Presentation on theme: "Promotion Promotion is any form of communication used to inform, persuade, or remind people about an organization’s goods, services, image, ideas, community."— Presentation transcript:
1 PromotionPromotion is any form of communication used to inform, persuade, or remind people about an organization’s goods, services, image, ideas, community involvement, or impact on society ( Evans & Berman, 1987, p. 43).
2 Promotion The process of communication Sender (source) Message Medium ReceiverFeedback
3 Promotion Source (sender)- Where the communication process originates. Credibility: the sources perceived expertise and trustworthiness
4 PromotionMessage: the content of the words, symbols, meanings to be transmitted to the receiver.Medium- a communication channel that the company transmits the message to consumers.Feedback: the response a target audience makes to a message.
5 Promotion Functions of promotion 1. Promotion creates awareness for the company & products.2. Promotion establishes an image.3. Promotion increases sales4. Promotion can reposition the image of a faltering product.5. Promotions alerts the consumer to sales6. Promotion tells the consumer where your business is located.
7 PromotionThe Hierarchy of Effects: a process by which consumers are ultimately led to action.ActionConvictionPreferenceLikingKnowledgeAwarenessUnawareness
8 Promotion Promotion Planning 1. Target Market consideration: who are your target market?2. Establish Promotion Objectives: what does your company want to achieve in promotion?3. Check the Budget: How much money is available for promotion?4. Develop Specific Plan5. Determine Promotional Mix: how do we promote our products?6. Evaluation Plan: How will we evaluate promotion? Is it successful?
9 Promotion Promotional Mix: Frequently used promotional methods 1. Advertising2. Personal selling3. Sales promotion4. Publicity
10 Promotional Mix Selecting Promotion Mix 1. Resources, objectives, and mission2. Characteristics of the Target market3. Characteristics of the Product4. Cost and availability of promotional methods5. Push and Pull channel policies
11 Promotion1. Advertising- A message that informs and persuades consumers through paid media.Objectives of Advertising: consistent with organizational objectivesA. Direct Objectives: to elicit a behavioral response from the target marketB. Indirect Objectives: to establish prebehavioral response to advertising
12 Promotion Process of developing advertising 1. Identify and analyze the target market2. Define advertising objectives3. Create advertising platform4. Determine advertising appropriation5. Develop media plan6. Create advertising message7. Execute campaign8. Evaluate advertising effectiveness
13 PromotionMass Media Selection: what medium will be the most effective in reaching the target market
14 Promotion Profiles of major Media Medium Advantages Limitations Radio Inexpensive, Audio onlyLocal acceptance, Low attentionHigh Geographic selectivityTV Large Number of audience High costs Combination of sight, sound High clutter and motion, High audience Short life selectivityNewspaper good local coverage Short life; limited audiencethe Internet Global access Clutter, hard to interactive capability measure effectiveness
15 PromotionAlternative forms of Advertisinga. Stadium signage
17 PromotionII. Sales Promotions: a variety of short-term, promotional activities that are designed to stimulate immediate product demand.Premium giveaways, Contests & Sweepstakes, Sampling, Point of Purchase Displays, Coupons etc.Relatively cheap and can be more effective than advertising.Used to break a consumers behavior pattern, increase value to customer, build equity or induce loyaltyCan be price or non-price promotionsOften tied to sponsors or media partners
18 PromotionIII. Personal Selling: a form or person to person communication in which a sales person work with perspective buyers and attempt to influence their purchase needs to their products.
19 Promotion Benefits of Personal Selling a. To immediately adapt the message they are presenting based on feedback received from the target consumersb. To communicate more information to the target consumers than other forms of promotionc. Increases the likelihood of the target consumer paying attention to the messaged. Increases the chances of developing a long-term relationship with consumers, due to the frequent person-to-person communication
20 Promotion Elements of the personal selling process 1. Prospecting 2. Preapproach3. Approach4. Making presentation5. Overcoming objections6. Closing the sale7. Following up
21 Promotion Management of the sales force a. Establishing sales force objectivesb. Determining sales force sizec. Recruiting and selecting salespeopled. Training sales personnele. Compensating sales peoplef. Motivating salespeopleg. Managing sales territoriesH. controlling and evaluating sales force performance
22 Public RelationsPublic relations: an interactive marketing communications strategy that seeks to create a variety of mediums designed to convey the organizational philosophies, goals, and objectives to publics for the purpose of establishing a relationship built on comprehension, interest, and support.
23 Community Relations Community Relations How is your organization perceived bylocal citizens?employees?affiliated businesses?Sport organizations are dependent on the public’s support and must demonstrate their worthiness to be part of the community and be viewed as a neighbor of choice.
24 Community Relations “giving something back” Community Relations: Generate goodwill“giving something back”“being a good citizen”“taking pride in the community”
25 Community Relations 3.Show you are committed to community 4. The Purposes of Community Relations1.2. Build relationships3.Show you are committed to community4.5.Improve employee morale & recruitment6. Educate public about organization
26 Community Relations Player initiated www.twfound.org Team initiatedLeague initiated:NBA: Gallaudet UniversityNBA Reading InitiativeNFL United WayLPGA Charity for Breast Cancer.PGA “Drive to a billion”
27 Community Relations Working with Charitable organizations Creating programs and events to raise awareness and money for charityPlayer and Staff appearances
28 Media RelationsMedia Relations: Communicating with the news media verbally or through other vehicles.” “MR is a window of all information of the organization to the outside world.”
29 Media Relations Functions of Media Relations A. Communicate through the news media to shape organization imageB. Provide organizational information & update organizational changesC. Maintain contacts with League offices, other teams/institutionsD. Maintain relationships with other Leagues, other departments, administrations, coaching staff, alumni.
30 Future of Sport Marketing Web-based Sport MarketingE-marketing is to make profit through the exchange process utilizing the internet as the medium.
31 Web-based Sport Marketing ESPN launched its official web-site of ESPNetSportZone in 1995Seattle Mariners launched their website to use the web for marketing.Online ticketing was a $10 billion market in 2001More than 50% of MLB teams offered tickets directly from their site
32 Web-based Sport Marketing Online advertising generated $940 million in 1997 to $ 8 billion in 2000ESPN.com has 35 sponsors yearly sponsorship on ESPN.com cost between $140,000 to $310,000
33 The Internet Site Unique Visitors/month espn.com 7,185,000 Sportsline.com 5,218,000NFL Internet group 4,999,000MLB.com 4,578,000CNNSI.com 3,136,000NASCAR.comFansonly.comsportingnews.comsandbox.comNBA.com
34 The InternetA place for your “stuff” – A place to “post” as much information as you want.a. No limit -- information you can post!b. Cost – It’s inexpensive as compared to publishingc. Update-ability – Can update it at will.d. Worldwide reach -- With a site, you can have people from around the world “view” your teame. Interactivity
35 Web-based Sport Marketing Characteristics of Successful website1. ease of navigation2. access to relevant and related information3. constant updates with fresh information4. entertaining content and site features5. web address reflects the organization’s name
36 Web-based Sport Marketing Benefits of Interactive Marketing1. Results of marketing efforts are measurable (Higher response rate than direct mail)2. Ability to communicate with consumers on consumer selected topics3. Cost-effective means for building relations with customers4. Customer convenience provided
37 Web-based Sport Marketing Disadvantages of Interactive Marketing1. Customer must access marketer in order for interactive marketing to begin2. Hard to build or buy good lists3. Perceived as spam if not targeted well4. Consumer privacy issues
38 Atmospherics atmospherics The physical characteristics of the facility such as architecture, layout, signs and displays, color, lighting, temperature, access, noise, assortment, prices, special events, etc., that serve as stimuli and attention attractors of consumers.
39 Atmospherics Functions of Atmospherics a. Atmospherics draw consumers’ attentionb. Establish a distinctive character for an organizationc. Attune an organization to a distinctive class of consumers
40 Atmospherics Process of Atmospheric management 1. Defining the desired market and effects: Amenities provide each environment a differentiating or positioning strategy that should be designed to attract and accommodate a target audience or consumer
41 Atmospherics 2. Developing an atmospheric theme a. The organization’s philosophy and missionb. Cultural features of the marketplacec. The calendar (anniversaries, holidays)d. Milestones that my include player or performance achievements or recordse. Elements within the sport business’s promotional campaignf. Other available resources such as celebrity appearance, sponsor agreements.
42 Atmospherics3. Specifying the elements of the physical setting that are to carry the intended cognitions and effectsa. Exterior structure: a venue’s façade communicates considerable information to the consumer.
43 Atmosphericsb. Special Displays: Point-of-purchase and point-of –displays consisting of eye-catching exhibits intended to lure the consumer to the product or merchandise.
44 Atmosphericsc. Interior Design Features: interior design features, such as color schemes, fixtures, lighting, and dress code, play an important role to attract consumers
45 Atmospherics4. Selecting specific sensory elements that convey the desired effectsa. Sound of Music: Sound effects are the most popular means of enhancing atmosphere in venues. A good selection of music acts as a way of exciting spectators and motivating a home team.
46 Atmospherics b. Integrating supporting cast members 5. Coordinating the Productiona. Developing a checklist and itinerary of all staged activitiesb. Drafting a script of all scoreboard and public address announcementsc. Employing an internal direct communication system