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19th CTA Brussels Rural Development Briefing - 16 June 2010

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1 19th CTA Brussels Rural Development Briefing - 16 June 2010
Youth and Rural Development Promoting Employment and Entrepreneurship for Rural Youth: The Case of the Farmer Field and Life Schools (JFFLS) Dr. Peter Wobst - Senior Economist Economic and Social Development Department

2 UN System-wide policy coherence
MDG target 1.B (2005): “Achieving full and productive employment and decent work for all including women and young people”. System-wide commitment Second UN Decade for the Eradication of Poverty ( ): “Full Employment and Decent Work for All” ECOSOC resolution 2008/18 “Promoting full employment and decent work for all” At the international policy level there is increasing recognition of the importance of the linkages between rural employment, poverty reduction and food security. The ECOSOC Resolution 2008/18 Promoting full employment and decent work for all reaffirmed the central importance of full and productive employment and decent work to poverty eradication and social integration. Decent work is now one of the indicators to measure progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), in particular MDG 1: Target 1B “Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people”, after the revision of the MDG monitoring framework undertook in 2007 to include four new targets agreed by member states at the 2005 World Summit. System-wide initiatives Plan of Action (2nd Poverty Decade) 2009 CEB Crisis Initiatives: Global Jobs Pact and Social Protection Floor Initiatives

3 FAO’s New Strategic Framework
FAO Global Goals: Reduction of hunger Elimination of poverty Sustainable management of natural resources Gender, Equity and Rural Employment Division (ESW) IIEE (2007) recommendation: “Refocus FAO’s work on value addition and employment for income generation and food access” FAO's mandate is to raise levels of nutrition, improve agricultural productivity, better the lives of rural populations and contribute to the growth of the world economy. The Gender, Equity and Rural Employment Division (ESW) supports FAO’s efforts to promote the economic and social well-being of the rural poor. In addition to coordinating FAO’s work on sustainable rural development and population issues, the Division assists FAO and its member governments in addressing gender, equity and rural employment issues. The Rural Employment Team leads and coordinate FAO’s work in promoting decent work in rural areas, with a focus on promoting fairer and more gender-equal rural employment and eliminating child labour G Markets, Livelihoods, Rural Development Rural Employment Team

4 Decent rural employment
Strategic Objective G Enabling environment for markets to improve livelihoods and rural development Organizational Result 2 Rural employment creation, access to land and income diversification are integrated into agricultural and rural development policies, programmes and partnerships Unit Result G0209 The enabling environment in support of decent rural employment is improved Sub-areas Principles Considerations Topics Outcomes Decent work Decent Work Agenda Employ creation Rights at work Social Protection Social Dialogue Gender Smallholder trans Enabling Environment Country-based strategic approach Equity Globalization More and better jobs Youth employment Institutions Climate change Economic & social empowerment Child labour prevention Land / NR Econ & fin crises Increased incomes and livelihoods Migration Others ... Food security & poverty reduction

5 Strategic country support approach
CEB Gobal Jobs Pact and Social Protection Floor Initiative Second UN Decade for the Eradication of Poverty ( ) CAADP process Other regional frameworks ILO Decent Work Country Programmes UNDAF Second United Nations Decade for the Eradication of Poverty ( ). The Theme is “Full Employment and Decent Work for All”. For 2010 – 2011 the Rural Employment Team is developing a strategic country support approach towards a better reflection of decent rural employment considerations in national policies and development plans. FAO focuses strongly on enhancing UN system-wide coherence to promote decent work for poverty reduction in rural areas, under the framework of the 2nd United Nations Decade for the Eradication of Poverty and the UN system-wide Plan of Action on Full Employment and Decent Work for All. To this end, the FAO-RES will guide the integration of decent rural employment considerations in UN country teams and inter-agency mechanisms, such as the CEB Joint Crisis Initiatives, in particular the Global Jobs Pact (GJP) and the Social Protection Floor (SPF) Initiative, but also through UNDAFs, UNJPs, the NEPAD/CAADP process, and the ILO Decent Work Country Programmes. FAO is preparing country profiles for selected developing countries on social and gender inequalities with a focus on income diversification and rural employment. The profiles will contribute to a better understanding of existing social and gender inequalities in rural settings and will serve as a policy support tool to adopt food security, rural development and rural employment policies in a social and gender equitable manner. In addition to the qualitative and quantitative information provided on income and employment inequalities, the profiles include inequalities on education and health, as both dimensions are closely linked to labour productivity and human capital development. Country support approach Country profiles Specific policy advice and technical assistance on rural employment (e.g. JFFLS via UNJPs)

6 Share of rural youth in total population
Map 1: Rural youth aged as % of total population of 186 countries Source: FAOSTAT and UNPD World Population Prospects, 2008 Revision. It shows the proportion of the population aged living in rural areas (i.e. rural youth) for most countries of the world. The world map of rural youth roughly corresponds with the sub-regional graphs presented above. However, it also becomes clear that within sub-regions, important differences are discernible. Although rural youth is a relatively small group in Latin America, for example, the proportions of rural youth in some individual countries like Paraguay, Guyana, Guatemala, Honduras and Haiti are similar to many African Countries. The countries with the highest proportion of rural youth can be found in the Horn of Africa, the Sahel and in Southern Asia. Other countries with relatively high percentages of rural youth among their population are Burkina Faso, Papua New Guinea and Tajikistan.

7 Country data snapshot (Malawi)
Share of youth living with less then 2 US$ per day % Typical Malawi youth Location Sex Age Literate Attending school Rural 87% Female 52% 19 Yes 63% No 40% Working youth population National / rural Female 23% (94.6% in agriculture) Male 19% (88.6 % in agriculture) Note: A person is considered poor if per capita total annual household expenditure divided by 365 falls below the poverty line. The “$2-a-day” poverty line—$2.17 per day in purchasing power parity (PPP) at 1993 prices—is defined as 2.17 times the product of the 1993 consumption PPP exchange rate and the ratio of the average consumer price index for the year of the survey to the average consumer price index for CPIs and PPP exchange rates were respectively taken from World Development Indicators 2007 and PovCalNet (World Bank). Only data for the working population are taken from the Country Profile (the others are WB): Based on WMS 2008 data, youth (comprising population aged between 15 and 24) represents 21 percent of the total working population (i.e., employed in the period of reference of the WMS survey). (19 % male and 23 % female). Shares are the same if we consider the rural working population (but the % by sector is calculated on rural). Most of working youth in rural areas are subsistence farmers: 83% of working rural males and 93% of working rural females

8 Youth employment, FS and poverty
Rural youth employment Reduced migration More skilled and productive youth Reduced child labour Empowerment Food production Income generation Food security Purchasing power - Nb. Less child labour means also higher adult/youth wages. - Rural employment – and especially agricultural work – is closely connected with FAO’s mandate and the three interrelated global goals that the Organization is specifically dedicated to helping Members achieve. Full and productive employment contributes to enhancing food security and consequently to poverty reduction, by increasing food availability (through production), food access (through income generation, increased purchasing power), and stability over time. Increased FS has a direct effect on poverty reduction, through enhanced Human Capital (nutrition and health status, education) and labour productivity. Hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition prevent poor people from escaping poverty because it diminishes their ability to learn, work, and care for themselves and their family members. (EC-FAO lesson on FS) Employment contributes to poverty reduction also through empowerment and increased bargaining power.ans also higher adult wages. In turn, poverty reduction/growth generate Greater opportunities for employment and skills development as well as for innovation in products and services. Acquisition of skills and bargaining power Better health Poverty reduction Social integration

9 Many challenges for rural youth
Lack of access to and control over productive resources (e.g. land and capital) Inadequate skills (e.g. production, processing and business skills) Generational gap (e.g. transfer of indigenous farming knowledge from adults to young) Labour market discriminations often result into higher unemployment rates for young girls Globalization (e.g. uncertainties, variability in prices) Few countries have included employment promotion strategies in their PRSPs

10 JFFLS: Creating jobs and engaging people
JUNIOR FARMER FIELD AND LIFE SCHOOLS Agriculture techniques COMBINED WITH life and business skills follows one year cycle crop cycle JFFLS graduates The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) launched the Junior Farmer Field and Life Schools (JFFLS) in The JFFLS programme, takes an innovative approach to empowering youth through self-esteem raising and life-business skills teaching. Using the agriculture growing calendar as a model for life, youth learn agricultural skills while developing corresponding life lessons like setting goals, importance of personal space for growth, and teamwork. The youth are encouraged to develop healthy and positive skills using cultural activities to keep local traditions alive. Providing a safe social space for boys and girls, the schools address gender sensitivity, child protection, psycho-social support, nutrition, education and business skills. By developing agricultural skills, youth learn the importance of sustainable farming practices and the environment. creation of Youth Farmers’ Associations

11 JFFLS training modules
Land preparation Planning in agriculture and in life Growing up healthy Agriculture diversity Protection (IPM and personal protection) How to face threats and loss Food processing and conservation Entrepreneurship – business skills Water for life Land and property rights Child labour prevention (FAO-ILO module) ————— Monitoring and Evaluation toolkit Land preparation (land preparation and soil leveling) Planning (planning in agriculture and planning in life) Growing up healthy (health, sanitation, hygiene, diseases) Diversity (agriculture diversity) Protection (IPM and personal protection) Threats and Loss (how to face them) Processing and conservation (food processing and conservation) Entrepreneurship – business skills (agri-business) Water for life (irrigation methods, water in agriculture and water for drinking) Land and property rights (land and property rights sensitization exercises for youths, parents, guardians and communities) Child labour prevention (sensitization exercises for youths, parents, guardians and communities) FAO-ILO module Monitoring and Evaluation toolkit

12 Innovative JFFLS curriculum
AGRICULTURAL SKILLS LIFE-BUSINESS SKILLS PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE (planning a cropping calendar) PLANNING IN LIFE (importance of setting goals) WATER MANAGEMENT (irrigation methods) WATER IN LIFE – HYGIENE – HEALTH (quality of water and nutrition) CHARATERISTICS OF SOIL CONDITION (methods of sowing and preparation) PERSONAL CHARATERISTICS AND DEVELOPMENT HOW TO PROTECT YOUR CROPS AND PROPERTY HOW TO PROTECT YOURSELF (child labour, rights and property rights) WHEN TO HARVEST AND WHAT TO DO WITH IT (demands from the market) AGRICULTURE AS A BUSINESS (business and marketing skills) ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS (sustainable and diversified agriculture) MAINTANANCE IN THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE PROPERTY

13 Institutionalization
Ministry of Youth Ministry of Education FAO Farmers’ Organizations Cooperatives & Rural Finance Institutions Institutional Support Capacity Building Youth Clubs - Schools Norms and Standards + + Vocational Training Centers Innovation Programmes = = Inclusion of agric. skills in MoYDS - MoE curriculum Creation of Youth Farmers’ Associations National ownership - Up-scaling to all MoYDS clubs and MoE schools & Farmers’ Cooperatives

14 Implementing countries
JFFLS mapping Burundi, Cameroon, DRC, West Bank and Gaza Strip, Ghana, Honduras, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Rwanda, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe Implementing countries The JFFLS have been implemented up to now in: Burundi, Cameroon, DRC, West Bank and Gaza Strip, Ghana, Honduras, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Rwanda, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, foreseen next Comoros, Haiti and Niger. More then 19,000 youths have graduated from the schools and approximately 2,000 facilitators have been trained in the fundamentals of the approach since 2004. Foreseen next Comoros, Haiti and Niger Youths trained 19,000 Facilitators trained 2,000

15 UN-wide system coherence: Delivering as ONE
National Government UNDP ILO UNICEF WFP FAO WHO UNAIDS UNIFEM National Government + UN Country Team (UNCT) United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) = National ownership Partnership Comparative advantage Maximum effectiveness and accountability UNCTs need to harness, in a strategic manner, the broad range of normative and analytical expertise, advocacy, operational and coordination capabilities available throughout the UN system, building on the participation of all UN agencies, resident and non-resident (UN Response to the Changing Aid Environment (2008). National ownership: The UNDAF, and the country analysis from which it emerges, needs to be based on and aligned with national development priorities and strategies. This requires government leadership and engagement of all relevant stakeholders, in all stages of the process, to maximize the contribution that the UN system can make, through the UNDAF, to the country development process. Partnership: The UNCT is required to partner with all relevant stakeholders; all levels of government, including line ministries; social partners; civil society, including indigenous peoples and minorities, forms of civic engagement, volunteerism; donors; international financial institutions (such as the World Bank and other regional IFIs) and other relevant development actors. Comparative advantage: While responding to national priorities and supporting the implementation of international norms and standards, the UNCT is required to assess its capacities to focus its efforts where it can best provide leadership and make the biggest difference, avoid duplication and establish synergies with ongoing interventions. Maximum effectiveness and accountability: UNCT performance needs to be measurable and accountabilities need to be clarified, so that the system can deliver effectively. UNJPs in Comoros, Nepal, Honduras, Tunisia, Mozambique, Gaza & West Bank, Sudan and Malawi

16 Contact: /
The way forward Undertake core activities under areas of gender equality and rural employment, youth employment promotion, child labour prevention and migration Seek financial support for developing and applying a strategic country support approach JFFLS as integral part of an inclusive FAO country approach on decent rural employment Expand country and regional coverage of JFFLS Enhance institutionalization of JFFLS Link rural youth employment work to UN country teams and inter-agency mechanisms: CEB Joint Crisis Initiatives: Global Jobs Pact and Social Protection Floor Initiative UNDAFs, UNJPs, NEPAD/CAADP, DWCPs Collaboration with ILO Continued UNJPs cooperation (UN-wide approach) Link to other development partners and policy areas Contact: /

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