Presentation on theme: "Source, Message and Channel Factors"— Presentation transcript:
1 Source, Message and Channel Factors Chapter 6Source, Message and Channel Factors
2 The Persuasion MatrixRelation to text This slide relates to material on pp and Figure 6-1 of the text.Summary Overview This slide presents the persuasion matrix which helps marketers see how each controllable element of the communication process interacts with the consumer’s response process. The matrix has two sets of variables. Independent variables are the controllable components of the communication process while dependent variables are the steps a receiver goes through in being persuaded. The numbers in the cells represent decisions that can be evaluated using the persuasion matrix that are discussed in the next slide.Use of this slide This slide can be used to introduce the persuasion matrix and explain how it is helpful to promotional planners in developing effective advertising and promotional campaigns. Promotional planners must consider how decisions about each communication component influences the various stages of the response process.
3 Promotional Planning Elements Receiver/ComprehensionCan the receiver comprehend the ad?1Which media will increase presentation?Channel/presentation2What type of message will create favorable attitudes?Message/yielding3Who will be effective in getting consumers’ attention?Source/attention4Receiver/ComprehensionChannel/presentationMessage/yieldingRelation to text This slide relates to material on pp and Figure 6-1 of the text.Summary Overview This slide presents specific decisions that correspond to the numbers in the cells of the persuasion matrix that were presented in the previous slide. These include:Receiver/comprehension – can the receiver comprehend the ad? Consideration must be given to whether the target audience can understand and comprehend a message.Channel/presentation – which media will increase presentation? How effective is a particular media vehicle in reaching the target audience?Message/yielding – what type of message will create favorable attitudes or feelings? Marketers try to create messages that will lead to positive feelings toward the product.Source/attention – who will be effective in getting consumers’ attention? Marketers select sources that will be effective in gaining the attention of the target audience such as celebrities, athletes, or attractive models.Use of this slide The persuasion matrix helps marketers see how each controllable element of the communication process interacts with the stages of the consumer’s response process. This slide can be used to show examples regarding various independent and dependent variables of the persuasion matrix and how they interact.
4 Source Attributes and Receiver Processing Modes PowerCompliancePowerComplianceRelation to text This slide relates to material on pp and Figure 6-2 of the text.Summary Overview This slide shows the various categories of source attributes and receiver processing modes associated with each one. The three basic source attributes and processing modes associated with each are as follows:Credibility – the extent to which the recipient sees the source as having relevant knowledge skill or experience and trusts the source to give unbiased, objective information.Internalization – the process by which a receiver adopts the position advocated by the source because it is perceived as accurate and makes it part of his or her belief systemAttractiveness – refers to the similarity, familiarity, and/or likeability of the sourceIdentification – the process by which an individual is motivated to seek some type of relationship with the source and thus adopts similar beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors.Power – refers to the ability (real or perceived) of the source to administer rewards or punishment to the receiverCompliance – the process by which the receiver accepts the position advocated by the source to receive rewards or avoid punishment.Use of this slide This slide can be used to introduce the major categories of source attributes and the mode through which each can lead to persuasion.AttractivenessAttractivenessIdentificationIdentificationCredibilityInternalization
5 Source Credibility Source Information Knowledge Knowledge Skill Skill ExpertiseExpertiseRelation to text This slide relates to material on pp of the text.Summary Overview There are two important dimensions to source credibility, expertise and trustworthiness. Marketers recognize that expertise is extremely important and choose spokespersons who have knowledge, skill, or experience with a particular product or in a service area. Endorsements from individuals or groups recognized as experts, such as doctors or dentists are common in advertising. While expertise is important, the target audience must find the source believable. Trustworthiness relates to the source’s objectivity, honesty, and believability.Use of this slide This slide can be used to show the basic dimensions of source credibility, expertise and trustworthiness. Research has shown that expert and/or trustworthy sources are more persuasive than sources that have less expertise or trustworthiness. As such, marketers try to select individuals whose credibility traits will maximize their influence.TrustworthyTrustworthyInformationUnbiasedUnbiasedObjective
6 Limitations of credible sources high-credibility source may be less effective than a moderate- or low-credibility source such as when the receiver has a favorable initial attitude or opinion.In this situation the use of a highly credible sourcemay lead the receiver to attribute his or her opinion to the sourcerather than the message being communicated.“Sleeper effect phenomenon” – What is it?
7 Experts Lend Authority to an Appeal Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp and Exhibit 6-2 of the text.Summary Overview This slide shows an ad for Dove soap promoting the fact that it recommended by dermatologists who are experts in skin care. This is an example of the use of source credibility where companies use endorsements from individuals or groups recognized as experts, such as doctors or dentists.Use of this slide This slide can be used to demonstrate how advertisers apply the concept of source expertise in their advertising messages. Dove is using an endorsement from a highly credible group, dermatologists, to encourage consumers to use the product.+
8 Endorsement by Both a Celebrity and an Expert Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp and Exhibit 6-1 of the text.Summary Overview This slide shows an ad for Head tennis racquets featuring Andre Agasssi as the spokesperson. Agassi is a very effective spokesperson for Head since he is one of the top tennis players in the world and is also very popular.Use of this slide This slide can be used to show an example of a source who has high credibility because of his knowledge, skill, and expertise regarding a product and also because of his celebrity status.+
9 A Business Owner May Be His Own Spokesperson Relation to text This slide contains a commercial that relates to the material on p. 171 of the text which discusses the use of corporate leaders as spokespeople.Summary Overview This slide contains a commercial for Hoehn Mercedes Benz, a car dealership in Carlsbad, California. The spot features Bill Hoehn, the founder and president of the dealership as the advertising spokesperson. Automobile dealerships often use their owners or presidents as advertising spokespersons as a way of projecting an image for the dealership of being friendly, honest, and trustworthy. This particular ad was part of a campaign developed for the dealership that featured Bill Hoehn visiting Stuggart Germany, where Mercedes Benz automobiles are made, and struggling with his inability to speak German. The point of the ad is that Hoehn may not be able to speak German but he sure knows how to sell German.Use of this slide This commercial can be used to discuss the use of merits of using local business owners in ads for their companies. The practice is very common among automobile dealership and other local retailers. While Hoehn is very effective in this campaign, the same cannot be said for many of the local business people who appear in ads for their companies.
10 A spokesperson who delivers an advertising message and/or demonstrates a product or service is a direct source
11 Source Attractiveness SimilarityResemblance between the source and recipient of the messageSimilarityKnowledge of the source through repeated or prolonged exposureFamiliarityFamiliarityAffection for the source resulting from physical appearance, behavior, or other personal traitsLikeabilityRelation to text This slide relates to material on pp of the text.Summary Overview This slide shows the various components of source attractiveness which include similarity, familiarity, and likeability. A summary of each characteristic follows:Similarity – resemblance between the source and the recipient of the message. Marketers recognize that people are more likely to be influenced by a message coming from someone with whom they feel a sense of similarity (e.g. similar needs, goals, interests, lifestyles).Familiarity – knowledge of the source through exposure. Familiarity is enhanced through repeated or prolonged exposure.Likeability – affection for the source as a result of physical appearance, behavior, or other personal traits. Consumers can admire physical appearance, talent, and/or personality even if the source is not well known or a celebrity.Use of this Slide This slide can be used to explain the three basic characteristics of source attractiveness. Marketers recognize that receivers of persuasive communications are more likely to attend to and identify with people they find likable or similar to themselves. Marketers often choose individuals who are admired such as TV and movie stars, athletes, and other popular individuals to deliver their messages.
12 Attractive Models Are Often Used in Cosmetic Ads Relation to text This slide relates to material on p. 177 and Exhibit 6-7 of the text.Summary Overview This slide shows an ad for Revlon’s Fire and Ice fragrance featuring supermodel Cindy Crawford. Products such as cosmetics or fashionable clothing are likely to benefit from the use of an attractive model, since physical appearance is very relevant in marketing these items.Use of this slide This slide can be used to show an example of a celebrity used as a decorative model. Advertisers often draw attention to their ads by using a physically attractive person who serves as a passive or decorative model rather than as an active communicator. Research suggests that physically attractive communicators generally have a positive impact and generate more favorable evaluations of both ads and products than less attractive models.+
13 Popular Celebrities Help Attract Attention to Commercials Relation to text This slide relates to the material on pp and IMC Perspective 6-3.Summary Overview This slide shows scenes from a Pepsi commercial that featured pop star Brittany Spears. The spot featured her taking a trip through generations of Pepsi advertising and revisiting jingles while dressed in clothing styles from the period. Spears signed a global marketing deal with PepsiCo in early 2001 which included appearances in TV ads for Pepsi as well as the company’s sponsorship of her concert tour. However, the relationship only lasted two years and was not renewed when it expired at the end of The relationship was tarnished somewhat after the pop princess was reportedly seen drinking Diet Coke. In early 2003 PepsiCo replaced Spears with Destiny’s Child singer Beyonce Knowles to be the new celebrity endorser for Pepsi Cola.Use of this slide This slide can be used as part of a discussion of how companies often pay popular celebrities large sums of money to endorse their products and appear in their ads. The discussion might focus on the value of using celebrities and whether they are worth the large amounts of money they are paid.+
15 Discussion Question Effective spokespeople? What makes an effective spokesperson?When should they NOT be used?An effective spokesperson is credible and a good fit for the product and the target. People can relate to the spokesperson or look up to them as an aspirational role model.An ineffective spokesperson might be someone who is overused (perhaps Tiger Woods). In addition, many companies choose not to use someone who is high risk for improper or illegal behavior. Some companies are actually beginning to choose high-risk spokespeople (Reebok) because they are considered edgy, cool and hip.
16 Risks of Using Celebrities The celebrity may overshadow the product being endorsedThe celebrity may overshadow the product being endorsedThe celebrity may be overexposed, reducing his or her credibilityThe celebrity may be overexposed, reducing his or her credibilityRelation to text This slide relates to material on pp of the text.Summary Overview This slide shows the risks associated with using a celebrity as an advertising spokesperson. Although celebrities can be effective in gaining attention and influencing consumers, there are some factors that must be considered before deciding to use them. These are:Overshadowing the product – advertisers should select a celebrity spokesperson who will attract attention and enhance the sales message, but not overshadow the brand.Overexposure – consumers can become skeptical when a celebrity endorses too many products or companies and becomes overexposed.Target audiences’ receptivity – it is important for marketers to select a celebrity endorser who matches and is well received by the advertiser’s target audience.Risk to the advertiser – the advertiser needs to select an endorser who will not embarrass the company. Researching the celebrity’s personal life and background to reduce this risk is becoming common.Use of this slide This slide can be used to demonstrate the risks to the advertiser when selecting a celebrity spokesperson. It is important for advertisers to consider these factors in their decisions as they spend huge sums of money for celebrities to appear in their ads and endorse their companies and brands.The target audience may not be receptive to celebrity endorsersThe target audience may not be receptive to celebrity endorsersThe celebrity’s behavior may pose a risk to the company
17 Consumers who are particularly knowledgeable about a product are less likely to be influenced by celebrity endorsements than consumers who have little or no product knowledge
18 Brand Name, Celebrity, and Location Are All Closely Linked in Meaning and Mood Relation to text This slide contains a commercial for the Subaru Outback and relates to the material on pp of the text.Summary Overview This slide contains a commercial for the campaign that was used to launch the Subaru Outback sport utility vehicle. This campaign featured Australian actor Paul Hogan who is best known for his role as the star of the Crocodile Dundee movies in which he played a rugged character from the Australian outback. Hogan was an excellent spokesperson for the Outback, which Subaru positioned as the world’s first sport utility wagon and a vehicle that combines rough-terrain driving capability with the ride and comfort of a car.Hogan was chosen as the advertising spokesperson to create an image of the Outback as being tough, rugged and durable.Use of this slide This commercial is a good example of how the brand name, advertising spokesperson and even the location where a commercial is shot all combine to create a desired image. The Subaru Outback has been a very popular vehicle and the use of Hogan and the Australian outback themed advertising contributed to the effective positioning of this vehicle.
19 Recall and Presentation Order Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp and Figure 6-4 of the text.Summary Overview Message structure is very important to overall communication effectiveness. A basic consideration in the design of a persuasive message is the order of presentation of message arguments. Research on learning and memory generally indicate that items presented first and last are remembered better than those presented in the middle. This chart shows that the strongest arguments should be placed at the beginning or end of the message, but not in the middle.Use of this slide This slide can be used to explain message recall as a function of order of presentation. Presenting the strongest arguments at the beginning of the message assumes a primacy effect is operating whereby information presented first is most effective. Putting the strong points at the end assumes a recency effect, whereby the last arguments are most persuasive.BeginningMiddleEnd
20 Message Sidedness Refutation One sided vs two sided messages Advertisers are concerned over the negative effects of acknowledging a weakness in their brandRefutation
21 Message Appeal Choices Appeal mostly to the logical, rational minds of consumersAppeal mostly to the feelings and emotions of consumersRelation to text This slide relates to material on pp.183 of the text.Summary Overview One of the advertiser’s most important creative strategy decisions involves the choice of an appropriate appeal. There are two broad categories of message appeals:Rational – focus on consumer’s practical, functional, or utilitarian needsEmotional – focus on consumer’s social and/or psychological needs or feelingsMany believe that the most effective advertising combines the practical reasons for purchasing a product with emotional values.Use of this slide This slide can be used to introduce the broad categories of message appeals, emotional and rational appeals. Subsequent slides will discuss the message appeal options of comparative advertising, fear, and humor appeals.Appeal to both the logical, rational minds of consumers and to their feelings and emotions
22 Message Appeal Options ComparativeAdsComparativeAdsFearAppealsFearAppealsHumorAppealsMay be especially useful for new brandsOften used for brands with small market shareFrequently use in political advertisingMay stress physical danger or threats to healthMay identify social threats: disapproval or rejectionMay backfire if the level of threat is too highThey can attract and hold attentionThey are often the best rememberedThey put the consumer in a positive moodRelation to text This slide relates to material on pp of the text.Summary Overview The slide shows various advertising message appeal options that can be used in an advertising message. These include:Comparative Ads – directly or indirectly naming competitors in an ad and comparing one or more specific attributes. Characteristics of comparative advertising include:FTC advocated this type of advertising in 1972 to give consumers a more rational basis for making purchase decisions.Useful for new brands to get in the evoked set of the consumerOften used for brands with small market shareUsed frequently for political advertisingFear appeals – evokes an emotional response of danger and arouses individuals to take steps to remove the threat. Characteristics of fear appeals include:May stress physical danger (drugs) or social rejection (mouthwash)Have both facilitating and inhibiting effectsHumor appeals – evoke an emotional response by making people laugh or feel good about a company or brand. Characteristics of humorous appeals include:An effective way to attract and hold attentionPut consumer in positive moodCan wear out once the receiver get the joke or punch lineUse of this slide This slide can be used to discuss the advertising message appeal options. One of the advertiser’s most important creative strategy decisions involves the choice of an appropriate appeal. Many factors can influence the message appeal decision such as the type of product, image of company, message to be delivered, and target audience.
23 A Very Direct, Side-By-Side Comparative Ad Relation to text This ad relates to material on pp of the text.Summary Overview This slide shows an ad for Sorrell Ridge preserves and is a very good example of comparative advertising. Notice the direct comparison of two products as the advertiser places them right next to each other for easy evaluation by the receiver. The Sorrell Ridge ad plays off of the long-time tagline used by its rival: “With a name like Smucker’s it has to be good” by noting that its product has to be better since it has 100% fruit.Use of this slide This slide can be used to show an example of how advertisers use comparative advertising. This ad shows a smaller company with a lower market share comparing their product to the well-recognized market leader.+
25 Threat Plus Solution Gently Persuades Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp and Exhibit 6-14 of the text.Summary Overview This slide shows an ad for Havrix Hepatitis A Vaccine and is a good example of the use of a moderate fear appeal approach. The ad educates its reader by explaining the risks of contacting Hepatitis A while traveling outside the U.S. To reduce the anxiety created by this information a solution is offered which is a vaccination with Havrix.Use of this slide This slide can be used to show an example of a fear appeal. This ad uses a mild fear appeal, and reduces anxiety by offering a solution to the problem.+
27 Fear Appeals and Message Acceptance Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp and Figure 6-5 of the text.Summary Overview This slide shows a chart depicting the relationship between fear levels and message acceptance. This chart suggests the relationship between the level of fear in a message and acceptance or persuasion is curvilinear. This means that message acceptance increases as the amount of fear used rises, but only to a point. Beyond that point, acceptance decreases as the level of fear rises. The relationship between fear and persuasion can be explained by the fact that fear appeals have both facilitating and inhibiting effects.Low levels of fear can have facilitating effects which attracts attention and interest in the message and may motivate the receiver to act to resolve the threat. Thus increasing the fear from low to moderate can result in increased persuasion.High levels of fear, however, can produce inhibiting effects whereby the receiver may emotionally block the message by tuning it out, perceiving it selectively or denying the arguments outright.Use of this slide This slide can be used to explain how fear operates and how the target audience might respond to the level of fear used in an appeal. Before deciding to use a fear appeal-based message strategy, the advertiser should consider how fear operates, what level to use, and how different target audiences may respond.
29 Clever Execution of Humor in a Print Ad Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 185 –187 and Exhibit 6-15 of the text.Summary Overview This slide shows a humorous print ad for PayDay candy bars and is a very good example of how humor can be executed in print media. It also is a good example of humor being used with a low involvement product. Humor is often difficult to execute in print but this clever visual showing an elephant trying to get inside of a PayDay truck works very well.PayDay candy bars contain lots of peanuts which are a favorite of elephants.Use of this slide This slide can be used to show the use of humor in print advertising. It also can be used as part of a discussion of how humor is often used in advertising for low involvement products.
32 Pros and Cons of Using Humor Does Not Aid Persuasion in GeneralDoes Not Aid Persuasion in GeneralProsAids Attention and AwarenessAids Attention and AwarenessMay Harm Recall and ComprehensionMay Harm Recall and ComprehensionMay Aid Retention of the MessageMay Aid Retention of the MessageRelation to text This slide relates to material on pp and Figure 6-6 of the text.Summary Overview This slide summarizes findings from a study conducted of top advertising agency research and creative directors regarding the pros and cons of using humor.Positive aspects of humor include the following:May aid attention and awarenessMay aid retention of the messageMay create a positive mood and enhance persuasionMay aid name and simple copy point registrationMay serve as a distracter and reduce counterarguingProblems associated with humor include the following:May not aid persuasion in generalMay harm recall and comprehensionMay harm complex copy registrationMay not aid source credibilityMay not be effective in producing salesMay wear out faster than non-humorous adsUse of this slide This slide can be used to discuss the pros and cons of using humor appeals. Although, humorous ads are some of the best known and most memorable of all advertising messages, not every product or every marketing situation lends itself to humor. Advertisers should consider these pros/cons in their decisions regarding the use of humor to attract attention and gain awareness for their products.May Harm Complex Copy RegistrationMay Harm Complex Copy RegistrationCreates a Positive Mood and Enhances PersuasionCreates a Positive Mood and Enhances PersuasionDoes Not Aid Source CredibilityDoes Not Aid Source CredibilityMay Aid Name and Simple Copy RegistrationMay Aid Name and Simple Copy RegistrationIs Not Effective in Bringing About SalesIs Not Effective in Bringing About SalesMay Serve As a Distracter, Reducing CounterarguingMay Serve As a Distracter, Reducing CounterarguingMay Wear Out Faster Than Non-humorous Ads
33 Humorous messages may be effective because they enhance attention and may reduce counter-arguing.
34 The Brand Name, Itself, Becomes Part of the Humor Relation to text This slide relates to the material on pp which discusses the use of humor.Summary Overview This slide shows a humorous commercial for AFLAC, the leading provider of supplemental insurance in the U.S., and is a good example of how a company makes its brand name the focus of the humor. AFLAC’s company name was often mispronounced and the company wanted to create a mnemonic device that would reinforce name awareness and recall. After repeatedly saying the name, two agency executives realized that AFLAC sounded similar to a duck quacking and decided that creating a campaign based around the duck character would be a good way to get people to remember the name. The humorous campaign is built around the concept of showing the sassy, Pekin duck waddling into a variety of odd situations and belting out his signature “AFLAC” quack as people talk about supplemental insurance. This particular spot features legendary baseball player Yogi Berra using his malapropisms to promote the company as he sits in a barber shop getting a haircut.Use of this slide This commercial can be used a an excellent example of the use of humor in advertising. The campaign featuring the AFLAC duck has been extremely successful and has helped increase awareness of the company as well as sales. Since the campaign began in 200, AFLAC’s name awareness has increased from 2 percent to 80 percent and sales have increased by an average of 25 percent each year.
35 Humorous messages may be effective because they enhance ________ and may reduce ___________.
37 Creative Directors Opinions Regarding Use of Humor Audiences FavorableAudiences UnfavorableYoungerOlderRelation to text This slide relates to material on pp and Figure 6-6 of the text.Summary Overview This slide summarizes the favorable and unfavorable target audiences for the use of humor appeals. Favorable audiences for using humor are younger, more educated, up-scale, and professional. Humor also works better with males than females. Unfavorable audiences are generally less educated, older, lower scaled, and semi or unskilled occupations.Use of this slide This slide can be used to discuss the findings of a study conducted of the top advertising agencies executives relative to the favorable and unfavorable target audiences for the use of humor appeals. The types of audiences best/least suited to humor appeals are listed on the slide.Well educatedLess educatedUp-scaleDown-scaleMalesFemalesProfessionalSemi- or Unskilled
38 Self versus External Paced Media Self-PacedMediaSelf-PacedMediaExternally PacedMediaNewspapersMagazinesDirect MailInternetRadioTelevisionRelation to text This slide relates to material on pp of the text.Summary Overview The final controllable variable of the communications process is the channel or medium used to deliver the message to the target audience. There are basic differences in the manner and rate at which information from various forms of media is transmitted and can be processed. The two broad classifications of media are:Self-paced – readers/viewers process the ad at their own rate. Self-paced media include print media such as newspapers, magazines, and direct mail as well as the Internet.Externally-paced – the transmission rate is controlled by the medium. Externally- paced media include radio and television.Use of this slide This slide can be used to explain the concept of self-paced versus externally-paced media. Some implications for advertisers are that self-paced media make it easier for the message recipient to process long, complex messages. Advertisers can use print media or the Internet to present a detailed message with a lot of information.Externally-paced media are more effective for shorter message and are good for getting attention and then directing consumers to specific print media or the Internet where more detailed information can be presented.Vs.
39 The Image of a Magazine Can Enhance an Ad Relation to text This material relates to the material on pp of the text.Summary Overview This slide shows a cover of Travel & Leisure magazine and provides an example of how magazines can create a favorable reception environment for advertising. Travel-related magazines such as Travel & Leisure contain stories, pictures and other ads that help get readers excited about travel and thus create a very favorable climate for advertising.Use of this slide This slide can be used as part of a discussion of qualitative media effects and the reception environment that magazines create for advertisers. Media planners give considerable attention to the context or environment in which an ad will appear.+
40 Persuasive Appeals Testimonial Demonstration Show audience how product worksInfomercialsFitness gearTestimonialClient speaks of product benefitsJared of Subway
41 Persuasive Appeals Urgency Celebrity Endorsement Tie product image to famous personMJ & Jackie Chan for HanesUrgencyNeed to respond/act quicklySale Ends Saturday!2-days only!Disney DVDs will not be available for 10 years!
42 Persuasive Appeals Sex Shock!Anti-drug/Anti-smokingSexAssociate product with sexual satisfaction / conquestCalvin Klein, Cosmo, Maxim
43 Persuasive Appeals Image Before / After Demonstrate specific results of using productGrecian formula, weight lossImageAssociate product with some image, style, attitude… coolnessProduct benefits, attributes are secondary to the imageCadillac, Nike
44 Creative Strategy: Planning and Development Chapter 8Creative Strategy:Planning and Development
45 Today Focus on the planning and development of the creative strategy. Examine the concept of creativity and the process that guides the creation of the advertising campaigncopy platforms that are used to guide the development of advertising campaigns.major selling ideas that form the basis of an advertising campaign.
47 Creativity“Before you worry about how to say it, you must be sure you say the right thing”Creative advertising can break through the clutter and make an impression on buyers
48 Thomas Edison is often credited with saying that "Creativity is 1 % inspiration and 99 % perspiration."That 99 % (percent), or the innovation, involvestesting, evaluating, and retesting what the inspiration found.
49 Advertising Creativity CreativeStrategyDetermining what the advertising message will say or communicateDetermining what the advertising message will say or communicateRelation to text This slide relates to material on p. 237 of the text.Summary Overview This ad shows the two basic issues associated with the creative aspects of advertising and the development of advertising messages. Creative strategy involves determining what the advertising message will say or communicate. Creative tactics involves determining how the message strategy will be executed.Use of this slide This slide can be used to introduce the two basic issues that are associated with the advertising creative process. Chapter 8 focuses on the creative strategy development process while creative tactics are examined in Chapter 9.CreativeTacticsDetermining how the message strategy will be executed
50 Creativity It is not about the awards Creativity is important when communicates the message clearly and leaves favorable impressions among the target audienceNot all advertising campaigns that have won creative awards have successfully generated sales for the clients' productsCreativity is important whencompanies are selling brands that are very similar in quality and difficult to differentiate on functional features
51 The Ideal Power Idea Should . . . Be Describable in a Simple Word or PhraseBe Describable in a Simple Word or PhraseBe Likely to Attract the Prospect’s AttentionBe Likely to Attract the Prospect’s AttentionRevolve Around the Clinching BenefitRevolve Around the Clinching BenefitRelation to text This slide relates to material on p of the text and Figure 8-2.Summary Overview This slide shows characteristics of an Ideal Power Idea and is from the Universal Advertising Standards developed by the former D’Arcy, Masius Benton & Bowles agency. The agency developed these standards to guide its creative efforts and help achieve superior creative work. The perspective of these standards is that a creative advertising message is one that is built around a creative core or power idea which transforms the strategy into a dynamic communications concept.Use of this slide This slide can be used to discuss the concept of a power idea around which a creative campaign can be developed. Power ideas often become the central theme of the advertising message and the basis around which the campaign is planned and executed.Allow You to Brand the AdvertisingAllow You to Brand the AdvertisingLet Prospects Vividly Experience the Goods
52 Two Perspectives on Advertising Creativity The ability to generate fresh, unique and appropriate ideas that can be used as solutions to communication problems.Artists“Only artistic value and originality count”Suits“Its not creative unless it sells”Relation to text This slide relates to material on p of the text and IMC Perspective 8-2Summary Overview This slide show the two competing perspectives on advertising creativity. The perspective taken by suits or those who work on the business side such as brand managers or account executives is that the role of advertising is to give consumers a reason to buy the product or service. Thus, they take the “It’s not creative unless it sell” perspective. The perspective taken by the artists who are involved in the creative process is that advertising should be judged more on its artistic merit and ability to get the attention and interest of the consumer. Thus, they are likely to view advertising in terms of its artistic value and originality.Use of this slide This slide can be used to discuss the perpetual debate over creative or artsy versus hard-sell advertising. IMC Perspective 8-2 provides more insight into this ongoing debate.
53 Absolut’s Advertising Represents Synergy Between Creative and Media Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp of the text.Summary Overview This slide shows a print from the long-running campaign for Absolut vodka that plays off of the distinctive shape of its bottle and depicts it with visual puns and witty headlines that involve the brand name. Absolut’s uses what is often referred to as a “media-driven creative strategy” by tailoring the print ads for the magazines or regions where they are run. This particular ad plays off of the famous Brooklyn Bridge by showing two Absolut bottles shaped into the pillars of the famous landmark.Use of this slide The Absolut ad shown in this slide can be used to demonstrate how advertising creativity is not the exclusive domain of those work on the creative side of advertising. Many companies and agencies encourage creative thinking from everyone involved in the advertising and promotion process such as the media department.+
54 Young's Creative Process Getting Raw Material, Data, Immersing One's Self in the Problem to Get the Background.ImmersionGetting Raw Material, Data, Immersing One's Self in the Problem to Get the Background.ImmersionRuminating on the Data Acquired, Turning It This Way and That in the Mind.DigestionRuminating on the Data Acquired, Turning It This Way and That in the Mind.DigestionRelation to text This slide relates to material on pp of the text.Summary Overview One of the most popular approaches to creativity in advertising was developed by James Webb Young, a former creative vice president at the J. Walter Thompson agency. This slide shows and describes the various steps in Young’s model of the creative process which include:ImmersionDigestionIlluminationIncubationVerificationUse of this slide This slide can be used to discuss how the development of creative ideas is really a process which involves a series of steps. Models of the creative process are valuable to those who work in advertising as they offer an organized way to approach advertising problems and develop solutions to them.Ceasing Analysis and Putting the Problem Out of Conscious Mind for a Time.IncubationCeasing Analysis and Putting the Problem Out of Conscious Mind for a Time.IncubationA Sudden Inspiration or Intuitive Revelation About a Potential Solution.IlluminationA Sudden Inspiration or Intuitive Revelation About a Potential Solution.IlluminationStudying the Idea, Evaluating It, and Developing It for Practical Usefulness.Verification
55 Getting Creative Input Use the product to become familiar with it!Use the product to become familiar with it!Listen to what people are talking about!Read anything related to the product or market!Listen to what people are talking about!Read anything related to the product or market!Relation to text This slide relates to the material on pp. 247 that discusses inputs to the creative process.Summary Overview This slide shows various forms of background information that can be provided as input to creative specialists during the preparation, incubation, and illumination stages of the creative process. These sources of input include:Reading anything related to the product or marketListening to what people are talking aboutAsking everyone involved for informationUsing the product or service to become familiar with itWorking in and learning about the client’s product/service or businessUse of this slide This slide can be used during a discussion of the creative process to illustrate the types of information that is often provided to creative specialists to help them learn more about the client’s product/service or brand. This information comes in the form of general preplanning input or product/service specific preplanning input.Ask everyone involved for information!Ask everyone involved for information!Work in and learn about the client’s business!
56 Getting Creative Input Background researchinformal fact-finding techniques and general preplanning input.2. Product/service specific researchthis involves different types of studies such as attitude, market structure and positioning, perceptual mapping and psychographic studies. 3. Qualitative research inputtechniques such as in-depth interview or focus groups with customers or ethnographic studies.
57 BMW’s Slogan Has Helped Build Its Brand Image Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp of the text that discusses campaign themes.Summary Overview This slide shows a print ad for BMW which uses the tagline “The Ultimate Driving Machine.” BMW has used this campaign theme since 1974, retaining it even after changing ad agencies several times during this period. This slogan has contributed to the strong image for BMW and helped position the various models made by the German company as being sporty cars that handle extremely well.Use of this slide This slide can be used to discuss how an advertising slogan or campaign theme contributes to the image of a brand. Long-running campaign themes such as “The Ultimate Driving Machine” help position a brand in the mind of the consumer and build a brand image.+
58 This ad campaign was based on psychographic research “Who is she sleeping with?” WESTIN “Choose your travel partner wisely”Relation to text This slide shows a commercial that relates to the material on pp of the text.Summary Overview This slide shows a commercial from the “Who is he/she sleeping with? Westin. Choose your travel partner wisely” campaign for Westin Hotels that was developed through the use of psychographic research. Westin’s agency at the time was DDB Needham which used its Life Style Study to develop a profile of younger business travelers that the hotel chain was targeting. The psychographic study found that these travelers are highly confident, intelligent, assertive, classy, and consider themselves a winner. This particular spot features an attractive, young female who appears to be on the fast-track and enjoys the amenities of a Westin Hotel.Use of this slide This spot is a very good example of a commercial that was developed on the basis of psychographic research. After profiling the target customer, the agency developed a campaign that was designed to “brand the user” by appealing to the ego of the young business person and reinforcing their strong self-image.
59 The 10 greatest ad slogans of all time Company or BrandCampaign Theme1. De BeersDiamonds are forever2. NikeJust do it!3. Coca ColaThe pause that refreshes4. Miller LiteTastes great, less filling5. AvisWe try harder6. Maxwell HouseGood to the last drop7. WheatiesBreakfast of champions8. ClairolDoes she or doesn’t she?9. Morton SaltWhen it rains it pours10. Wendy’sWhere’s the beef?
60 A few Turkish examples Company or Brand Campaign Theme 1. ABC Farki Fiyati2. ArkoHer eve lazim3. ArtemaAc kapa Artema4. BekoBir dunya markasi5. LunaYoksa siz hala annenizin margarinini mi kullanıyorsunuz?6. SoloHem yumusak, hem hesapli7. TamekTamekse koy sepete8. TefalSen herseyi dusunursun9. Ulker tac krakerAtistirin acliginizi yatistirin10. VernelVernelleyin yumusacik olsunVernelleyin mis gibi koksun
61 Find the Inherent Drama Major Selling IdeasUse a UniqueSelling PositionPositioning the BrandUse a UniqueSelling PositionCreate a Brand ImageSeeking the Major IdeaRelation to text This slide relates to material on pp of the text which discusses approaches to the major selling idea.Summary Overview This slide shows various approaches that can be used to develop the major selling idea of an advertising campaign. This “big idea” should attract the consumer’s attention, get a reaction, and set the advertiser’s product or service apart from the competition. Approaches to developing the major selling idea include:Using a unique selling propositionCreating a brand imageFinding the inherent dramaPositioningUse of this slide This slide can be used to discuss the concept of the major selling idea and various approaches that advertisers can used to guide the creative team’s search for the big idea and offer solutions for developing effective advertising.PositioningCreate the Brand ImageFind the Inherent Drama
62 Approaches to the Major Selling Idea: USP Unique Selling PropositionBenefitPotentUniqueBenefitUniqueRelation to text This slide relates to the material pp of the text that discusses approaches to the major selling idea.Summary Overview This slide show the unique selling proposition approach to the development of the major selling idea. The basis of the USP as an approach to the major selling idea is based on three factors:advertising must make a proposition to the consumer that if they buy the product they will receive a specific reward or benefitthe proposition must be unique to the brand and provide a benefit that rivals cannot or do not offerthe promise or proposition must be potent or strong enough to motivate consumers to buy the brandUse of this slide This slide can be used to discuss the use of the unique selling proposition approach to developing the major selling idea. This approach can be very effective when a particular brand possesses a unique attribute that is important to consumers. However, the advertiser must make sure that they can substantiate the uniqueness claim or they may face legal challenges.Buy this produce and you'll benefit this way or enjoy this rewardMust be unique to this brand or claim; something rivals can't or don't offerThe promise must be strong enough or attractive enough to move people
63 Perspectives of Great Ad Men on the Major Selling Idea David OgilvyLeo BurnettBrand image or personality is particularly important when brands are similarFind the inherent drama or characteristic of the product that makes consumers buy itBrand image or personality is particularly important when brands are similarRelation to text This slide relates to material on pp of the text which discusses approaches to the major selling idea.Summary Overview This slide shows approaches to developing the major selling idea that are associated with legendary ad men David Ogilvy and Leo Burnett. David Ogilvy popularized the idea of brand image in his famous book Confessions of an Advertising Man. According to Ogilvy, every advertisement should contribute to the complex symbol that is brand image.Leo Burnett was an advocate of the inherent drama approach to the major selling idea which is based on a foundation of consumer benefits with an emphasis on the dramatic element in expressing those benefits. He advocated a down-home type of advertising that presents the message in a warm and realistic way.Use of this slide This slide can be used to discuss various approaches to developing the major selling idea. David Ogilvy and Leo Burnett are two of the most influential individuals to ever work in advertising and their creative styles have been the basis of many successful advertising campaigns.“Every ad must contribute to the complex symbol that is the brand image.”“(Inherent drama) is often hard to find but it is always there, and once found it is the most interesting and believable of all advertising appeals.”
64 Creating a Brand ImageUsed when competing brands are so similar it is difficult to find or create a unique attributeUsed when competing brands are so similar it is difficult to find or create a unique attributeThe creativity sales strategy is based on a strong, memorable brand identity through image advertisingRelation to text This slide relates to the material pp of the text that discusses approaches to the major selling idea.Summary Overview This slide show the basis of brand image as an approach to the development of the major selling idea. A brand image approach is often used by advertisers when it is difficult to differentiate a product or service on the basis of attributes or benefits. Image advertising is designed to create an identity for a product or service by emphasizing psychological meaning or symbolic association of the brand with certain values, lifestyles, traits or other meaningful factors.Use of this slide This slide can be used to discuss the use of the brand image as an approach to developing the major selling idea for an advertising campaign. Image advertising is often used for products and services such as cosmetics, clothing, liquor, soft drinks, and airlines.The creativity sales strategy is based on a strong, memorable brand identity through image advertisingOften used for products such as soft drinks, perfume, liquor, clothing, airlines
65 No Fear Ads Creates a Unique Brand Image Relation to text This slide relates to the material pp. 257 of the text that discusses the brand image approach to the major selling idea.Summary Overview This slide contains an ad for the sports apparel company No Fear and shows how the company uses highly visual advertisements such as this one to create an image for the brand. No Fear creates an image for the brand as representing the outer limits of human performance. This particular ad features champion surfer Sunny Garcia who is regarded by many as the best professional surfer in the world. Ads such as this have helped make No Fear’s apparel line very popular among its target audience of younger consumers.Use of this slide This slide can be used to discuss how a company develops a strong brand image based on psychological association. No Fear uses its sponsorship of professional athletes in extreme sports such as surfing, motocross, BMX cycling and wakeboarding to create an image for the brand.+
66 Approaches to the Major Selling Idea: Inherent Drama Messages generally presented in a warm, emotional way Hallmark, Maytag, KellogMessages generally presented in a warm, emotional way Hallmark, Maytag, KellogFocus on consumer benefits with an emphasis on the dramatic element in expressing themRelation to text This slide relates to the material pp of the text that discusses approaches to the major selling idea.Summary Overview This slide show the basis of using inherent drama as an approach to the development of the major selling idea. The idea behind this approach is that advertising is based on a foundation of consumer benefits with an emphasis on the dramatic element in expressing those benefits. Messages based on inherent drama are generally expressed in a warm, emotional way.Use of this slide This slide can be used to discuss the use of inherent drama as an approach to developing the major selling idea for an advertising campaign. The inherent drama approach is used often used in advertising for companies/brands such as Hallmark greeting cards and Kellogg cereal brands.
67 Approaches to the Major Selling Idea: Positioning Establish a particular place in the customer’s mind for the product or serviceEstablish a particular place in the customer’s mind for the product or serviceBased on product attributes/ benefits, price/quality, use or application, type of user, problem solvedRelation to text This slide relates to the material on pp of the text that discusses approaches to the major selling idea.Summary Overview This slide show the basis of positioning as an approach to the development of the major selling idea. The basis of positioning as an approach to the major selling idea is that advertising is used to establish a particular place in the customer’s mind for the product or service. This can be done on the basis of product/service attributes or benefits, price/quality, use or application, type of user or the ability to solve a problem.Use of this slide This slide can be used to discuss the use of positioning as an approach to developing the major selling idea for an advertising campaign. Positioning is often used as the basis for the big idea when developing campaigns for a variety of products and services.
68 Pennzoil’s Positioning is Based on Protection Relation to text This slide relates to the material pp of the text that discusses positioning.Summary Overview This slide shows a commercial for Pennzoil motor oil and shows how the company uses a positioning approach for the brand that is based on engine protection. The Pennzoil-Quaker State Co. also markets the Quaker State brand which is positioned as a performance brand with an emphasis on its ability to reduce friction in engines. This particular spot is called “DMV” and uses a humorous approach showing scenes of teenagers learning to drive and the way they abuse their parents’ car in the process.Use of this slide This commercial can be used as an example of how a positioning approach is often used as the basis of a creative strategy when a company has multiple brands competing in the same market. The commercial shows how Pennzoil uses a positioning strategy based on engine protection. The next slide shows how the Quaker State brand is positioned on the basis of performance.
69 Quaker State’s Positioning is Based on Performance Relation to text This slide relates to the material pp of the text that discusses positioning.Summary Overview This slide shows a commercial for Quaker State motor oil and shows how the company uses a positioning approach for the brand that is based on performance and its ability to reduce friction in engines. The commercial is called “Grinder” and features caustic comedian Dennis Leary touting the value of Quaker State in reducing friction. He subjects a engine piston to a grinder to demonstrate what friction can do to a poorly lubed motor and notes how Quaker State can help reduce friction and enhance engine performance.Use of this slide This commercial can be used as an example of how a positioning approach is often used as the basis of a creative strategy when a company has multiple brands competing in the same market. The commercial shows how Quaker State motor oil uses a performance positioning by focusing on its ability to reduce friction in engines which leads to better performance.
70 A Detergent for Every Need BrandTideCheerBoldGainEraDashOxydolSoloDreftIvoryArielShare31.1%8.2%2.9%2.6%2.2%1.8%1.4%1.2%1.0%0.7%0.1%PositioningTough, powerful cleanerTough cleaner and color protectionDetergent plus fabric softenerSunshine scent and order-removingStain pretreatment and removalValue brandBleach-boosted, whitening formulaDetergent plus fabric softener liquidFor baby clothes, safe for tender skinFabric and skin safety, fine washablesTough cleaner, aimed at Hispanics- David Ogilvy’s ApproachBrand image or personality is particularly important when brands are similarEvery ad must contribute to the complex symbol that is the brand image-Leo Burnett’s ApproachFind the inherent drama or characteristic of the product that makes consumers buy it“(Inherent drama) is often hard to find but it is always there, and once found it is the most interesting and believable of all advertising appeals.”
71 This Ad Positions 3M as Highly Innovative Relation to text This slide relates to the material pp of the text that discusses the use of positioning as an approach to the major selling idea.Summary Overview This slide shows one of the print ads used as part of an advertising campaign to position 3M as an innovative company. 3M is a company that has always been known for its innovations such as scotch tape, post-it notes, and many others. This particular ad describes how 3M developed the world’s first chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-free inhalers. 3M has been running a number of print ads as part of its “Innovation” campaign that show the various new products the company has developed and how they help solve problems and respond to needs.Use of this slide This slide can be used to discuss the use of positioning as an approach to developing the major selling idea for an advertising campaign. The ads takes a problem-solving approach to positioning 3M as an innovative company. The ad can also be used to explain how positioning is relevant for companies as well as brands.+
73 Shock Ads deliberately designed to be controversial Calvin Klein and Benetton are the two companies best known for using shock ads.in-houseYounger consumers are less likely to perceive shock ads as offensive or in bad taste and may even help create favorable attitudes toward these companies because of their edgy, rebellious tone.
74 Oliver Toscani, Benetton’s creative director, is that advertising should be free from any type of censorship or scrutiny since it is often a form of art.
82 Media-driven Creative Strategy A media-driven creative strategy refers to the idea of creating advertising messages that are designed to work well in a specific media vehicle.For example, Absolut vodka often tailors its print ads to the specific magazine in which they will appear.While the same basic campaign theme is used, the creative execution takes into account the nature and characteristics (style and mood) of the medium in which the ad is being run.The advantages of this approach are thatit creates a synergy between the creative and media process.