5 Leadership: General Colin Powell's Rules It ain't as bad as you think. It will look better in the morning. Get mad, then get over it. Avoid having your ego so close to your position that when your position falls, your ego goes with it. It can be done! Be careful what you choose. You may get it. Don't let adverse facts stand in the way of a good decision. You can't make someone else's choices. You shouldn't let someone else make yours. Check small things. Share credit. Remain calm. Be kind. Have a vision. Be demanding. Don't take counsel of your fears or naysayers. Perpetual optimism is a force multiplier
6 Leadership Styles Vision Articulate an ideological vision congruent with the deeply- held values of followers, a vision that describes a better future to which the followers have an alleged moral right Passion and self-sacrifice Display a passion for, and have a strong conviction of, what they regard as the moral correctness of their vision; engage in outstanding or extraordinary behavior and make extraordinary self-sacrifices in the interest of their vision and mission Confidence, determination, and persistence Display a high degree of faith in themselves and in the attainment of the vision they articulate; have a very high degree of self-confidence and moral conviction because their mission usually challenges the status quo and, therefore, may offend those who have a stake in preserving the established order Source: House, R., Podsakoff, P.M., Leadership Effectiveness: Past Perspectives and Future Direction Research, in Greenberg, J. Organizational Behavior: The State of the Science, Erlbaum, NJ, 1994.
7 Leadership Styles Image-building Self-conscious about their own image; recognize the desirability of followers perceiving them as competent, credible, and trustworthy Role-modeling Followers identify with the values of role models whom they perceived in positive terms External representation Act as spokespersons for their respective organizations and symbolically represent those organizations to external constituencies Source: House, R., Podsakoff, P.M., Leadership Effectiveness: Past Perspectives and Future Direction Research, in Greenberg, J. Organizational Behavior: The State of the Science, Erlbaum, NJ, 1994.
8 Leadership Styles Expectations of and confidence in followers Communicate expectations of high performance from their followers and strong confidence in their followers ability to meet such expectations Selective motive-arousal Selectively arouse those motives of followers that they see as of special relevance to the successful accomplishment of the vision and mission Frame alignment To persuade followers to accept and implement change; linkage of individual and leader such that some set of followers interests, values, and beliefs, as well as the leaders activities, goals, and ideology, becomes congruent and complementary Inspirational communication Often, but not always, communicate their message in an inspirational manner using vivid stories, slogans, symbols, and ceremonies Source: House, R., Podsakoff, P.M., Leadership Effectiveness: Past Perspectives and Future Direction Research, in Greenberg, J. Organizational Behavior: The State of the Science, Erlbaum, NJ, 1994.
9 Management Maxims… Grow or die No one is smart enough to be a dictator The only real power one has is the power of persuasion The less you know about something the simpler it seems Important decisions require at least one nights sleep Decisions made without all the facts are guesses The most important thing a manager does is pick the people Lies are hard to remember There is nothing more critical to true success than openness, honesty, and integrity Those that dont solicit and listen to advice are destined to be unsuccessful What is given cannot be taken away Meddling after responsibility is delegated and accepted provides a built-in excuse for failure Unwritten agreements are soon forgotten Cash flow is more important that profit All contracts end
10 Promotion Part One
11 Everyone has advice… The only people that are not making mistakes are those that are not doing anything Dont bite off more than you can bite off The most important and most difficult trait to identify is the ability to get things done A manager with a full calendar every day isnt delegating properly A full day spent in meeting is 40% wasted A pat on the back is the ultimate in cost effectiveness A manager that takes credit for the work of the troops should be made a member of the troops A manager unwilling to take risks is destined for mediocrity People that feel comfortable in their jobs are more productive The prepared bird gets the worm An unfilled position is better than one filled by the wrong person The killer of the bearer of bad news quickly joins the ranks of the uninformed Business flourishes along lines of relationships
12 You will be taught an array of management skills: planning, organizing, influencing, leading, and controlling Managers spend 80% of their time communicating. You will spend 80% of your time speaking and 20% writing. You will learn to combine monetary use with give- something-back or what we call "spiritual profit." Advertisement for a Management Seminar You will learn to be a better storyteller. Better leaders tell better stories. Better managers generate enthusiasm. Management is changing. You will learn the differences between pre-modern, modern and postmodern management concepts and skills to conduct your green business. You will learn by doing in three phases of a spiritual profit campaign. You will learn to work together with people who do not think, dress, act, speak, or listen the same way as you do. You will learn to manage in a diverse world. You will become a better global citizen by getting into the real world to learn
13 What is the Truth?
14 Transition to Management – Study Results (1) Key finding: The transition to manager is not limited to acquiring competencies and building relationships. Rather, it constitutes a profound transformation, as individuals learn to think, feel, and value as managers Source: Hill, Linda A., Becoming a Manager: Mastery of a New Identity, Harvard Business School Press; 2nd edition, Think Feel Value
15 Transition to Management – Study Results (2) Building effective relationships with their subordinates was unequivocally the most difficult task the new managers faced The new managers expectations about being a manager were inaccurate Inaccurate expectations contributed to the challenge of becoming a manager since the daily realities of the manager role caught them by surprise: The heavy workload Rather than being organized and calm, things were hectic: more like firefighting The realization that they had to get things done through others and thus were dependant on their subordinates To produce the results they were accountable for, they had to develop and assist their subordinates as well as remove obstacles for their subordinates without taking over As they assumed formal authority, they were often viewed as the enemy by their subordinates/former peers Source: Hill, Linda A., Becoming a Manager: Mastery of a New Identity, Harvard Business School Press; 2nd edition, 2003.
16 Transition to Management – Study Results (3) The new managers were promoted for technical competence but were now in a role where managing people was the primary skill: The importance of understanding and motivating people The need for communication skills The challenge of dealing with subordinates who covered a wide performance range from marginal to outstanding Learning to delegate was perhaps the most difficult challenge the new managers faced in managing subordinates performance The decision to move into management caused the participants some anxiety; they pondered the change and the significance it held in their careers The new managers had to deal with a lot of stress and emotions. Source: Hill, Linda A., Becoming a Manager: Mastery of a New Identity, Harvard Business School Press; 2nd edition, 2003.
17 Origins of Engineering Latin – ingenium – a talent, natural capacity, or clever invention Engineer and ingenious come from the same root Websters 3 rd International Dictionary: A calling requiring specialized knowledge and often long and intensive preparation including instruction in skills and methods as well as in the scientific, historical, or scholarly principles… Engineers Council The profession in which knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences gained by study, experience, and practice is applied with judgment to develop ways to utilize, economically, the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of humankind
18 What does it mean to be an Engineer? Design things Math and science Professional Life long learning Technology Innovation Projects Specifications
19 Why is it important? Credibility Respect Logical mind Organize chaos Problem-solving Expertise Discipline Innovation and Design
20 What is Management? The means by which the organization grows or dies Ability to achieve effective accomplishments from others toward a common business objective Organizing and coordinating a profitable effort through good decision-making and people motivation Getting things done through people Being a respected and responsible representative of the company to your subordinates The overall planning, evaluating, and enforcement that delivers profit Keeping customers happy Delivering a quality product or service that customers value Directing the actions of a group to accomplish a desired objective
21 Classification of Management First-line Directly supervises non-managers (individual contributors) Responsible for carrying out plans and objectives of higher management Make short-range operating plans Recently appointed to position Middle Indirect managers – manage people through other managers Make intermediate plans to achieve long term goals set by higher level management Establish departmental polices and evaluate performance of subordinate work units and their managers Integrate and coordinate various functions or groups with different short term objectives Top Responsible for defining the character, vision, mission, and objectives of the enterprise Define long range plans and objectives Evaluate the performance of departments and readiness for promotion of key managers Establish criteria for success
23 A Managers Impact on the Organization Leadership Day-to-day Communication 61 % Formal Media Meetings/memos/Intranet Communication 32 % Infrastructure Polices/procedures/rewards Communication 7 %
24 Organization Power: Getting Results Bases of power as: Coercive Reward- based Institutional Referent Expert Physical attraction People respond positively to physical stature and good looks managers can exert more influence over their coworkers with good grooming, posture, speech and dress
25 What do Managers Do? Interpersonal Roles Figurehead Leader Liaison Informational Roles Monitor Disseminator Spokesman Decisional Roles Entrepreneurial Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator Source: Mintzberg, H., The Nature of Managerial Work, Harper-Collins, 1973.
26 Interpersonal Roles Figurehead – ceremonial or symbolic head of an organization; outwardly directed relationship Leader – downward relationship of selecting, guiding, and motivating subordinates Liaison – horizontal relationship with peers and people in the organization, built and nurtured for mutual assistance
27 Informational Roles Monitor – collecting information about internal operations and external events; reviews activities, read reports, attends professional conferences and trade shows to understand future trends (if a researcher performs this role, it is as a gatekeeper) Disseminator – transmits information internally to subordinates, superiors, and peers to make sure all have the data to do their jobs Spokesman – (normally by higher management) speaks for the organization to the press, public, or other external groups [Note: an internal version of this role might be an ombudsman or advocate – successful supervisors grab it by the horns to get resources or rewards for their subordinates]
28 Decisional Roles Entrepreneurial – initiating change, assuming risk, and transforming ideas and knowledge into useful product, services or other tangible assets Disturbance handler – dealing with unforeseen problems or crises and resolving them Resource allocator – distributing (precious) resources of money, labor, materials, and equipment to optimize the productivity of the organization Negotiator – bargaining with suppliers or customers or subordinates or peers or superiors to obtain agreements favorable to the enterprise (or for at least the portion of it within the scope of responsibility)
29 What is the Function of a Manager? Planning – selects the missions and objectives and the actions to achieve them Decision-making – choosing the future course of action from among several alternatives Organizing – establishing the infrastructure and roles Leading – influencing people to strive willingly and enthusiastically toward a particular goal Controlling – measurement and corrective action of activities or processes of subordinates to ensure the desired intermediate milestones are reached and the desired final results are achieved
30 What is Engineering Management? Distinguished from other types of managers due to technical functions Ability to apply engineering principles and organize and direct people and projects Management of technical functions or broader functions in a high-technology enterprise Source: Babcock, D.L., Morse, L.C., Managing Engineering and Technology, 3 rd Ed., Prentice-Hall, 2002.
31 Engineering Management -- MUSTS Really understand the business (company and industry) Understand the technology driving todays business and the technology that will change the business Treat research and development as an investmen t to be nurtured, rather than expense to be minimized Dedicated to solving the customers problem Spend time on strategic thinking Regard innovation as the premier objective Source: Babcock, D.L., Morse, L.C., Managing Engineering and Technology, 3 rd Ed., Prentice-Hall, 2002.
32 Spheres of Influence BusinessEngineering ManagementEngineering Management Marketing Finance Customer Service Advertising Sales Operations Industrial Plant Production Project Management Product Design & Development Research Advance Technology Design Research Verification & Validation Manufacturing
33 Management – The Black Vulture Beware of the politics Beware of the prize Understand the sacrifice Understand what you need to do
34 Management – The White Dove Inspiring others Watching others achieve The ultimate coach Win-win
35 Management – The Shades of Gray It doesnt come in two flavors…
36 What are you looking for?
37 Thought for the Day
38 Promotion Part Two
39 What does my life look like? What do I want it to look like? How do I want my day-to-day life to be? How do I need to interact with other people? What sacrifices do I need/want to make for my career? Who will be affected by those sacrifices besides me? What perception do others have of me? What specifically would I like to learn during my life? How much money will I need? When will I need it by to do the things I want to do? Are my career expectations realistic? Aligned with the company? Are my career expectations achievable on my current path? Where would I like to be in 2 years, 10 years, 20 years? Self Awareness & Evaluation
40 Please rank the following in order of priority: Title Position Power Family Money Time Ego Hobbies Friends Are they really you? What are Your Priorities?
41 Have You Thought About Your Career…Or Did You Just Take a Job? Did you look into the industry? Do you know it? Is Your Company Growing? Staying the same? Falling? What are your expectations! Are they being managed? If so, by whom? Do you really know where your job might take you? What skills do you need in your job? What are your strengths? Does your company provide a conducive environment for career growth? How fast are individuals promoted? Do you know the ground rules? What do they know that you dont? How do you rise through the organization? How do you control your destiny?
42 The best performers make the best managers WRONG! Management requires different: Skill sets Performance measures Comfort zone Level of control Delegation Listening and probing Ability to smile – all the time The Common Fallacy
43 Career stages Stage 1 – learning from others what they have learned from experience Stage 2 – produce significant results independently Stage 3 – assume some responsibility for directing other people and projects Stage 4 – influence on organizational direction Innovator, entrepreneur, leader, visionary, manager
44 Where the employee wants to be Understanding what aspects need to be develop Defining the requirements of the job Planning to acquire the capabilities the job requires Where the employee is now Self-awareness – a sense of personal strengths and weaknesses Areas most critical to future progress How the employee might progress Perseverance and motivation to reduce the gap Opportunities within and without to reach the goal The Management Coaching Model
45 Career Choices An engineer may: Remain loyal to the profession Changing career Vacillate about changing careers Transition to management Become a manager For each choice: What are the options? What are the requirements? What is the level of comfort?
46 Are You Management Material? Do you display superior technical competency? Are you able to demonstrate a proven track record of organizational and management skills Are you able to demonstrate a proven track record of leadership achieving results? Are you able to demonstrate superior communications skills? Do you like visibility and exposure? Do you like loneliness? Are you mobile?
47 CognitiveAnalysis, synthesis, and evaluation of data sets MaturityUnderstand ones own emotions, values, handle upset, ambiguity, and loneliness DevelopmentKnowledge of ones limitations, accept criticism, accept new challenges, learn and grow InfluenceAbility to persuade, convince individuals to act in your interests; prevent them from implementing agendas contrary to your own LeadershipInspire others to overcome obstacles to achieve a shared goal IntegrationBuild effective team and incorporate all parts of the organization InsightUnderstand the motivations of others and their behavior ExpertiseTechnical skills in ones own discipline for respect in the profession ExternalAwareness and adaptation to changes in the external environment OrganizationalBuilding the infrastructure to achieve the desired objectives DecisivenessAbility to take action or facilitate the actions of others for the achievement of critical short and long-tem goals Capabilities for Leadership
48 Integrated Skills Matrix Define the Different Skills Needed at Each Level CC First Line Management Leading From the Middle Strategic Leadership Executive Programs Global Leadership Programs International Consortium Program Functional Excellence Programs Business Leadership Operational Leadership People Leadership Personal Leadership Adapted from Boeing Integrated Competency Model
49 For example: Boeing Expectations of Leaders Grow the Business Customer Success Flawless Execution Business Knowledge Develop Your Team Teamwork & Collaboration Vision & Alignment Leading Change Building Talent Develop Yourself Integrity Judgment & Perspective Continuing Learning Communication & Influence Adaptability Adapted from Boeing Integrated Competency Model
51 Promotion Criteria (1) Able to influence Autonomy (freedom to act) Communications Articulate in a variety of media and situations Customers Company Superiors Peers and subordinates Demonstrated capability Depth and breath of experience Varied assignments Different functional areas Business divisions / units Global / international Project leader Product development Education Innovation
52 Promotion Criteria (2) Interpersonal Impact How often Impact if mistakes are made Knowledge and expertise Liaison Who and what level are contacts In group Outside of group In company Outside of company Problem complexity Presentation Skills and abilities Type of experience Value to the company (contribution)
53 Promotion Criteria (3) Leadership Organize people Reach an objective Develop enthusiasm for a cause Maintain discipline Deliver bad news Make it happen Develop people Talent building skills Decision-making Leadership Visionary Collaboration Within group With other functions With other divisions External with partners External with customers Leader of: Individual contributors Project team Leaders
54 What are the levels of management (at a Fortune 500 company)? Chairman CEO Sr VP or GM VP of R&D Director R&D Manager, R&D Design Manager, R&D Support Manager, R&D Test Manager, R&D Technology System engineering Design Models Reliability Human Factors Advance research New technology Intellectual Property Acquisition Academic liaison Test and Evaluation Regulatory Compliance Design review Laboratories Sustaining Customer interface Field Support Manufacturing support Product groups Technology groups Product labs Technology labs Global Partners
55 The Entry Levels Knowledge and autonomy are the key differentiators Bachelors Degree – Knowledge of craft, some skills integration, limited project experience, some process Masters Degree – Deep knowledge of craft, skills integration, project experience, refined process Ph.D. Degree – Expertise of craft, project / skills integration, process / investigation ability, autonomy
56 The Definitions Leader – one who is in charge or in command of others Manager, managerial, management – handling of priorities, controls budgets and resources, directs the activities of a business Technical – Special skill or practical knowledge especially in a technology, scientific, or business field Project – an undertaking requiring complex task, concerted effort, and periodic reporting Administrative – related tasks, activities, and projects associated with the performance of a specific function
57 Individual Contributor (Entry) Work is directed Projects are assigned Decisions are approved Typical assignments: Component research Parts selection Interface design Module design
58 Individual Contributor (Veteran) Work is directed / autonomy dependent upon seniority Projects are assigned Decisions are approved Typical assignments: System engineering Product architecture Module architecture and design Mentoring / guidance / supervision of entry level engineers
59 Mentor / Supervisor Work is divided among: Project Technical Managerial No direct reports Coaching includes technical development and project / process oversight Maybe intermediate step toward management May assign work / schedule time for technicians who reports to same manager May work on several projects at the same time providing oversight and expertise to project engineers
60 Project Leader / Manager Work is divided among: Project Technical Managerial May or may not have direct reports Transition is occurring: Less time with time More time with other managers Amount of technical work is deciding factor At some point the technical work drops below 50 %
61 Manager / Executive Project Managerial Administrative / budget Present / operational is focus of work May or may not have profit / loss (P&L) responsibility Manages a group of people in a particular function or with a specific product / technology specialty
62 Executive Responsibilities: P&L Product platform or product family or technology family Product life cycle ownership – Cradle to grave Product and technology strategies / roadmaps More internal focus than external focus, but is aware of external happenings and impacts More project focus than business focus
63 Senior Executive Administrative / budget Managerial Strategic / external Future / planning Has a business focus – typically global responsibility Strong technology integration – acquisition oriented to reduce cycle times Responsible for several product families or related technologies for an industry segment
64 Words of Warning Good engineers are not inherently good managers Challenge is to inspire difficult personalities To work with you To work as a team Beware of management responsibility over staff that are senior to you, peers, wanna bees and personal friends Understand when to accept the transition to management Some should not do it at all Some do it too early in their career Everyone will not be happy as a manager Everyone will not always be happy Balancing work responsibility with personal responsibilities (family and personal time) is the key to success If family problems, company responsibilities will add unnecessary stress and strain You can always get another job, but not another family
65 Free Advice – What is it Worth? Find a mentor Seek advice form someone who has been there successfully Read books on the subject to get a diversity of ideas and suggestions Continue to Learn Develop diversity and breadth of understanding in all aspects of your job, company, industry Engineering, marketing, accounting, contracts and purchasing, supply chain, quality assurance, manufacturing and test Test the waters to gain experience Volunteer for leadership jobs in clubs and organizations Very good on the job Excellent networking opportunities Build all different relationships Advertises your reputation Volunteer for unique projects – that no one wants – at your company and deliver a successful result Always make sure you get credit and broadcast the news
66 Identify the reason that the task needs to be done Define the objectives Set the priority and urgency Identify and define decision-making scope and authority Define the problem to be solved Define what success looks like State when progress reports need to be submitted: To whom, when, how Explain how you will guide, monitor, and take corrective action Identify resources: people, time, budget Define who is impacted State what happens after the work is completed Define the standards for quality Delegation is the Key for Success
67 Conquer the Fear Fact: You delegate, you lose control Guide, monitor, and correct – dont tell them how to do it Learn to trust by asking questions Ask for a plan Think of all the things you got away with…they are not stupid…you need to watch…and keep them on track Dont be insulting…but manage as you would guide children
68 How to get Promoted Manage expectations (customer, your management, family and friends Pick the right people for your team Probably the most important aspect of the job Learn how to read personalities and in an interview A position is better vacant than filled by the wrong person Remove deadwood Learn to communicate effectively with a wide range of people Written, oral, briefings, presentations, impromptu opportunities Earn respect; dont expect it to be given to you There is no substitute for integrity A reputation can be lost in seconds that has taken years to be built
69 What is the Real Truth?
71 It is Not About YOU It is about what you have done It is about who you are It is about how people relate to you It is about how who you know It is about how people feel about you It is about how often you SMILE
72 Dont let your career stall before it gets off the ground Decide to feel differently about your job Be empathetic, rather than linear Be clear on where you want to be Visualize the path forward Do an outstanding job in your current position Be passionate and do exceptionally well Market yourself within your company Market yourself by marketing everyone else Redouble your efforts to develop relationships with new people Meet with others to listen and learn about them; once every two weeks is 26 new people per year
73 Job Promotion is About Relationships It is about getting it done through people It is about knowing who you can depend upon to get it done for you It is about knowing who to call to get the information It is about knowing who to call to open the door It is about knowing who you can trust
74 Perform your work beyond reproach Form real relationships Lead by example, not dictation Ask questions and listen Take risks and make mistakes Pick people and take care of them Set goals and inspire Keep smilin In Summary
75 Parting Quote Few have the primary imagination…the ability to give initial impulse, and the unselfishness to withdraw and let others take credit…This is of course the great secret of getting things done in the world Harvey Cushing