Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Source, Message and Channel Factors. The Persuasion Matrix."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 6 Source, Message and Channel Factors
The Persuasion Matrix
Who will be effective in getting consumers attention? Source/ attention Source/ attention 4 Receiver/ Comprehension Receiver/ Comprehension Can the receiver comprehend the ad? 1 Which media will increase presentation? Channel/ presentation Channel/ presentation 2 What type of message will create favorable attitudes? Message/ yielding Message/ yielding 3 Receiver/ Comprehension Receiver/ Comprehension Channel/ presentation Channel/ presentation Message/ yielding Message/ yielding Promotional Planning Elements Promotional Planning
Power Attractiveness Credibility Compliance Identification Internalization Power Compliance Attractiveness Identification Source Attributes and Receiver Processing Modes Source Attribute Process
Limitations of credible sources high-credibility source may be less effective than a moderate- or low-credibility source such as when the receiver has a favorable initial attitude or opinion. In this situation the use of a highly credible source may lead the receiver to attribute his or her opinion to the source rather than the message being communicated. Sleeper effect phenomenon – What is it?
Experts Lend Authority to an Appeal +
Endorsement by Both a Celebrity and an Expert +
A Business Owner May Be His Own Spokesperson
A spokesperson who delivers an advertising message and/or demonstrates a product or service is a direct source
Source Attractiveness Resemblance between the source and recipient of the message Similarity Knowledge of the source through repeated or prolonged exposure Familiarity Affection for the source resulting from physical appearance, behavior, or other personal traits Likeability Similarity Familiarity
Attractive Models Are Often Used in Cosmetic Ads +
Popular Celebrities Help Attract Attention to Commercials +
Discussion Question Effective spokespeople? What makes an effective spokesperson? When should they NOT be used?
The celebritys behavior may pose a risk to the company The target audience may not be receptive to celebrity endorsers The celebrity may be overexposed, reducing his or her credibility The celebrity may overshadow the product being endorsed The target audience may not be receptive to celebrity endorsers The celebrity may be overexposed, reducing his or her credibility The celebrity may overshadow the product being endorsed Risks of Using Celebrities
Consumers who are particularly knowledgeable about a product are less likely to be influenced by celebrity endorsements than consumers who have little or no product knowledge
Brand Name, Celebrity, and Location Are All Closely Linked in Meaning and Mood
Recall and Presentation Order Recall BeginningMiddleEnd
Message Sidedness One sided vs two sided messages Advertisers are concerned over the negative effects of acknowledging a weakness in their brand Refutation
Appeal mostly to the logical, rational minds of consumers Message Appeal Choices Appeal to both the logical, rational minds of consumers and to their feelings and emotions Appeal mostly to the feelings and emotions of consumers
Fear Appeals Fear Appeals Comparative Ads Comparative Ads Fear Appeals Fear Appeals Comparative Ads Comparative Ads Message Appeal Options Humor Appeals Humor Appeals May stress physical danger or threats to health May identify social threats: disapproval or rejection May backfire if the level of threat is too high May stress physical danger or threats to health May identify social threats: disapproval or rejection May backfire if the level of threat is too high May be especially useful for new brands Often used for brands with small market share Frequently use in political advertising May be especially useful for new brands Often used for brands with small market share Frequently use in political advertising They can attract and hold attention They are often the best remembered They put the consumer in a positive mood They can attract and hold attention They are often the best remembered They put the consumer in a positive mood
A Very Direct, Side-By-Side Comparative Ad +
Threat Plus Solution Gently Persuades +
Fear Appeals and Message Acceptance
No Fear Ads Creates a Unique Brand Image
Clever Execution of Humor in a Print Ad
Pros and Cons of Using Humor Does Not Aid Persuasion in General Aids Attention and Awareness Pros Cons May Harm Recall and Comprehension May Harm Complex Copy Registration Does Not Aid Source Credibility Is Not Effective in Bringing About Sales May Wear Out Faster Than Non-humorous Ads May Aid Retention of the Message Creates a Positive Mood and Enhances Persuasion May Aid Name and Simple Copy Registration May Serve As a Distracter, Reducing Counterarguing Does Not Aid Persuasion in General Aids Attention and Awareness May Harm Recall and Comprehension May Harm Complex Copy Registration Does Not Aid Source Credibility Is Not Effective in Bringing About Sales May Aid Retention of the Message Creates a Positive Mood and Enhances Persuasion May Aid Name and Simple Copy Registration May Serve As a Distracter, Reducing Counterarguing
Humorous messages may be effective because they enhance attention and may reduce counter-arguing.
The Brand Name, Itself, Becomes Part of the Humor
Humorous messages may be effective because they enhance ________ and may reduce ___________.
Humorous ads Bird Help Bump ET Biker Trunk monkey Fear ads Dial Dial
Creative Directors Opinions Regarding Use of Humor Audiences Favorable Audiences Unfavorable Younger Older Well educated Up-scale Males Professional Less educated Down-scale Females Semi- or Unskilled
Self-Paced Media Self-Paced Media Self-Paced Media Self-Paced Media Self versus External Paced Media Newspapers Magazines Direct Mail Internet Newspapers Magazines Direct Mail Internet Radio Television Radio Television Externally Paced Media Externally Paced Media Vs.Vs.
The Image of a Magazine Can Enhance an Ad +
Persuasive Appeals Demonstration Show audience how product works Infomercials Fitness gear TestimonialTestimonial Client speaks of product benefitsClient speaks of product benefits Jared of SubwayJared of Subway
Persuasive Appeals Celebrity Endorsement Tie product image to famous person MJ & Jackie Chan for Hanes UrgencyUrgency Need to respond/act quicklyNeed to respond/act quickly Sale Ends Saturday!Sale Ends Saturday! 2-days only!2-days only! Disney DVDs will not be available for 10 years!Disney DVDs will not be available for 10 years!
Persuasive Appeals Shock! Anti-drug/Anti-smoking SexSex Associate product with sexual satisfaction / conquestAssociate product with sexual satisfaction / conquest Calvin Klein, Cosmo, MaximCalvin Klein, Cosmo, Maxim
Persuasive Appeals Before / After Demonstrate specific results of using product Grecian formula, weight loss ImageImage Associate product with some image, style, attitude… coolnessAssociate product with some image, style, attitude… coolness Product benefits, attributes are secondary to the imageProduct benefits, attributes are secondary to the image Cadillac, NikeCadillac, Nike
Chapter 8 Creative Strategy: Planning and Development
Today Focus on the planning and development of the creative strategy. Examine the concept of creativity and the process that guides the creation of the advertising campaign copy platforms that are used to guide the development of advertising campaigns. major selling ideas that form the basis of an advertising campaign.
Creativity Before you worry about how to say it, you must be sure you say the right thing Creative advertising can break through the clutter and make an impression on buyers
Thomas Edison is often credited with saying that "Creativity is 1 % inspiration and 99 % per spiration." That 99 % (percent), or the innovation, involves testing, evaluating, and retesting what the inspiration found.
Determining what the advertising message will say or communicate Advertising Creativity Creative Strategy Creative Strategy Creative Tactics Creative Tactics Determining how the message strategy will be executed
Creativity It is not about the awards communicates the message clearly and leaves favorable impressions among the target audience Not all advertising campaigns that have won creative awards have successfully generated sales for the clients' products Creativity is important when companies are selling brands that are very similar in quality and difficult to differentiate on functional features
Let Prospects Vividly Experience the Goods Allow You to Brand the Advertising Revolve Around the Clinching Benefit Be Likely to Attract the Prospects Attention Be Describable in a Simple Word or Phrase Allow You to Brand the Advertising Revolve Around the Clinching Benefit Be Likely to Attract the Prospects Attention Be Describable in a Simple Word or Phrase The Ideal Power Idea Should...
Two Perspectives on Advertising Creativity The ability to generate fresh, unique and appropriate ideas that can be used as solutions to communication problems. Suits Its not creative unless it sells Artists Only artistic value and originality count
Absoluts Advertising Represents Synergy Between Creative and Media +
Getting Raw Material, Data, Immersing One's Self in the Problem to Get the Background. Immersion Ruminating on the Data Acquired, Turning It This Way and That in the Mind. Digestion Ceasing Analysis and Putting the Problem Out of Conscious Mind for a Time. Incubation A Sudden Inspiration or Intuitive Revelation About a Potential Solution. Illumination Studying the Idea, Evaluating It, and Developing It for Practical Usefulness. Verification Getting Raw Material, Data, Immersing One's Self in the Problem to Get the Background. Immersion Ruminating on the Data Acquired, Turning It This Way and That in the Mind. Digestion Ceasing Analysis and Putting the Problem Out of Conscious Mind for a Time. Incubation A Sudden Inspiration or Intuitive Revelation About a Potential Solution. Illumination Young's Creative Process
Read anything related to the product or market! Listen to what people are talking about! Use the product to become familiar with it! Ask everyone involved for information! Work in and learn about the clients business! Ask everyone involved for information! Listen to what people are talking about! Use the product to become familiar with it! Read anything related to the product or market! Getting Creative Input
1. Background research informal fact-finding techniques and general preplanning input. 2. Product/service specific research this involves different types of studies such as attitude, market structure and positioning, perceptual mapping and psychographic studies. 3. Qualitative research input techniques such as in-depth interview or focus groups with customers or ethnographic studies. Getting Creative Input
BMWs Slogan Has Helped Build Its Brand Image +
This ad campaign was based on psychographic research Who is she sleeping with? WESTIN Choose your travel partner wisely
The 10 greatest ad slogans of all time 1. De BeersDiamonds are forever 2. NikeJust do it! 3. Coca ColaThe pause that refreshes 4. Miller LiteTastes great, less filling 5. AvisWe try harder 6. Maxwell HouseGood to the last drop 7. WheatiesBreakfast of champions 8. ClairolDoes she... or doesnt she? 9. Morton SaltWhen it rains it pours 10. WendysWheres the beef? Company or Brand Campaign Theme
A few Turkish examples 1. ABCFarki Fiyati 2. ArkoHer eve lazim 3. ArtemaAc kapa Artema 4. BekoBir dunya markasi 5. Luna Yoksa siz hala annenizin margarinini mi kullanıyorsunuz? 6. SoloHem yumusak, hem hesapli 7. TamekTamekse koy sepete 8. TefalSen herseyi dusunursun 9. Ulker tac kraker Atistirin acliginizi yatistirin 10. VernelVernelleyin yumusacik olsun Vernelleyin mis gibi koksun Company or Brand Campaign Theme
Positioning the Brand Use a Unique Selling Position Use a Unique Selling Position Create the Brand Image Positioning Find the Inherent Drama Create a Brand Image Use a Unique Selling Position Use a Unique Selling Position Major Selling Ideas Seeking the Major Idea
Buy this produce and you'll benefit this way or enjoy this reward Must be unique to this brand or claim; something rivals can't or don't offer Unique Benefit Unique Benefit Approaches to the Major Selling Idea: USP Unique Selling Proposition The promise must be strong enough or attractive enough to move people Potent
Brand image or personality is particularly important when brands are similar Every ad must contribute to the complex symbol that is the brand image. Brand image or personality is particularly important when brands are similar Perspectives of Great Ad Men on the Major Selling Idea David Ogilvy Find the inherent drama or characteristic of the product that makes consumers buy it (Inherent drama) is often hard to find but it is always there, and once found it is the most interesting and believable of all advertising appeals. Leo Burnett
Often used for products such as soft drinks, perfume, liquor, clothing, airlines image advertising The creativity sales strategy is based on a strong, memorable brand identity through image advertising Used when competing brands are so similar it is difficult to find or create a unique attribute image advertising The creativity sales strategy is based on a strong, memorable brand identity through image advertising Used when competing brands are so similar it is difficult to find or create a unique attribute Creating a Brand Image
No Fear Ads Creates a Unique Brand Image +
Approaches to the Major Selling Idea: Inherent Drama Inherent Drama Messages generally presented in a warm, emotional way Hallmark, Maytag, Kellog Focus on consumer benefits with an emphasis on the dramatic element in expressing them Messages generally presented in a warm, emotional way Hallmark, Maytag, Kellog
Establish a particular place in the customers mind for the product or service Approaches to the Major Selling Idea: Positioning Positioning Based on product attributes/ benefits, price/quality, use or application, type of user, problem solved
Pennzoils Positioning is Based on Protection
Quaker States Positioning is Based on Performance
A Detergent for Every Need Brand Tide Cheer Bold Gain Era Dash Oxydol Solo Dreft Ivory Ariel Positioning Tough, powerful cleaner Tough cleaner and color protection Detergent plus fabric softener Sunshine scent and order-removing Stain pretreatment and removal Value brand Bleach-boosted, whitening formula Detergent plus fabric softener liquid For baby clothes, safe for tender skin Fabric and skin safety, fine washables Tough cleaner, aimed at Hispanics Share 31.1% 8.2% 2.9% 2.6% 2.2% 1.8% 1.4% 1.2% 1.0% 0.7% 0.1%
This Ad Positions 3M as Highly Innovative +
Story board Animatic
Shock Ads deliberately designed to be controversial Calvin Klein and Benetton are the two companies best known for using shock ads. in-house Younger consumers are less likely to perceive shock ads as offensive or in bad taste and may even help create favorable attitudes toward these companies because of their edgy, rebellious tone.
Oliver Toscani, Benettons creative director, is that advertising should be free from any type of censorship or scrutiny since it is often a form of art.
Food for life 2003
Media-driven Creative Strategy A media-driven creative strategy refers to the idea of creating advertising messages that are designed to work well in a specific media vehicle. For example, Absolut vodka often tailors its print ads to the specific magazine in which they will appear. While the same basic campaign theme is used, the creative execution takes into account the nature and characteristics (style and mood) of the medium in which the ad is being run. The advantages of this approach are that it creates a synergy between the creative and media process.