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Promotion and Management of Marine Fisheries in Kenya Andrew W.Wamukota 1 & Nyawira Muthiga 2 1 Kenya Sea Turtle Conservation Committee, 2 Wildlife Conservation.

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Presentation on theme: "Promotion and Management of Marine Fisheries in Kenya Andrew W.Wamukota 1 & Nyawira Muthiga 2 1 Kenya Sea Turtle Conservation Committee, 2 Wildlife Conservation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Promotion and Management of Marine Fisheries in Kenya Andrew W.Wamukota 1 & Nyawira Muthiga 2 1 Kenya Sea Turtle Conservation Committee, 2 Wildlife Conservation Society

2 Introduction Kenyas fisheries comprises freshwater and the marine sub-sector.Kenyas fisheries comprises freshwater and the marine sub-sector. Contribution to the countrys economy - employment creation, income generation and foreign exchange earningsContribution to the countrys economy - employment creation, income generation and foreign exchange earnings auxiliary industries such as net making, packaging material industries and boat building among others.auxiliary industries such as net making, packaging material industries and boat building among others.

3 Map showing the Kenyan Coast province

4 Importance of the sector Contribute to Kenyas GDP.Contribute to Kenyas GDP. Between 1971 and 1981, it accounted for an average 0.2% of GDP and in 1989/90 2%Between 1971 and 1981, it accounted for an average 0.2% of GDP and in 1989/90 2% In 2004 it accounted for 5% of the GDP.In 2004 it accounted for 5% of the GDP. The country earns about Kshs. 4 billion (approx. US$ 50 million) in foreign exchange and the fishers over Kshs. 7 billion.The country earns about Kshs. 4 billion (approx. US$ 50 million) in foreign exchange and the fishers over Kshs. 7 billion.

5 Total fish production and value in Kenya – 2002 (Source: Gitonga and Achoki, 2003)

6 Marine Fisheries Characteristics ArtisanalArtisanal Carried out in near shore areasCarried out in near shore areas Mainly during NEM when conditions are favorableMainly during NEM when conditions are favorable Demarsals - parrot fish and rabbit fishDemarsals - parrot fish and rabbit fish Pelagics - King fish, Jacks and TunaPelagics - King fish, Jacks and Tuna Sharks, rays and crustaceansSharks, rays and crustaceans

7 Challenges Overexploitation and declineOverexploitation and decline High levels of sea urchins indicating a depletion of sea urchin predators; the orange striped triggerfish and the tripletail wrasseHigh levels of sea urchins indicating a depletion of sea urchin predators; the orange striped triggerfish and the tripletail wrasse Unfriendly gear e.g. high usage of beach seines and spear guns, dynamite, driftnet and trawlers in N. CoastUnfriendly gear e.g. high usage of beach seines and spear guns, dynamite, driftnet and trawlers in N. Coast

8 Overview of multiple demands From fishing, agriculture, tourism, shipping & ports, marine dredging, offshore oil exploration, curio trade, mining and fossil coral extractionFrom fishing, agriculture, tourism, shipping & ports, marine dredging, offshore oil exploration, curio trade, mining and fossil coral extraction Decline in fish landing attributed to increased fisherfolk, destructive fishing methods and habitat (coral and mangrove) destruction.Decline in fish landing attributed to increased fisherfolk, destructive fishing methods and habitat (coral and mangrove) destruction. The most important issues are declining fishery production, habitat destruction, resource use conflicts and decline in biodiversityThe most important issues are declining fishery production, habitat destruction, resource use conflicts and decline in biodiversity

9 Perceptions & non perceptions Decline in marine fishery generally attributed to overfishingDecline in marine fishery generally attributed to overfishing Population increase and use of destructive fishing gear blamed for decline in fish landingsPopulation increase and use of destructive fishing gear blamed for decline in fish landings Traditional non fisher tribes joining fisheryTraditional non fisher tribes joining fishery Upsurge of destructive fishing practicesUpsurge of destructive fishing practices Upsurge of migrant fishersUpsurge of migrant fishers Traditional leaders not seen to discourage destructive gearsTraditional leaders not seen to discourage destructive gears

10 Perceptions cont. Low degree of awareness (land-based, political and economic activities)Low degree of awareness (land-based, political and economic activities)Instead Some fishermen attribute a reduction in marine fish to fish moving to other locations, hiding, altering their behavior or dogma.Some fishermen attribute a reduction in marine fish to fish moving to other locations, hiding, altering their behavior or dogma.

11 Suggested management initiatives General encouragement of responsible fishing practices and co-management structures;General encouragement of responsible fishing practices and co-management structures; Curtailment of destructive fishing methods;Curtailment of destructive fishing methods; Further development of MPAsFurther development of MPAs Resolution of conflicts arising from the migrant fishermenResolution of conflicts arising from the migrant fishermen

12 Case study of Diani-Chale area Estimated area of 25 km 2Estimated area of 25 km 2 Economic activities revolve on fishing, agriculture and tourismEconomic activities revolve on fishing, agriculture and tourism Fishing occurs inside reef thus pressure on overexploited lagoonFishing occurs inside reef thus pressure on overexploited lagoon Fish caught include lethrinids, rabbit fish and parrot fish; sea cucumbers, crabs, lobsters, squids and octopusFish caught include lethrinids, rabbit fish and parrot fish; sea cucumbers, crabs, lobsters, squids and octopus Sport fishing is popularSport fishing is popular The catch is sometimes difficult to quantifyThe catch is sometimes difficult to quantify Out of the five gears used, spear gun and beach seines get 80 % of the total catchOut of the five gears used, spear gun and beach seines get 80 % of the total catch Fisheries promotion regimes

13 Data collected over 10 years by FiD indicates a steady decrease in catch between 1991 and 1999Data collected over 10 years by FiD indicates a steady decrease in catch between 1991 and 1999 Catch decline (approx kg at the most productive site and season) attributed to the increased no. of fishers and the introduction of destructive gear especially small meshed beach seines.Catch decline (approx kg at the most productive site and season) attributed to the increased no. of fishers and the introduction of destructive gear especially small meshed beach seines. Local fishermen estimate a 90% drop in catch since the introduction of beach seinesLocal fishermen estimate a 90% drop in catch since the introduction of beach seines

14 Conflicts reported due to lack of appropriate subsidy and non-existing access to credit following the collapse of fisher cooperative societies. The only subsidy currently provided to fishermen is the importation of fishing gear duty free. There are no development banks or micro finance schemes accessible to fishers Increasingly, fishers have set up groups, associations or committees that are taking over the role of societies (10)

15 Management- Diani/Chale case study Many traditions are viewed as forms of marine conservation.Many traditions are viewed as forms of marine conservation. Many of these traditions decayedMany of these traditions decayed Inadequate capacity by FiD to enforce legislation has shifted management focus towards resource users.Inadequate capacity by FiD to enforce legislation has shifted management focus towards resource users. A draft Fisheries Policy (2005) awaiting Cabinet approval: create vibrant fishing, alleviating poverty, and creating wealth, fisheries management and developmentA draft Fisheries Policy (2005) awaiting Cabinet approval: create vibrant fishing, alleviating poverty, and creating wealth, fisheries management and development

16 Draft fisheries policy 2005 Encourages community participation through incorporated Beach Management Units (BMUs)Encourages community participation through incorporated Beach Management Units (BMUs) Promotes the use of IKS along side scientificPromotes the use of IKS along side scientific Involves other stakeholders in promotion of fisheries managementInvolves other stakeholders in promotion of fisheries management BMUs to be involved in implementation of legislation with regard to destructive and banned gear.BMUs to be involved in implementation of legislation with regard to destructive and banned gear.

17 A more formal role for BMUs through clarification of fishing ground tenure, access rights, support for the development and enforcement of local fishing rulesA more formal role for BMUs through clarification of fishing ground tenure, access rights, support for the development and enforcement of local fishing rulesHowever The socioeconomic condition of fishers, their fear of losing landing sites, and pose barriers to initiatives seeking to promote local level management.The socioeconomic condition of fishers, their fear of losing landing sites, and pose barriers to initiatives seeking to promote local level management.

18 Realization of reforms Policy provides for better coordination between fisheries management and researchPolicy provides for better coordination between fisheries management and research KMFRI and Fisheries to promote and coordinate co-management research activities for sustainable utilization of fisheries resources.KMFRI and Fisheries to promote and coordinate co-management research activities for sustainable utilization of fisheries resources. An important departure is the proposal for the Fisheries Department to establish an armed unit An important departure is the proposal for the Fisheries Department to establish an armed unit

19 Policy reform agenda The Kenyan governments Economic Recovery Strategy Paper ( )The Kenyan governments Economic Recovery Strategy Paper ( ) Develop infrastructureDevelop infrastructure Promote aquaculture to improve food security, and incomes.Promote aquaculture to improve food security, and incomes. Promote closer regional co-operation in the management and regulation of the trans-boundary fisheries resources Promote closer regional co-operation in the management and regulation of the trans-boundary fisheries resources Encourage growth of micro-finance institutions to provide credit to the sub sector.Encourage growth of micro-finance institutions to provide credit to the sub sector. The need for the realization of these reforms still persists as their implementation requires financeThe need for the realization of these reforms still persists as their implementation requires finance

20 Exclusive Economic Zone Fisheries Management The ocean bordering the East Coast of Africa is largely unregulated. Although Kenya has declared 200-mile Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs), lack the institutional and financial capability to exercise her jurisdiction.The ocean bordering the East Coast of Africa is largely unregulated. Although Kenya has declared 200-mile Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs), lack the institutional and financial capability to exercise her jurisdiction. The more lucrative and much larger offshore fisheries are harvested mostly by distant-water fishing fleets from Europe and East AsiaThe more lucrative and much larger offshore fisheries are harvested mostly by distant-water fishing fleets from Europe and East Asia

21 Main species sought: tunas including skipjack, yellowfin and bigeye tuna.Main species sought: tunas including skipjack, yellowfin and bigeye tuna. Up to 38 foreign fishing vessels have been licensed to fish in the Kenya EEZ. Up to 38 foreign fishing vessels have been licensed to fish in the Kenya EEZ. No research has been done on fisheries resources in the deeper waters of the Kenyan zone to establish species composition, distribution, behavior, and migration. No research has been done on fisheries resources in the deeper waters of the Kenyan zone to establish species composition, distribution, behavior, and migration. A FAO publication put the potential catch at around 3,125 metric tones per yearA FAO publication put the potential catch at around 3,125 metric tones per year

22 There is lack of effective Monitoring Control and Surveillance System.There is lack of effective Monitoring Control and Surveillance System. Access arrangements are poorly organized and so distant-water operators do little in the way of reporting catchesAccess arrangements are poorly organized and so distant-water operators do little in the way of reporting catchesRecommendation Fitting VMS in each vessel, acquiring monitoring and surveillance capacity and resources and joining the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission have been proposed.

23 Asanteni sana


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