2Marketing mixThe marketing mix is the combination of variables that a business uses to carry out its marketing strategy and meet customer needs.The marketing mix is often called the 4Ps:ProductPricePlacePromotion
3Product‘Product’ refers to the functions and features of a good or serviceShould satisfy the needs of the customerMay have a Unique Selling Proposition (USP)‘Product’ also includes a range of factors such as packaging, quality, warranties, after-sales service and branding
4Product lifecycleThe product lifecycle looks at the sales of a product over time
5Stages of product lifecycle Development – high costs but no sales Launch – high expenditure on promotion and product development, low sales Growth – sales increase and product should break-even Maturity – sales stabilise, less expenditure on promotion needed, revenue & profit should be high Decline – sales decline, extension strategies can be adopted or the product withdrawn
6Extension strategiesExtension strategies should maintain or increase sales. They include:Modifying the productReducing the priceAdding a featurePromoting to adifferent marketsector
7Price The price of a product will depend on: The cost to make it The amount of profit desiredOther objectives of the businessThe price competitors chargeThe price customers are willing to payIs there a high demand?Is demand sensitive to changes in price?
8Price leaders and takers Price leader – businesses that dominate the market can often dictate the price charged for a product. Other businesses follow this lead. Price taker – businesses have to charge the market price. This is often the case where there are many small firms competing against each other.
9Pricing strategies & tactics SkimmingLaunching with a high price when there is little competition, then reducing the price later. Often used with technology.PenetrationLow price charged initially to penetrate the market and build brand loyalty; prrice is then increased e.g. introductory offers on magazines.CompetitiveA similar price is charged to that of competitors’ products.Loss leaderProducts may be sold at a price lower than the cost to produce it. Often used by supermarkets to encourage people into the store where it is hoped they will buy other products.PsychologicalA price is set which customers perceive as lower than it is e.g. £39.99 instead of £40.Skimming -PenetrationCompetitiveLoss leaderPsychologicalPrice leadersPrice takers
10Place Products should be conveniently available for customers to buy ‘Places’ include:StoresMail orderTelesalesInternetThe use ofe-commerce (promoting and selling on the internet) has grown massively over the last few years
11Channels of distribution ManufacturersWholesalerRetailerConsumerWholesaler – buys in bulk from suppliers/manufacturers and then breaks this up to sell into smaller quantities to retailersRetailer – a shop which sells products to the consumer. May be a customer of a wholesaler or manufacturer.Consumer – uses the goods/servicesDirect selling occurs when the consumer buys direcly from the manufacturer. The internet and factory shops allow this to happen.
12Promotion The aims of promotion are to: Raise awareness Encourage salesCreate or change a brand imageMaintain market share
13PromotionAbove-the-line promotion This uses advertising media over which a firm has no direct control e.g. television, radio and newspapers Below-the-line promotion This uses promotional media which the firm can control e.g. direct mail, sales promotions and sponsorship
14Promotional activities Advertising e.g. TV, billboards and internet.Sales promotions e.g. Loyalty cards, BOGOF, discounts & free giftsSponsorship – a business pays to be associated with another firm, event or causeDirect mailing – promotional material is sent to potential customers by post/Public relations – building the relationship between the firm and the public by enhancing its reputation
15Promotional mixMost businesses use a combination of different promotional activities.The chosen promotional mix will depend on:CostTarget marketProductCompetitors
16How the marketing mix evolves over time The marketing mix will evolve over time. For example:The product portfolio may grow as a business becomes more establishedMore expensive promotional activities may be adopted as a firm’s revenue increasesMore outlets may be opened, or products sold via the internetPrice may increase as demand grows
18Product range at McCain McCain Food’s product range includes frozen vegetables, ready meals and desserts; McCain is also the world’s leading manufacturer of frozen potato products such as Oven Chips. What factors have driven changes in the product range? Use the McCain Food’s case study to help youFactors affecting the product range include:Changing lifestyles – microwaveable snacks are handy for consumers who do not want to take long preparing foodIncreasing demand for healthy diets – only sunflower oil is used in the preparation of McCain chips
19Pricing at McCain Foods McCain uses a range of pricing strategies associated with adding value for money. One of the factors it must consider is how much the consumer will be prepared to pay. Why do you think consumers will pay more for Oven Chips than it would cost them to buy the potatoes and oil to prepare chips themselves?Convenience – consumers may pay extra for the ease and speed of using Oven Chips instead of preparing them, themselvesHealth – Oven Chips may be considered as a healthier optionQuality – the McCain brand indicated that the product will be of a high quality
20McCain distribution channels McCain sells its products to both wholesalers and retailers. Draw these distribution channels. How does McCain reduce the environmental impact of transporting its products? Use the case study to helpThe environmental impact is reduced by:Using local farmers when possible to reduce food milesUsing double-decker trucks to save lorry journeysHaving built-in solar panels in the lorries to provide power needed for internal lifting mechanisms
21Promotion of McCain products Are the following promotional methods used by McCain above-the-line or below- the-line?TV advertisementsDiscount vouchersAdvertisements on supermarket trolleysnewsletterLeaflet dropsTV adverts – aboveDiscount vouchers – belowTrolley adverts – abovenewsletter – belowLeaflet drops - below
22Useful resourcesMarketing mix lesson suggestions and activities (The Times 100)McCain case study (The Times 100)McCain website