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Chapter 11 Advertising and Promotion

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1 Chapter 11 Advertising and Promotion

2 Learning Objectives Name the four basic components of the retailer’s promotional mix and discuss their relationship with other decisions. Describe the differences between a retailer’s long-term and short-term promotional objectives.

3 Learning Objectives List the six steps involved in developing a retailer’s advertising campaign. Explain how retailers manage their sales promotion and publicity.

4 The Retail Promotion Mix
Promotion - A means that retailers use to bring traffic into their stores, and it includes advertising, sales promotion, publicity, and personal selling. LO 1

5 Types of Promotion Advertising
Paid, nonpersonal communication through various media by business firms, nonprofit organizations, and individuals who are in some way identified in the advertising message and who hope to inform or persuade members of a particular audience; includes communication of products, services, institutions, and ideas. Sales promotion Involves the use of media and nonmedia marketing pressure applied for a predetermined, limited period of time at the level of consumer, retailer, or wholesaler in order to stimulate trial, increase consumer demand, or improve product availability. Publicity Non-paid-for communications of information about the company or product, generally in some media form. Personal selling Face-to-face interaction with the consumer with the goal of selling the consumer merchandise or services. LO 1

6 Types of Promotion Promotion decisions relate to and must be integrated with management decisions such as: Location Merchandise Credit Cash flow Building and fixtures Price Customer service LO 1

7 Types of Promotion Primary trading area - Geographic area where the retailer can serve customers in terms of convenience and accessibility better than the competition. Secondary trading area - Geographic area where the retailer can still be competitive despite a competitor having some locational advantage. LO 1

8 Types of Promotion Basic promotional guidelines:
Try to utilize only promotions that are consistent with and will enhance your store image. Review the success or failure of each promotion to help in developing better future promotions. Wherever possible, test new promotions before making a major investment by using them on a broader scale. LO 1

9 Types of Promotion Basic promotional guidelines:
Use appeals that are of interest to your target market and that are realistic to obtain. Make sure your objectives are measurable and obtainable. Develop total promotional campaigns, not just ads. LO 1

10 Types of Promotion Basic promotional guidelines:
The lower the rent, the higher the promotional expenses generally needed. New stores need higher promotional budgets than established stores. Stores in out-of-the-way locations require higher promotional budgets than stores with heavy traffic. LO 1

11 Promotion in the Supply Chain
Three major differences in the way retailers and manufacturers use promotion: Product image versus availability Specific product benefits versus price Focused image versus cluttered ads LO 1

12 Promotional Objectives
Long-term objectives Institutional advertising - Retailer attempts to gain long term benefits by promoting and selling the store itself rather than the merchandise in the store. Short-term objectives Promotional advertising - Retailer attempts to increase short-term performance by using product availability or price as a selling point. LO 2

13 Exhibit 11.1 - Possible Promotion Objectives in Retailing
LO 2

14 Steps in Planning a Retail Advertising Campaign
Selecting advertising objectives Budgeting for the campaign Designing the message Selecting the media to use Scheduling of ads Evaluating the results LO 3

15 Selecting Advertising Objectives
Factors to be considered before choosing the objectives: Age of the store Its location Merchandise lines being sold Its competition The size of its trading area What support is available from suppliers LO 3

16 Selecting Advertising Objectives
The specific objectives that advertising can accomplish are many and varied; some common objectives include Make consumers in your trading area aware that you offer the lowest prices. Make newcomers to your trading area aware of your existence. Make customers aware of your large stock selection. Inform customers of your product offering. LO 3

17 Selecting Advertising Objectives
Increase store traffic at the beginning of an important holiday shopping season. Increase traffic during slow sales periods. Move old merchandise at the end of a selling season. Strengthen your store’s image or reputation. Make consumers think of you first when a need for your products occurs, especially if your products are not commonly purchased. Retain your current customers. LO 3

18 Budgeting for the Campaign
Retailer-only campaigns Affordable method - All the money a retailer can afford to spend on advertising in a given time period becomes the advertising budget. Advertising does not stimulate sales or profits but rather is supported by sales and profits. LO 3

19 Budgeting for the Campaign
Retailer-only campaigns Percentage-of-sales method - The retailer targets a specific percentage of forecasted sales as the advertising budget. The amount of sales becomes the factor that influences the advertising outlay. It gives more money to departments that are already successful and fails to give money to departments that could be successful with a little extra money. LO 3

20 Budgeting for the Campaign
Retailer-only campaigns Task-and-objective method - The retailer establishes its advertising objectives and then determines the advertising tasks that need to be performed to achieve those objectives. LO 3

21 Budgeting for the Campaign
Co-op campaigns Vertical cooperative advertising - The retailer and other channel members share the advertising budget. Usually the manufacturer subsidizes some of the retailer’s advertising that features the manufacturer’s brands. Horizontal cooperative advertising - Two or more retailers band together to share the cost of advertising usually in the form of a joint promotion of an event or sale that would benefit both parties. LO 3

22 Designing the Message Retail ads must accomplish three goals:
Attract attention and retain attention. Achieve the objective of the advertising strategy. Avoid errors, especially legal ones. LO 3

23 Designing the Message Common approaches that retailers use to gain repeated viewing use the following genres: Lifestyle Fantasy Humorous Slice of life Mood or image LO 3

24 Media Alternatives Media Type Advantages Disadvantages
Newspaper Advertising Most newspapers are local. Requires a low level of technical skill. Short interval between the time copy is written and when the ad appears. Exposure to an issue of a newspaper does not mean the consumer read or even saw the retailer’s ad. The life of any single issue of a newspaper is short. Typical person spends relatively little time with each issue. Poor reproduction quality. LO 3

25 Media Alternatives Media Type Advantages Disadvantages
Local and Cable Television Advertising Is a means of reaching the elusive fullprice shopper. Is a great image builder. Can be a powerful tool for generating higher sales. Is expensive, and may use up the total ad budget of a local retailer. Competition is high for the viewer’s attention. Radio advertising It can target messages to select groups. Offers a lot of flexibility. Radio commercials, especially the uncreative ones, are not saved or referred to again like print media ads. Lack of innovation; is nonvisual. LO 3

26 Media Alternatives Media Type Advantages Disadvantages
Magazine Advertising Has a better reproduction quality and a longer life span per issue. The long lead time required prevents advertising with price appeals or any urgency in its messages. Direct Mail The retailer can precisely target its message to a particular group. Can generally be easily measured, thus providing important feedback. Is relatively expensive per contact or message delivered. The ability to reach the target market depends totally on the quality of the mailing list. High exposure to spam mails. LO 3

27 Media Alternatives Internet Miscellaneous media
Provide information on demand to customers. Provides a platform for a retailer to employ a relatively low-cost, integrated marketing-communications mix. Miscellaneous media Yellow pages, outdoor advertising, transit advertising, electronic information terminals, and shopping guides. LO 3

28 Media Selection Coverage
The theoretical maximum number of consumers in the retailer’s target market that can be reached by a medium and not the number actually reached. Reach Actual total number of target customers who come into contact with an advertising message. Cumulative reach Reach that is achieved over a period of time. Frequency The average number of times each person who is reached is exposed to an advertisement during a given time period. Cost per thousand method (CPM) A technique used to evaluate advertisements in different media based on cost. The cost per thousand is the cost of the advertisement divided by the number of people viewing it, which is then multiplied by 1,000. LO 3

29 Media Selection Cost per thousand— target market (CPM-TM)
Technique used to evaluate advertisements in different media based on cost. The cost per thousand per target market is the cost of the advertisement divided by the number of people in the target market viewing it, which is then multiplied by 1,000. Impact How strong an impression an advertisement makes and how well it ultimately leads to a purchase. LO 3

30 Scheduling of Advertising
Ads should appear on or right before the days when customers are most likely to purchase. Advertising should be concentrated around the times when people receive their payroll checks. If the retailer has limited advertising funds, then it should concentrate its advertising during periods of highest demand. LO 3

31 Scheduling of Advertising
The retailer should time its ads to appear during the time of day or day of week when the best CPM-TM will be obtained. The higher the degree of habitual purchasing of a product class, the more the advertising should precede the purchase time. LO 3

32 Evaluating the Results
Advertising effectiveness - Extent to which the advertising has produced the result desired. Advertising efficiency - Whether the advertising result was achieved with the minimum financial expenditure. The effectiveness or efficiency of advertising can be assessed on a subjective basis. LO 3

33 Evaluating the Results
Most ineffective advertising is due to: Messages or sales getting discounted. Advertising not appealing, not giving customers all the information they need, or not directed at the proper target market. Advertising dollars spread too thinly. Poor internal communications. Retailer not considering all media options. Too many last-minute changes in the advertising copy. LO 3

34 Management of Sales Promotions and Publicity
Role of sales promotion Type of sales promotion Evaluating sales promotions Publicity management LO 4

35 Exhibit 11.5 - Types of Sales Promotion
LO 4

36 Types of Sales Promotion
Premiums Extra items offered to the customer when purchasing promoted products. Contests and sweepstakes Customers have a chance of winning a special prize based on entering a contest in which the entrant competes with others, or a sweepstakes in which all entrants have an equal chance of winning a prize. Loyalty programs Form of sales promotion program in which buyers are rewarded with special rewards, which other shoppers are not offered, for purchasing often from the retailer. Coupons Sales promotion tool in which the shopper is offered a price discount on a specific item if the retailer is presented with the appropriate coupon at time of purchase. LO 4

37 Types of Sales Promotion
In-store displays Promotional fixtures of displays that seek to generate traffic, highlight individual items, and encourage impulse buying. Register racks Racks placed near the checkout to encourage impluse buying. Endcaps Display of products placed at the end of an aisle in a store. Demonstrations and sampling In-store presentations with the intent of reducing the consumer’s perceived risk of purchasing a product. LO 4

38 Exhibit 11.6 - What Sales Promotion Can and Cannot Achieve
LO 4

39 Publicity Management When publicity is formally managed, it should be integrated with other elements of the promotion mix. The major advantage of publicity is that it is objective and credible and appeals to a mass audience. LO 4

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