Presentation on theme: "Promotion and Prevention. Approach and avoidance systems We have talked about approach and avoidance These systems may be engaged broadly –Higgins –Promotion."— Presentation transcript:
Approach and avoidance systems We have talked about approach and avoidance These systems may be engaged broadly –Higgins –Promotion focus: Focus on positive outcomes –Prevention focus: Focus on negative outcomes
Promotion focus Driven by nurturance needs –Strong ideals--Personality –Gain/non-gain situations--Situation Leads to –Sensitivity to positive outcomes –Seeks hits insure against errors of omission –Cheerfulness/Dejection
Prevention Focus Driven by security needs –Oughts: responsibilities--Personality –Loss/non-loss situations--Situation Leads to –Sensitivity to negative outcomes –Seek correct rejections/Avoid errors of commission –Relief/Agitation
Affecting cognition Promotion –Because it seeks hits –More time on task Prevention –Because it wants to avoid false alarms –Less time on task
Choice effects Promotion –Attend both to the likelihood an event will occur as well as the value of the event –Frame in terms of I Prevention –Focus more on the responsibility –Likelihood of the event is less important –Actions are taken out of obligation –Frame in terms of We
Regulatory Fit Regulatory focus may fit or mismatch with task Fit leads to a feeling of fluency –May increase preference for an option Fit increases cognitive flexibility –Allows people to recognize when a situation changes Fit increases involvement of explicit processes
Regulatory Fit and Exploration Tradeoff between exploration and exploitation Regulatory fit increases exploration –Exploration is systematic Why does this happen? –Regulatory fit may signal that the world is acting as expected.
Choice and satisfaction Need to ensure that focus during choice matches focus during use –If use will be in a promotion situation, choice should be made in a promotion frame –If use will be in a prevention situation, choice should be made in a prevention frame Choices are made with future satisfaction in mind.
General Issues Cognitive Psychology focuses on information processing –Decisions involve information processing –They also involve emotions and motivations Understanding choice requires focusing on both information processing and motivation –Dual systems models are a way of thinking about this.