum, NJ, 1994.
8 Leadership Styles Expectations of and confidence in followers Communicate expectations of high performance from their followers and strong confidence in their followers’ ability to meet such expectationsSelective motive-arousalSelectively arouse those motives of followers that they see as of special relevance to the successful accomplishment of the vision and missionFrame alignmentTo persuade followers to accept and implement change; linkage of individual and leader such that some set of followers’ interests, values, and beliefs, as well as the leader’s activities, goals, and ideology, becomes congruent and complementaryInspirational communicationOften, but not always, communicate their message in an inspirational manner using vivid stories, slogans, symbols, and ceremoniesSource: House, R., Podsakoff, P.M., Leadership Effectiveness: Past Perspectives and Future Direction Research, in Greenberg, J. Organizational Behavior: The State of the Science, Erlbaum, NJ, 1994.
9 Management Maxims… Grow or die No one is smart enough to be a dictator The only real power one has is the power of persuasionThe less you know about something the simpler it seemsImportant decisions require at least one night’s sleepDecisions made without all the facts are guessesThe most important thing a manager does is pick the peopleLies are hard to rememberThere is nothing more critical to true success than openness, honesty, and integrityThose that don’t solicit and listen to advice are destined to be unsuccessfulWhat is given cannot be taken awayMeddling after responsibility is delegated and accepted provides a built-in excuse for failureUnwritten agreements are soon forgottenCash flow is more important that profitAll contracts end
11 Everyone has advice…The only people that are not making mistakes are those that are not doing anythingDon’t bite off more than you can bite offThe most important and most difficult trait to identify is the ability to get things doneA manager with a full calendar every day isn’t delegating properlyA full day spent in meeting is 40% wastedA pat on the back is the ultimate in cost effectivenessA manager that takes credit for the work of the troops should be made a member of the troopsA manager unwilling to take risks is destined for mediocrityPeople that feel comfortable in their jobs are more productiveThe prepared bird gets the wormAn unfilled position is better than one filled by the wrong personThe killer of the bearer of bad news quickly joins the ranks of the uninformedBusiness flourishes along lines of relationships
12 Advertisement for a Management Seminar You will be taught an array of management skills: planning, organizing, influencing, leading, and controllingManagers spend 80% of their time communicating.You will spend 80% of your time speaking and 20% writing.You will learn to combine monetary use with give-something-back or what we call "spiritual profit."You will learn to be a better storyteller. Better leaders tell better stories.Better managers generate enthusiasm.Management is changing. You will learn the differences between pre-modern, modern and postmodern management concepts and skills to conduct your green business.You will learn by doing in three phases of a spiritual profit campaign.You will learn to work together with people who do not think, dress, act, speak, or listen the same way as you do.You will learn to manage in a diverse world.You will become a better global citizen by getting into the real world to learn
14 Transition to Management – Study Results (1) Key finding: “The transition to manager is not limited to acquiring competencies and building relationships. Rather, it constitutes a profound transformation, as individuals learn to think, feel, and value as managers”ThinkValueFeelSource: Hill, Linda A., Becoming a Manager: Mastery of a New Identity, Harvard Business School Press; 2nd edition, 2003.
15 Transition to Management – Study Results (2) Building effective relationships with their subordinates was unequivocally the most difficult task the new managers facedThe new managers’ expectations about being a manager were inaccurateInaccurate expectations contributed to the challenge of becoming a manager since the daily realities of the manager role caught them by surprise:The heavy workloadRather than being organized and calm, things were hectic: more like firefightingThe realization that they had to get things done through others and thus were dependant on their subordinatesTo produce the results they were accountable for, they had to develop and assist their subordinates as well as remove obstacles for their subordinates without taking overAs they assumed formal authority, they were often viewed as the enemy by their subordinates/former peersSource: Hill, Linda A., Becoming a Manager: Mastery of a New Identity, Harvard Business School Press; 2nd edition, 2003.
16 Transition to Management – Study Results (3) The new managers were promoted for technical competence but were now in a role where managing people was the primary skill:The importance of understanding and motivating peopleThe need for communication skillsThe challenge of dealing with subordinates who covered a wide performance range from marginal to outstandingLearning to delegate was perhaps the most difficult challenge the new managers faced in managing subordinates’ performanceThe decision to move into management caused the participants some anxiety; they pondered the change and the significance it held in their careersThe new managers had to deal with a lot of stress and emotions.Source: Hill, Linda A., Becoming a Manager: Mastery of a New Identity, Harvard Business School Press; 2nd edition, 2003.
17 Origins of Engineering Latin – ingenium – a talent, natural capacity, or clever inventionEngineer and ingenious come from the same rootWebster’s 3rd International Dictionary:A calling requiring specialized knowledge and often long and intensive preparation including instruction in skills and methods as well as in the scientific, historical, or scholarly principles…Engineer’s CouncilThe profession in which knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences gained by study, experience, and practice is applied with judgment to develop ways to utilize, economically, the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of humankind
18 What does it mean to be an Engineer? Design thingsMath and scienceInnovationLife long learningProfessionalTechnologyWhat else?ProjectsSpecifications
19 Why is it important? Credibility Respect Logical mind Organize chaos Problem-solvingExpertiseDisciplineInnovation and Design
20 What is Management?“Organizing and coordinating a profitable effort through good decision-making and people motivation”“Being a respected and responsible representative of the company to your subordinates”“Ability to achieve effective accomplishments from others toward a common business objective”“Getting things done through people”“The overall planning, evaluating, and enforcement that delivers profit”“Delivering a quality product or service that customers value”“The means by which the organization grows or dies”“Directing the actions of a group to accomplish a desired objective”“Keeping customers happy”
21 Classification of Management First-lineDirectly supervises non-managers (individual contributors)Responsible for carrying out plans and objectives of higher managementMake short-range operating plansRecently appointed to positionMiddleIndirect managers – manage people through other managersMake intermediate plans to achieve long term goals set by higher level managementEstablish departmental polices and evaluate performance of subordinate work units and their managersIntegrate and coordinate various functions or groups with different short term objectivesTopResponsible for defining the character, vision, mission, and objectives of the enterpriseDefine long range plans and objectivesEvaluate the performance of departments and readiness for promotion of key managersEstablish criteria for success
22 Skills vs. Management Level First-lineMiddleTopTechnical SkillsInterpersonal SkillsConceptual Skills
23 A Manager’s Impact on the Organization InfrastructurePolices/procedures/rewardsCommunication7 %LeadershipDay-to-dayCommunication61 %Formal MediaMeetings/memos/IntranetCommunication32 %
24 Organization Power: Getting Results Bases of power as:CoerciveReward-basedInstitutionalReferentExpertPhysical attractionPeople respond positively to physical stature and good looks managers can exert more influence over their coworkers with good grooming, posture, speech and dress
25 What do Managers Do? Interpersonal Roles Informational Roles FigureheadLeaderLiaisonInformational RolesMonitorDisseminatorSpokesmanDecisional RolesEntrepreneurialDisturbance handlerResource allocatorNegotiatorSource: Mintzberg, H., The Nature of Managerial Work, Harper-Collins, 1973.
26 Interpersonal RolesFigurehead – ceremonial or symbolic head of an organization; outwardly directed relationshipLeader – downward relationship of selecting, guiding, and motivating subordinatesLiaison – horizontal relationship with peers and people in the organization, built and nurtured for mutual assistance
27 Informational RolesMonitor – collecting information about internal operations and external events; reviews activities, read reports, attends professional conferences and trade shows to understand future trends (if a researcher performs this role, it is as a gatekeeper)Disseminator – transmits information internally to subordinates, superiors, and peers to make sure all have the data to do their jobsSpokesman – (normally by higher management) speaks for the organization to the press, public, or other external groups [Note: an internal version of this role might be an ombudsman or advocate – successful supervisors “grab it by the horns” to get resources or rewards for their subordinates]
28 Decisional RolesEntrepreneurial – initiating change, assuming risk, and transforming ideas and knowledge into useful product, services or other tangible assetsDisturbance handler – dealing with unforeseen problems or crises and resolving themResource allocator – distributing (precious) resources of money, labor, materials, and equipment to optimize the productivity of the organizationNegotiator – bargaining with suppliers or customers or subordinates or peers or superiors to obtain agreements favorable to the enterprise (or for at least the portion of it within the scope of responsibility)
29 What is the Function of a Manager? Planning – selects the missions and objectives and the actions to achieve themDecision-making – choosing the future course of action from among several alternativesOrganizing – establishing the infrastructure and rolesLeading – influencing people to strive willingly and enthusiastically toward a particular goalControlling – measurement and corrective action of activities or processes of subordinates to ensure the desired intermediate milestones are reached and the desired final results are achieved
30 What is Engineering Management? Distinguished from other types of managers due to technical functionsAbility to apply engineering principles and organize and direct people and projectsManagement of technical functions or broader functions in a high-technology enterpriseSource: Babcock, D.L., Morse, L.C., Managing Engineering and Technology, 3rd Ed., Prentice-Hall, 2002.
31 Engineering Management -- MUSTS Really understand the business (company and industry)Understand the technology driving today’s business and the technology that will change the businessTreat research and development as an investment to be nurtured, rather than expense to be minimizedDedicated to solving the customer’s problemSpend time on strategic thinkingRegard innovation as the premier objectiveSource: Babcock, D.L., Morse, L.C., Managing Engineering and Technology, 3rd Ed., Prentice-Hall, 2002.
32 Spheres of Influence Management Engineering Management Business ProductionProject ManagementProduct Design & DevelopmentResearchAdvance TechnologyOperationsIndustrialPlantDesignResearchVerification & ValidationManufacturingMarketingFinanceCustomer ServiceAdvertisingSalesBusinessEngineering
33 Management – The Black Vulture Beware of the politicsBeware of the prizeUnderstand the sacrificeUnderstand what you need to do
34 Management – The White Dove Inspiring othersWatching others achieveThe ultimate coachWin-win
35 Management – The Shades of Gray It doesn’t come in two flavors…
39 Self Awareness & Evaluation What does my life look like? What do I want it to look like?How do I want my day-to-day life to be?How do I need to interact with other people?What sacrifices do I need/want to make for my career?Who will be affected by those sacrifices besides me?What perception do others have of me?What specifically would I like to learn during my life?How much money will I need? When will I need it by to do the things I want to do?Are my career expectations realistic? Aligned with the company?Are my career expectations achievable on my current path?Where would I like to be in 2 years, 10 years, 20 years?
40 What are Your Priorities? Please rank the following in order of priority:TitlePositionPowerFamilyMoneyTimeEgoHobbiesFriendsAre they really you?
41 Have You Thought About Your Career…Or Did You Just Take a Job? Did you look into the industry? Do you know it?Is Your Company Growing? Staying the same? Falling?What are your expectations! Are they being managed? If so, by whom?Do you really know where your job might take you?What skills do you need in your job? What are your strengths?Does your company provide a conducive environment for career growth? How fast are individuals promoted? Do you know the ground rules?What do they know that you don’t?How do you rise through the organization?How do you control your destiny?
42 The Common Fallacy The best performers make the best managers WRONG! Management requires different:Skill setsPerformance measuresComfort zoneLevel of controlDelegationListening and probingAbility to smile – all the time
43 Career stagesStage 1 – learning from others what they have learned from experienceStage 2 – produce significant results independentlyStage 3 – assume some responsibility for directing other people and projectsStage 4 – influence on organizational directionInnovator, entrepreneur, leader, visionary, manager
44 The Management Coaching Model Where the employee wants to beUnderstanding what aspects need to be developDefining the requirements of the jobPlanning to acquire the capabilities the job requiresWhere the employee is nowSelf-awareness – a sense of personal strengths and weaknessesAreas most critical to future progressHow the employee might progressPerseverance and motivation to reduce the “gap”Opportunities within and without to reach the goal
45 Career Choices An engineer may: For each choice: Remain loyal to the professionChanging careerVacillate about changing careersTransition to managementBecome a managerFor each choice:What are the options?What are the requirements?What is the level of comfort?
46 Are You Management Material? Do you display superior technical competency?Are you able to demonstrate a proven track record of organizational and management skillsAre you able to demonstrate a proven track record of leadership achieving results?Are you able to demonstrate superior communications skills?Do you like visibility and exposure?Do you like loneliness?Are you mobile?
47 Capabilities for Leadership CognitiveAnalysis, synthesis, and evaluation of data setsMaturityUnderstand one’s own emotions, values, handle upset, ambiguity, and lonelinessDevelopmentKnowledge of one’s limitations, accept criticism, accept new challenges, learn and growInfluenceAbility to persuade, convince individuals to act in your interests; prevent them from implementing agendas contrary to your ownLeadershipInspire others to overcome obstacles to achieve a shared goalIntegrationBuild effective team and incorporate all parts of the organizationInsightUnderstand the motivations of others and their behaviorExpertiseTechnical skills in one’s own discipline for respect in the professionExternalAwareness and adaptation to changes in the external environmentOrganizationalBuilding the infrastructure to achieve the desired objectivesDecisivenessAbility to take action or facilitate the actions of others for the achievement of critical short and long-tem goals
48 Integrated Skills Matrix FunctionalExcellenceProgramsFirst LineManagementLeadingFromthe MiddleStrategicLeadershipExecutiveProgramsGlobalLeadershipProgramsInternationalConsortiumProgramBusinessLeadershipOperationalLeadershipPeopleLeadershipPersonalLeadershipDefine the Different Skills Needed at Each LevelAdapted from Boeing Integrated Competency ModelCC
49 For example: Boeing Expectations of Leaders Develop YourselfIntegrityJudgment & PerspectiveContinuing LearningCommunication & InfluenceAdaptabilityDevelop Your TeamTeamwork & CollaborationVision & AlignmentLeading ChangeBuilding TalentGrow the BusinessCustomer SuccessFlawless ExecutionBusiness KnowledgeAdapted from Boeing Integrated Competency Model
51 Promotion Criteria (1) Able to influence Autonomy (freedom to act) CommunicationsArticulate in a variety of media and situationsCustomersCompanySuperiorsPeers and subordinatesDemonstrated capabilityDepth and breath of experienceVaried assignmentsDifferent functional areasBusiness divisions / unitsGlobal / internationalProject leaderProduct developmentEducationInnovation
52 Promotion Criteria (2) Interpersonal Impact Knowledge and expertise How oftenImpact if mistakes are madeKnowledge and expertiseLiaisonWho and what level are contactsIn groupOutside of groupIn companyOutside of companyProblem complexityPresentationSkills and abilitiesType of experienceValue to the company (contribution)
53 Promotion Criteria (3) Leadership Leadership Organize people Reach an objectiveDevelop enthusiasm for a causeMaintain disciplineDeliver bad newsMake it happenDevelop peopleTalent building skillsDecision-makingLeadershipVisionaryCollaborationWithin groupWith other functionsWith other divisionsExternal with partnersExternal with customersLeader of:Individual contributorsProject teamLeaders
54 What are the levels of management (at a Fortune 500 company)? ChairmanCEOSr VP or GMGlobalPartnersVP of R&DProduct labsTechnology labsDirector R&DProduct groupsTechnology groupsManager, R&DDesignManager, R&DTechnologyManager, R&DTestManager, R&DSupportSystem engineeringDesignModelsReliabilityHuman FactorsAdvance researchNew technologyIntellectual PropertyAcquisitionAcademic liaisonTest and EvaluationRegulatoryComplianceDesign reviewLaboratoriesSustainingCustomer interfaceField SupportManufacturing support
55 The Entry Levels Knowledge and autonomy are the key differentiators Ph.D. Degree – Expertise of craft, project / skills integration, process / investigation ability, autonomyMaster’s Degree – Deep knowledge of craft, skills integration, project experience, refined processBachelor’s Degree – Knowledge of craft, some skills integration, limited project experience, some process
56 The Definitions Leader – one who is in charge or in command of others Manager, managerial, management – handling of priorities, controls budgets and resources, directs the activities of a businessTechnical – Special skill or practical knowledge especially in a technology, scientific, or business fieldProject – an undertaking requiring complex task, concerted effort, and periodic reportingAdministrative – related tasks, activities, and projects associated with the performance of a specific function
57 Individual Contributor (Entry) Work is directedProjects are assignedDecisions are approvedTypical assignments:Component researchParts selectionInterface designModule design
58 Individual Contributor (Veteran) Work is directed / autonomy dependent upon seniorityProjects are assignedDecisions are approvedTypical assignments:System engineeringProduct architectureModule architecture and designMentoring / guidance / supervision of entry level engineers
59 Mentor / Supervisor Work is divided among: No direct reports ProjectTechnicalManagerialNo direct reportsCoaching includes technical development and project / process oversightMaybe intermediate step toward managementMay assign work / schedule time for technicians who reports to same managerMay work on several projects at the same time providing oversight and expertise to project engineers
60 Project Leader / Manager Work is divided among:ProjectTechnicalManagerialMay or may not have direct reportsTransition is occurring:Less time with timeMore time with other managersAmount of technical work is deciding factorAt some point the technical work drops below 50 %
61 Manager / Executive Project Managerial Administrative / budget Present / operational is focus of workMay or may not have profit / loss (P&L) responsibilityManages a group of people in a particular function or with a specific product / technology specialty
62 Executive Responsibilities: P&LProduct platform or product family or technology familyProduct life cycle ownership – “Cradle to grave”Product and technology strategies / roadmapsMore internal focus than external focus, but is aware of external happenings and impactsMore project focus than business focus
63 Senior Executive Administrative / budget Managerial Strategic / externalFuture / planningHas a business focus – typically global responsibilityStrong technology integration – acquisition oriented to reduce cycle timesResponsible for several product families or related technologies for an industry segment
64 Words of Warning Good engineers are not inherently good managers Challenge is to inspire difficult personalitiesTo work with youTo work as a teamBeware of management responsibility over staff that are senior to you, peers, “wanna bees” and personal friendsUnderstand when to accept the transition to managementSome should not do it at allSome do it too early in their careerEveryone will not be happy as a managerEveryone will not always be happyBalancing work responsibility with personal responsibilities (family and personal time) is the key to successIf family problems, company responsibilities will add unnecessary stress and strainYou can always get another job, but not another family
65 Free Advice – What is it Worth? Find a mentorSeek advice form someone who has been there successfullyRead books on the subject to get a diversity of ideas and suggestionsContinue to LearnDevelop diversity and breadth of understanding in all aspects of your job, company, industryEngineering, marketing, accounting, contracts and purchasing, supply chain, quality assurance, manufacturing and testTest the waters to gain experienceVolunteer for leadership jobs in clubs and organizationsVery good on the jobExcellent networking opportunitiesBuild all different relationshipsAdvertises your reputationVolunteer for unique projects – that no one wants – at your company and deliver a successful resultAlways make sure you get credit and broadcast the news
66 Delegation is the Key for Success Identify the reason that the task needs to be doneDefine the objectivesSet the priority and urgencyIdentify and define decision-making scope and authorityDefine the problem to be solvedDefine what success looks likeState when progress reports need to be submitted:To whom, when, howExplain how you will guide, monitor, and take corrective actionIdentify resources: people, time, budgetDefine who is impactedState what happens after the work is completedDefine the standards for quality
67 Conquer the Fear Fact: You delegate, you lose control Guide, monitor, and correct – don’t tell them how to do itLearn to trust by asking questionsAsk for a planThink of all the things you got away with…they are not stupid…you need to watch…and keep them on trackDon’t be insulting…but manage as you would guide children
68 How to get PromotedManage expectations (customer, your management, family and friendsPick the right people for your teamProbably the most important aspect of the jobLearn how to read personalities and in an interviewA position is better vacant than filled by the wrong personRemove deadwoodLearn to communicate effectively with a wide range of peopleWritten, oral, briefings, presentations, impromptu opportunitiesEarn respect; don’t expect it to be given to youThere is no substitute for integrityA reputation can be lost in seconds that has taken years to be built
71 It is Not About YOU It is about what you have done It is about who you areIt is about how people relate to youIt is about how who you knowIt is about how people feel about youIt is about how often you SMILE
72 Don’t let your career stall before it gets off the ground Decide to feel differently about your jobBe empathetic, rather than linearBe clear on where you want to beVisualize the path forwardDo an outstanding job in your current positionBe passionate and do exceptionally wellMarket yourself within your companyMarket yourself by marketing everyone elseRedouble your efforts to develop relationships with new peopleMeet with others to listen and learn about them; once every two weeks is 26 new people per year
73 Job Promotion is About Relationships It is about getting it done through peopleIt is about knowing who you can depend upon to get it done for youIt is about knowing who to call to get the informationIt is about knowing who to call to open the doorIt is about knowing who you can trust
74 In Summary Perform your work beyond reproach Form real relationships Lead by example, not dictationAsk questions and listenTake risks and make mistakesPick people and take care of themSet goals and inspireKeep smilin’
75 Parting Quote“Few have the primary imagination…the ability to give initial impulse, and the unselfishness to withdraw and let others take credit…This is of course the great secret of getting things done in the world” — Harvey Cushing