2Center for the Study of College Student Retention Visit:Journal of College Student Retention: Research Theory & PracticeRetention References (over 1,700)Discussion BlogIssuesConsultingInformation for CompaniesJobs/ConferencesAffiliates
3Desired OutcomesLearn How To Really Help Students PersistApplication of Current Theory & Practice to Local ProblemsIt’s Really All About The Teaching/Learning ProcessIt’s Also About Taking Action & Responsibility & Stop JustTalking About Retention
4Why Worry About Retention? Obligation To StudentsReasonable Expectation For SuccessLoss Of Time The Non-Renewable Resource 168 Hours Per WeekUpgrading Of Skills For Job Advancement or Skills For Another JobTurned Off To Future Educational OpportunitiesUnhappy Students Tell Others Of Their Experience
5Lost Tuition & Fees If tuition and fees are $5,000 per term If only 10 students leave after one term the loss per term is:- $50,000 per term or- $150,000 three terms- $350,000 for seven termsIf 50 students leave after one term the loss per term is:- $250,000 per term or- $750,000 for three terms; $1,750,000 for seven terms
6Burden To Students & Parents Must Repay Any LoansLong time to repayMay affect future borrowingMay affect future credit rating
7Undergraduate Student Aid, by Source Note: Nonfederal loans are not included here since they involve no subsidies of any kind.Source: The College Board
8Distribution of Loan Debt Among Recipients of Undergraduate Degrees and Certificates, 2007-8 Many undergraduates leave college with no student-loan debt, but a small number graduate with significant bills totaling $40,000 or more. This chart shows the percentage of graduates who incurred debt in various ranges as ofNo debtLess than $10,000$10,000 - $19,999$20,000 - $29,999$30,000 - $39,999$40,000 or moreBachelor's34%14%19%15%9%10%Associate52%23%6%3%2%Certificate37%21%5%1%All undergraduates41%20%18%11%Note: Figures reflect cumulative debt. They include U.S. citizens and residents and exclude PLUS Loans (which are taken out by parents), other loans from family and friends, and credit-card debt. Percentages are rounded and so may not add up to 100 percent.Source: College Board analysis of U.S. Department of Education data
9Percentage growth since in average price for tuition, fees, room, and board, adjusted for inflationSource: College Board, Census Bureau
104-year private colleges Average College Costs,4-year public colleges4-year private colleges2-year public collegesResidentCommuterOut of stateTuition and fees$7,020$18,548$26,273$2,544Room-and-board$8,193$7,969$9,363$8,163--$7,202Books and supplies$1,122$1,116$1,098Transportation$1,079$1,483$849$1,332$1,445Other$1,974$2,318$1,427$1,788$1,996Total*$19,388$19,912$30,916$39,028$38,672$14,285Note: These are enrollment-weighted averages. Weighted tuition and fees are derived by weighting the price charged by each institution in by the number of full-time undergraduates enrolled in ; room-and-board charges are weighted by the number of students residing on the campus. Estimates of other budget items are based on reports of institutional financial-aid offices.*Average total expenses include room-and-board costs for commuter students, which are average estimated living expenses for students living off the campus but not with parents. -- The sample is too small to provide meaningful information..Source: The College Board
12Students and Employment, 2008 GenderInstitutionStudent typeTotalMaleFemale2-year4-yearUndergraduateGraduateFull-time studentsPercent employed45%42%49%53%43%48%Hours worked per weekLess than 2016%13%18%14%20 to 3420%19%21%27%17%35 or more9%8%11%Part-time students79%78%81%75%84%90%10%*25%26%24%44%39%51%40%74%* Too few in survey for an accurate percentageNote: Percentages may not add up to totals because of rounding. The student population examined is between the ages of 16 and 24. A full-time student takes at least 12 hours of undergraduate courses or nine hours of graduate courses.Source: Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce
15Unemployment Rates by Level of Education Less than high-school completion 14.6% 9.0% 7.1%High school completion, no college % 5.7% 4.4%Some college, no degree % 5.1% 3.8%Associate degree % 3.7% 3.0%Bachelor’s degree or higher % 2.6% 2.0%Note: Figures are for people 25 years and olderSource: Bureau of Labor StatisticsThe Chronicle of Higher Education, Almanac , p. 40.
16Enrollment Growth, 1998-2008: More Minorities, More Women Note: Figures include full- and part-time students. Numbers of graduate students include students pursuing professional degrees. Figures for private, two-year institutions are not shown separately but are included in totals shown. Figures are rounded.Source: Chronicle analysis of U.S. Department of Education data
17Undergraduate Enrollments by Type of College 10-year Growth, 1998-2008 Note: Figures are based on fall enrollments.Source: U.S. Department of Education
18Percent of People 25 Years and Over Who Have Completed High School (Includes Equivalency): 2008 United States: Estimate: 84.5 Percent, Margin of Error: +/-0.1 PercentSource: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey
19Percent of People 25 Years and Over Who Have Completed a Bachelor's Degree: 2008 United States: Estimate: 27.4 Percent, Margin of Error: +/-0.1 PercentSource: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey
20Directly enter college Are still enrolled their 2nd year Student Pipeline from 9th Grade to CollegeOf 1009thgradersGraduatefrom HSon timeDirectly enter collegeAre still enrolled their 2nd yearGraduate within 150%% of population 25 or older with a bachelors degree or higher 2006*U.S*Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2006 American Community SurveySource: NCES: Common Core Data; IPEDS Residency and Migration, Fall Enrollment, and Graduation Rate Surveys
22Student College “Fit” Pre College Selection Considerations Socially AcademicallySociallySource: Witt, P. H., Handal, P. J. (November 1984). Person-environment fit: Is satisfaction predicted by congruency,environment, or personality? Journal of College Student Personnel, 25,
24Social “Fit” A student fitting into the institution socially has been shown to be an important part of the retention equation.Social activitiesClubs/special interest groupsAthletic varsity/intramural activitiesHow can commuter/on-line institutions promote college/student “fit”?
25Academic & Social “Fit” College Characteristics or Environment are a reflection of the Institution set by administration/faculty/studentsAcademic characteristics & standardsSocial characteristics & standardsCommunity characteristics & standardsState characteristics & standards
27A Word About College Selectivity A College Is Only As Selective As The Number Of Applications It ReceivesFor Example:Seidman University needs 1,000 new students each year to balance the budget ($)Seidman University Old Main!WOW!Seidman University needs to accept 2,000 new students each year to enroll 1,000 new students (Yield rate = 50%)Seidman University receives 10,000 applications and needs to accept 2,000 to yield 1,000 new students for a 20% acceptance rate. Seidman University is highly selective this year!
28OH NO! Seidman University Next Year Seidman University receives 4,000 applications and needs to accept 2,000 to yield 1,000 new students. The acceptance rate is now 50%.
29Distribution of Colleges by Acceptance Rates, 2008-9 Columns show the percentage of undergraduate institutions in each category that accept a certain proportion of applicants. PublicPrivateFor-profitProportion of applicants accepted for admission4-year2-yearLess than 10% accepted0.2%0.0%0.6%2.2%0.4%10.0% to 24.9% accepted2.0%2.8%7.8%25.0% to 49.9% accepted11.5%0.5%14.1%11.1%19.2%6.0%50.0% to 74.9% accepted40.6%1.5%40.2%20.0%16.0%13.7%75.0% to 89.9% accepted22.7%0.9%19.5%3.3%9.5%7.4%90% or more accepted8.2%1.2%9.3%8.9%10.9%12.1%Institution has no application criteria14.9%96.0%13.5%46.7%43.7%60.6%Number of undergraduate institutions reporting application data6091,0231,24090494569Note: Institutions include those enrolling first-time undergraduates seeking degrees or certificates. A small number of institutions did not report application information.Source: U.S. Department of Education
30Additional Colleges Applied/Choice Total Men WomenNone14.13%15.3%13.1%110.5%10.6%213.3%13.5%13.2%315.7%15.8%413.4%59.9%10.0%67.1%6.8%7.5%7 to 1012.6%11.6%11 or more3.3%3.1%3.5%College attended is student's:First choice60.7%61.3%60.2%Second choice25.9%25.3%26.4%Third choice8.7%8.8%8.6%Less than third choice4.7%Source: "The American Freshman: National Norms For Fall 2009," UCLA Higher Education Research Institute The Chronicle of Higher Education, Section: The Almanac, 57(1), 32.
33Completion RatesCompletion of associate’s degree in 3years or lessCompletion of bachelor’s degree in 5 years or lessHighest %Lowest %Current (2010) %Two-year public38.8 (‘89)25.5 (‘09)28.0Two-year private66.4 (‘90)50.2 (‘08)53.2BA/BS public52.8 (‘86)39.6 (’06, ‘10)39.6BA/BS private57.5 (‘06)53.3 (‘01)55.1MA/MS public46.7 (‘86)37.0 (‘00)39.0MA/MS private58.4 (‘88)53.5 (‘01)54.4PhD public50.6 (’89, ‘90)45.0 (‘01)47.8PhD private68.8 (‘86)63.1 (‘05)64.7Source: ACT 2010 Retention/Completion Summary Tables
34Persistence to Degree Rates for Four-year Public & Private Colleges by Admission Selectivity Offering Bachelor’s Degrees OnlyOffering Bachelor’s and Master’s Degree OnlyOffering Bachelor’s, Master’s & Doctoral Degreesin 4yrs in 5yrs in 6yrsIn 4yrs in 5yrs in 6yrsin 4yrs in 5yrs in 6yrsHighly Select(act 25-30, sat )PublicPrivate75.082.976.087.087.173.077.384.081.986.083.660.975.878.683.881.586.5Selective(act 21-26, sat )56.363.562.570.472.036.955.254.064.960.566.632.854.953.859.469.0Traditional(act 18-24, sat )24.234.540.743.6188.8.131.529.237.950.443.7184.108.40.2069.854.446.557.0Liberal(act 17-22, sat )28.032.341.041.343.538.919.831.832.937.738.510.438.030.845.729.154.8Open(act 16-21, sat )14.121.149.026.449.619.6220.127.116.111.725.341.418.104.22.168All Institutions25.947.939.655.143.456.823.644.439.055.929.054.747.864.753.768.0Source: ACT National Collegiate Retention and Persistence to Degree Rates, 2010
35Nationally After Six Years, 57 Out of 100 or 57% Graduated While 43 Out of 100 or 43% Did Not OUT OF BUSINESSSource: The Chronicle of Higher Education. Almanac Issue (1), 10.
36How Does American Higher Education Measure Up Internationally? Source: Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Data represent the percentage of adults with an associate's degree or higher in Wagner, A. (September 2006). Measuring up internationally: Developing Skills and Knowledge for the Global Knowledge Economy. The National Center for Public Policy and Higher EducationNational Center Report #06-7
37How Does American Higher Education Measure Up Internationally? Source: Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Data represent the percentage of adults with an associate's degree or higher in Wagner, A. (September 2006). Measuring up internationally: Developing Skills and Knowledge for the Global Knowledge Economy. The National Center for Public Policy and Higher EducationNational Center Report #06-7
38Various Risk Factors Delayed Enrollment Part-time Attendance Financially IndependentHave dependent childrenSingle ParentNo High School DiplomaWork Full-time While EnrolledSOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1999–2000 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:2000).
39Percentage of 1999–2000 undergraduates with various risk factors, and the average number of risk factorsAny risk factorsDelayed enroll- mentPart- time attend- anceFinan- cially inde- pendentHave depend- ents or childrenSingle parentNo high school diplomaWork full time while enrolledAverage number of risk factorsTotal75.045.549.150.926.913.37.837.82.2GenderMale74.846.448.347.522.214.171.1240.72.1Female75.244.849.853.531.016.58.135.72.3Race/ethnicityWhite, non-Hispanic72.742.848.723.710.06.137.22.0Black, non-Hispanic81.553.149.362.4126.96.36.199Hispanic*81.452.254.332.417.312.341.42.4Asian73.549.745.647.718.5188.8.131.52American Indian/Alaska Native83.957.956.665.937.5184.108.40.206.8Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander79.153.4220.127.116.111.430.7Other71.535.243.518.48.034.4*Priority was given to Hispanic ethnicity regardless of race chosen.SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1999–2000 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:2000).
40What Matters In Student Retention: Student The rigor of the high school curriculum is the strongest indicator of degree completionEnrolling by the January after high school graduation increases chances of degree completionEarning at least 20 credits at the end of the first year (4yr college) is important. Students who earned less only 22% earned a degreeEarning more then 4 credits during the summer correlated positively to degree completionSwitching majors did not influence degree completion2nd year important for students to catch up with first year lack of momentum60% attended more than one college and 35% attended more then twoSource: Hoover, E. (February 24, 2006). Study finds school-college disconnect’in curriculum. The Chronicle of Higher Education, LII(25), 1, 37.
41Potential Risk Factor or Student Opportunity 60% attended more than one college and 35% attended more then two. How do you treat transfers?Or….how many of your students are taking mixed (blended) courses?On campus plusOff-campus your institutionOff-campus another institutionInternet course your campusInternet course another institutionAbove combinations such as on campus, off campus, internetHow does this affect the student?
42What Matters In Student Retention: College Student involvement (integration, engagement) with the institution especially in the 1st yearFormal InformalFacultyConnections to past communitiesClassroom learning communitiesResidential learning communitiesNon-residential activities2 yr vs. 4 yrClassroom practice/faculty actions in the classroomAcademic & Social SystemsSource: Hoover, E. (February 24, 2006). Study finds school-college disconnect’ in curriculum. The Chronicle of Higher Education, LII(25), 1, 37.
45Commonalities: American Indian, African American, Hispanic Students (Negative)Lack of academic preparationLack of a critical mass of students with similar ethnic characteristicsInitial enthusiasm displayed by recruitment process but subsequent disappointment once enrolledFinancial need
46Commonalities: American Indian, African American, Hispanic Students (Positive)Mentor programsFinancial AidGroups and clubs for minority groupsSummer pre college academic programsMulticultural centersInclusive and meaningful curriculum
47Action Steps To Help Solve The Retention/Attrition Problem For Minority Students (pre College) Lack of academic preparationLack of a critical mass of students with similar characteristicsInitial enthusiasm displayed by recruitment process but subsequent disappointment once enrolledFinancial needISSUESSOLUTIONSAdopt a school districtProvide teachersProvide mentorsVisit families at home/bring to campusProvide aid
48What We Know About First Generation College Students
491st Generation College Students 1971 to Present Due to increase in education levels in U.S. proportion of first-generationFirst-time full-time college students have declinedAfrican American decline is a concern since it is greater then the decline ineducation for African Americans in generalHispanics remain the least educated group, 69.1% lacked a college education in 2005Hispanics have the highest proportion for first-generation college studentsat 4 year colleges (38.2%)Students of parents who did not attend college report that their parents encourage college attendance at a greater rate then their peers whose parents have a college educationWorked 20+ hours per week in high school and 55% expect to get a job to help pay for collegeSource: Saenz, V.B., Hurtado, S., Barrera, D., Wolf, D., & Yeung, F. (2007). First in my family: a profile of first-generation college students at four-year institutions since Los Angeles: Higher Education Research Institute, UCLA
501st Generation College Students 1971 to Present More first-generation students considered financial factors as very importantin their college choice considerationsConsidered close proximity of college to home (within 50 miles) a veryimportant reason for choosing the college attendedLess likely to live on campusRely on advice of high school counselor and relative in deciding to attend a particular collegeA widening gap in self-ratings of high school math and writing ability with other studentsLower educational aspirationsLikely to choose to attend a private college for reasons of size and financial assistanceSource: Saenz, V.B., Hurtado, S., Barrera, D., Wolf, D., & Yeung, F. (2007). First in my family: a profile of first-generation college students at four-year institutions since Los Angeles: Higher Education Research Institute, UCLA
52Different Types of Student Departure System: From the educational systemInstitutional: From a particular collegeMajor: A specific discipline/programCourse: A particular courseVoluntary: A student leaves on his/her ownInvoluntary: A college lets a student go
53Defining Retention/Attrition Define Retention/Attrition: Terminology Not Always The Same or SimpleAttrition: a student who fails to reenroll at an institution in consecutive termsDismissal: a student who is not permitted to continue enrollment by the institutionDropout: a student whose initial educational goal was to complete at least abachelor’s degree but did not complete itMortality: failure of a student to remain in college until graduationPersistence: the desire and action of a student to stay within the system of highereducation from beginning through degree completionRetention: ability of an institution to retain a student from admission throughgraduationStopout: a student who temporarily withdraws from an institution or systemWithdrawal: departure of a student from a college campusBerger, J. B., & Lyons, S. (2005). Past to present: A historical look at retention. In Seidman, A. (Ed.). College student retention: Formula for student success. Praeger Press.
54Definitions: So What’s in a Meaning? How do you define retention?Is it similar to how your peers define it?Who decides on the definition, local, state, federal, (one,two or all three)? Are they the same or different? Are theyappropriate for your institution?Who judges if all colleges are complying with thedefinition?Are there exclusions?Can a college decide on its own definition?
56A Few Retention Theories Astin's (1977, 1985) Theory of InvolvementThe more involved a student is with the college, the higher likelihood of student retention.Bean's (1980, 1983) Model of Work Turnover to Student AttritionUsed concepts from organizational studies of worker turnover. Examines how organizational attributes and reward structures affect student satisfaction and persistence.Bean and Metzner's (1985) Nontraditional Student AttritionEnvironmental factors have a greater impact on departure decisions of adult students than academic variables.Kamens (1971, 1974)Used multi-institutional data to demonstrate how colleges of greater size and complexity had lower attrition rates.McNeely (1937) "College Student Mortality"Examined many factors in college student retention including time to degree, when attrition was most prevalent in a student's education, impact of college size etc.Spady Model (1971)Interaction between student characteristics and campus environment Summerskill (1962)Personality attributes of students is the main reasons for persistence and leaving.Tinto Model (1975, 1993)Academic and social integration with the formal and informal academic and social systems of a college.Most of these theories have been taken from:Berger, J. B., & Lyons, S. (2005). Past to present: A historical look at retention. In Seidman, A. (Ed.). College student retention: Formula for student success. Praeger Press. Braxton, J. M. & Hirschy, A. S.( 2005). Theoretical Developments in the study of college student departure. In Seidman, A. (Ed.). College student retention: Formula for student success. Praeger Press.
57What We Can Do To Improve Retention &The Teaching Learning Process
58Retention Questions for Action Statement of the Problem What Problem Are You Trying To Solve?Define Retention/Attrition What Is Your Definition of Retention?Gather Data/Benchmark Compare with Peers (are you satisfied with your results?)Know Your Students Know Your Student ProfileModel for Your Interventions Tinto/Astin/BeanWhat Do You Plan to Do? See next slidesHow Do You Plan To Do It? ImplementationAssign Responsibility Who is going to do what (Faculty, Student Affairs Staff, Institutional Research etc.)Evaluation Plan: Evaluate/Modify Where Necessary
59Know Your StudentsWhat is the profile of a successful student on your campus?What is the profile of an unsuccessful student on your campus?What do you do when you accept and enroll a student with a profileof an unsuccessful student?What do you do with students with a successful student profile?Do you track changes in student behaviors both academically &personally over time?
68So, Does the Seidman Student Formula Work? Foothill College, CA Math My Way (MMW)Previous Math SequenceMath 250 (Arithmetic)Math 200 (Pre-Algebra)Math 101 (Beginning Algebra)Math 105 (Intermediate Algebra)New Math SequenceMath 230 (MMW: Arithmetic Pre-Algebra)Math 101 (Beginning Algebra)Math 105 (Intermediate Algebra)Sources: Silverman, L. (2010). Academic Progress in Developmental Math Courses: A Comparative Study of Student Retention. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Walden University, Minneapolis: MN.
69So, Does the Seidman Student Formula Work? Foothill College, CANew Math SequenceMath 230 (MMW: Arithmetic Pre-Algebra)Previous Math SequenceMath 250 (Arithmetic)1 quarter to completeFaculty control pacing5 hrs per week35 to 1 student faculty ratio10 hierarchical & sequential modulesMastery Learning of ConceptsFlexible pacing/student controlled10 hrs per week150 to 5 student faculty ratioComplete minimum 2 modules per termPeer tutorsSpiral assessment: 100% assigns87% per modulesSources: Silverman, L. (2010). Academic Progress in Developmental Math Courses: A Comparative Study of Student Retention. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Walden University, Minneapolis: MN.
70So, Does the Seidman Student Formula Work? Foothill College, CAMath My Way (MMW) vs. Old Math SequenceMMW significantly higher program progression through math sequenceMMW significantly higher math GPA’sPossible Consequences:More basic skills students (minorities, women, non-traditional)complete academic requirementsBegan at 2nd grade level in math, college level in 2 yrsMay increase career aspirationsAppeared to turn more students on to mathCollege increase revenue by keeping students meeting missionU.S. Census Bureau earnings:High school graduate $31,289Associates $39,746Bachelor’s $57,181Sources: Silverman, L. (2010). Academic Progress in Developmental Math Courses: A Comparative Study of Student Retention. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Walden University, Minneapolis: MN.
72A Word About … Developmental Courses Financial Aid Orientation Career ServicesFacultyLearning Resource Center/LibraryLeaning/College CommunitiesCollege Mission
73Developmental Courses Student usually placed in a developmental reading, writing, math coursePlacement based on past academic record and/or standardized placement testSometimes pre-test at the beginning of the developmental courseSometimes post-test at the end of the developmental courseStudent must obtain a specific grade to continue into the next level courseRegardless of skill needs student is enrolled in a full term course
74Developmental Courses Continued………..College Community Developmental Course SupportDoes your assessment identify specific skills in need of remediation?Does your developmental course skills line up with the skills neededfor the next level course?Can you divide the developmental course into modules and have astudent only take the one (s) he/she needs?
75Financial Aid OfficesSecond (probably first in many instances) contact with student, in writing, web, telephone, in personMany mailings to studentsBring in a lot of revenue to the collegeAssist students ability to attendContact with students during each termMay have the most contact with students during college career except for professorsNot given much status in the college community
76Financial Aid Offices Continued………. College Community Financial Aid Office SupportAcknowledge and support the job the FA office and staff performsHelp develop message given students when contacted(differentiate between adult, distance learning, directly out of HS student)Know the amount of revenue a FA office brings into the collegeProvide the appropriate staff and funding to allow the FA office to do its job efficiently and effectivelyAcknowledge different types of students receive FA such as adultsand distance learning students
77OrientationBring students together in a relaxed atmosphere/begin the bonding process to the college and studentsStart to acculturate students to the collegeHelp families understand what their mother/father will experience in the collegeAcquaint students with administrative rules and regulationsHelp select and design academic programsHelp students find information they need
78Orientation Continued…….. College Community Orientation Support Faculty and staff serve as mentorsHave orientation groups meet at least once per termContinuous all years in the college
79Career Services To receive FA a student must be in a degree program Are we making students choose programs too early in their college careerUndecided students leave at a much greater rate thenstudents with a defined goalStart the career exploration process early on and do not assume that a student knows what he/she wants to do simply since he/she chose a major.People change careers many times in their lifetime
80Career Services Continued……. College Community Career Services Support Hold career exploration daysHave career exploration part of orientation and/or on-going orientationHave career exploration built into the curriculumUse career exploration softwareMajors can have speakers talk about their careersMajors can hold informal student meetings
81BENEFITS FOR ATTENDING YOUR COLLEGE? Study of the graduates:Jobs in fieldSalaryTransferWhat happens to those who do not graduate?LeaveHow do you measure your successes and failures?What do you do to help students succeed and how successful are your programs and services?
82Learning Resource Center/Library Provides a place for students to go to study individually or in groupsHelp students find resource materialTeaches students where to find material for projectsHelp faculty with research
83Learning/Classroom Communities Learning Communities (in residence halls/commuter loungeGrouped by interest areaGrouped by curriculumGrouped by coursesClassroom CommunitiesGroups within the classroom (group work)Outside of Class CommunitiesClubsSportsKeep in touch (teacher/learner)Web based classroom discussionCafeteria/learning resource center
84FacultyFaculty interaction with students outside the formal classroom setting is important for student successEncourage and promote faculty/student interactionRealize that faculty have competing interests: research,publishing, committees, etc.Value faculty involvement with students in the evaluation/promotionprocess.
85Faculty continued……… College Community Faculty Support Faculty are not trained to be teachers, rather they are trained tobe experts in their chosen field.They do not have to be certified, pass any tests and once theyreceive tenure are usually not observed by the administrationfor teaching effectiveness.Centers of Excellence: Teach Faculty Methods of Student LearningValue faculty involvement with students in the evaluation/promotion process.
89Thank You Dr. ALAN SEIDMAN General & Self-Designed Specialization CoordinatorRichard W. Riley College of Education & LeadershipWalden University155Fifth Avenue South, Suite 100Minneapolis, MN 55401Editor: Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & PracticeAuthor: College Student Retention: Formula for Student Success &Minority Student Retention: The Best of the Journal of College Student Retention