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Computing Fundamentals Module Lesson 1 — Introducing Computers

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1 Computing Fundamentals Module Lesson 1 — Introducing Computers
Computer Literacy BASICS

2 Computer Literacy BASICS
Objectives Define a computer. Identify how computers are used in our daily lives. Compare and classify types of computers. List the parts of a computer system. Explain how computers are integrated into larger systems through networks. Computer Literacy BASICS

3 Computer Literacy BASICS
Vocabulary Channel Computer Computer system Data Data communications Hardware Internet Local area network (LAN) Mainframe computers Microcomputer Microprocessors Computer Literacy BASICS

4 Computer Literacy BASICS
Vocabulary (cont.) Minicomputers Network Notebook computer People Protocol Receiver Sender Software Supercomputers Wide area networks (WANs) Computer Literacy BASICS

5 What Makes a Computer a Computer
A computer is an electronic device that Receives data: Information, such as text, numbers, or graphic images, is entered into the computer. Processes data: The computer will change the data from what was entered into the result the user wants. Stores data: The information is stored in the computer’s memory. Produces a result: A final display of the information that was entered can be printed or displayed on a monitor. Computer Literacy BASICS

6 The Processing Cycle of a Computer
Computer Literacy BASICS

7 Computers Perform Three Operations
Arithmetic operations Adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing Logical comparisons Equal to, greater than or less than, etc. Storage and retrieval operations Computer Literacy BASICS

8 Why Are Computers So Popular?
Computers perform functions very quickly. Computers produce accurate and reliable results. Computers store large amounts of data. Computers are versatile and cost-effective. Computers are becoming more powerful and more useful every day. Computer Literacy BASICS

9 How Computers Are Used Today
Computers are used every day for News: Newspapers and television news stations post breaking news, and weather can be accessed on demand on the Internet. Shopping: Millions of people use the Internet every day to purchase goods and services. Computer Literacy BASICS

10 How Computers Are Used Today (cont.)
Homework: Students have instant access to research and information and use word-processing and other software applications for assignments. Managing businesses: Businesses use computers to maintain inventory records, print invoices, track financial information and personnel records, advertise online, and many other tasks. Computer Literacy BASICS

11 Computer Literacy BASICS
Types of Computers Supercomputers: The largest and fastest computers that are used by government agencies and large corporations to process tremendous volumes of data. Mainframes: Large, very expensive machines that can support thousands of users; used by large corporations. Computer Literacy BASICS

12 Computer Literacy BASICS
Types of Computers Minicomputers: Larger than a desktop and much more expensive, but can support many users Microcomputers: Commonly called personal computers or desktop computers. Personal computers also include Notebook computers: Smaller and more portable than a desktop; commonly called a laptop PDAs: Personal Digital Assistants are very small and fit in the palm of your hand. Computer Literacy BASICS

13 Types of Personal Computers
Macintosh desktop PC desktop Computer Literacy BASICS

14 Types of Personal Computers
Notebook PDA Computer Literacy BASICS

15 Other Computing Devices
Microprocessors are computer chips that perform special functions to process information. These computer chips help many kinds of equipment perform more efficiently and effectively: Household appliances Calculators, cellular telephones, and digital cameras Game systems Automobiles Industrial equipment Computer Literacy BASICS

16 Computer Literacy BASICS
Computer Systems A computer system is a combination of parts working together: Hardware: The physical devices such as keyboard, monitor, CPU, and so on Software: Operating systems and application programs Data: The facts entered into a computer to be processed People: The users who enter the data and use the resulting output Computer Literacy BASICS

17 Hardware Components of a Typical Microcomputer System
Computer Literacy BASICS

18 Computer Literacy BASICS
Data Communications Data communications is the technology that enables computers to communicate. The four components of data communications are Sender: The computer that is sending the message Receiver: The computer receiving the message Channel: The media that carries or transports the message. This could be telephone wire, coaxial cable, microwave signal, or fiber optic. Protocol: The rules that govern the orderly transfer of the data sent Computer Literacy BASICS

19 Data Communications Components
REPLACE ART Fig.1-10 Computer Literacy BASICS

20 Computer Literacy BASICS
Computer Networks Businesses utilize a type of data communications called a network. A network consists of multiple computers connected to each other to share data and resources. A computer network located in a small geographical area, such as one building or department, is called a local area network or LAN. A network made up of several local networks in a city, region, or across the world is called a wide area network or WAN. Computer Literacy BASICS

21 A Typical Network Layout
Computer Literacy BASICS

22 Computer Literacy BASICS
Intranets An intranet is used exclusively within an organization and contains company information such as handbooks, forms, and newsletters. The major advantages of using an intranet include reliability and security because the organization can control access to this kind of network. Computer Literacy BASICS

23 Computer Literacy BASICS
Extranets Extranets are computer networks that allow outside organizations to access a business’s internal information systems. Access is controlled tightly and is usually reserved for suppliers or customers. Computer Literacy BASICS

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The Internet The Internet was developed for government research projects to share information quickly and easily. Today it is the largest network in the world. It is used daily by millions of computer users. It has become a critical and valuable business tool used by businesses of all sizes. The most commonly used feature of the Internet is electronic mail, or . Computer Literacy BASICS

25 Computer Literacy BASICS
Summary A computer is an electronic device that receives data, processes data, and stores data to produce a result. Early computers were large, expensive machines used by governments and major corporations. Computers can be found in almost every aspect of our lives. Computer Literacy BASICS

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Summary (cont.) Computers are classified by size, speed, and application. There are different types of computers including supercomputers, mainframe computers, minicomputers, and microcomputers. Computer Literacy BASICS

27 Computer Literacy BASICS
Summary (cont.) Microcomputers are classified by the type of operating system they use, most commonly Windows or DOS on PCs and Mac OS on Macintosh computers. Notebook computers are small, portable computers that allow people to work away from their desks. Computer Literacy BASICS

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Summary (cont.) Other devices that incorporate computers or task-specific microprocessors include personal digital assistants, cellular phones, digital cameras, interactive books, game systems, home appliances, automobile engines, and industrial equipment. Computer Literacy BASICS

29 Computer Literacy BASICS
Summary (cont.) A computer system consists of the following components: hardware, software, data, and people. Data communications is the transmission of text, numeric, voice, or video data from one machine to another. Computer Literacy BASICS

30 Computer Literacy BASICS
Summary (cont.) The four components of data communica-tions are the sender, the receiver, the channel, and the protocol. A local area network connects multiple computers within a building to share data and resources. A wide area network includes several local area networks within a city, region, country, continent, or the world. Computer Literacy BASICS

31 Computer Literacy BASICS
Summary (cont.) The Internet was originally developed so information could be shared by government researchers around the world. is the most common experience most people have with the Internet, allowing messages to be sent from one computer to another locally and around the world. Computer Literacy BASICS

32 Computer Literacy BASICS
Quick Quiz 1. A computer can be defined as a(n) _______________. A. device capable of performing calculations B. mechanical device capable of operating automatically C. device capable of doing work D. electronic device that receives data, processes it, stores it, and produces a result Computer Literacy BASICS

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Answer: D Electronic device that receives data, processes it, stores it, and produces a result Computer Literacy BASICS

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Quick Quiz 2. The most popular type of computers in use today are _______________. Computer Literacy BASICS

35 Computer Literacy BASICS
Answer: personal computers (desktop or laptop computers also correct) Computer Literacy BASICS

36 Computer Literacy BASICS
Quick Quiz 3. Computers are classified by size, speed, and application. All of the following are types of computers except _______________. A. keyboard B. notebook C. mainframe D. palm-top Computer Literacy BASICS

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Answer: A Keyboard Computer Literacy BASICS

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Quick Quiz 4. Tangible, physical equipment that can be seen and touched is called ______________. Computer Literacy BASICS

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Answer: hardware Computer Literacy BASICS

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Quick Quiz 5. True or False? The four components of data communications are the sender, the receiver, the keyboard, and the protocol. Computer Literacy BASICS

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Answer: False Computer Literacy BASICS

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Discussion Question #1 Consider an occupation or profession and think about how the job was performed in the past without computers compared to how it is performed now with computers. How has training for the job changed? Is the job now simpler or more complex? Is it easier or more difficult to perform? Computer Literacy BASICS

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Discussion Question #2 In what ways has computer technology changed in your own lifetime? Think about the kinds of computers you encountered in grade school compared with computers and computerized devices that you use today. Computer Literacy BASICS

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Discussion Question #3 What would happen if there were no rules or protocols governing the transfer of information in data communications? Computer Literacy BASICS

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