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Click to edit Master title style Mohammad Noori Mohammad Noori (http://mohammad-noori.com) IUCEE 2012-13 Virtual Academy, Nov.

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Presentation on theme: "Click to edit Master title style Mohammad Noori Mohammad Noori (http://mohammad-noori.com) IUCEE 2012-13 Virtual Academy, Nov."— Presentation transcript:

1 Click to edit Master title style Mohammad Noori Mohammad Noori (http://mohammad-noori.com) IUCEE Virtual Academy, Nov. 6 & 12, 2012

2 Some of the Major Studies Published : NAE, 2004, The Engineer of 2020 NAE, 2005, Educating the Engineer of 2020 NAE, 2008, Changing the Conversation NSF, 2007, The 5XME Workshop: Transforming ME Education and Research ASME, 2008 Global Summit on the Future of Mechanical Engineering Duderstadt, 2008, Engineering for a Changing World ASCE, 2008, Civil Engineering Body of Knowledge for the 21 st Century Carnegie Foundation 2008, Educating Engineers: Designing for the Future of the Field ASEE 2011, Creating a Culture for Scholarly and Systematic Innovation in Engineering Education ASME 2012, Vision 2030: Creating the future of Mechanical Engineering Changing Role of Engineers and the Need to Reform Engineering Curriculum

3 In the 20 th Century, engineering recorded its grandest accomplishments the book A Century of Innovation: Twenty Engineering Achievements That Transformed Our Lives, published through a project initiated by the National Academy of Engineering (NAE).A Century of Innovation: Twenty Engineering Achievements That Transformed Our Lives In the 20 th Century, engineering recorded its grandest accomplishments the book A Century of Innovation: Twenty Engineering Achievements That Transformed Our Lives, published through a project initiated by the National Academy of Engineering (NAE).A Century of Innovation: Twenty Engineering Achievements That Transformed Our Lives Grand Challenges- Background 1. Electrification 2. Automobile 3. Airplane 4. Water Supply and Distribution 5. Electronics 6. Radio and Television 7. Agricultural Mechanization 8. Computers 9. Telephone 10. Air Conditioning & Refrigeratio10. Air Conditioning & Refrigeration 1. Electrification 2. Automobile 3. Airplane 4. Water Supply and Distribution 5. Electronics 6. Radio and Television 7. Agricultural Mechanization 8. Computers 9. Telephone 10. Air Conditioning & Refrigeratio10. Air Conditioning & Refrigeration 11. Highways 12. Spacecraft 13. Internet 14. Imaging 15. Household Appliances 16. Health Technologies 17. Petroleum/Petrochemical Technologies 18. Laser and Fiber Optics 19. Nuclear Technologies 20. High-performance Materials 11. Highways 12. Spacecraft 13. Internet 14. Imaging 15. Household Appliances 16. Health Technologies 17. Petroleum/Petrochemical Technologies 18. Laser and Fiber Optics 19. Nuclear Technologies 20. High-performance Materials

4 In the 21 st Century Engineering is faced with New Frontiers. Our World is Changing In the 21 st Century Engineering is faced with New Frontiers. Our World is Changing 20th century: Stovepipes Scientists discovered. Engineers created. Doctors healed. 20th century: Stovepipes Scientists discovered. Engineers created. Doctors healed. 21 st Century: Science, Engineering, and Medicine are: Totally interdependent. Blending together in new ways. 21 st Century: Science, Engineering, and Medicine are: Totally interdependent. Blending together in new ways. New Frontiers for Engineering in the 21 st Century

5 5 1.Breakthroughs in technology 2.Demographics 3.Global Challenges 4.Economic/societal forces New Context for Engineering

6 1. Breakthroughs in Technology: Sustainable Technology Biotechnology/ Nano-medicine Logistics Photonics/optics Manufacturing Microelectronics/ telecommunications Nanotechnology New Context for Engineering

7 Smaller and Smaller Faster and Faster More and More Complex 7 Bio Info Nano Macro Energy Environment Health Care Manufacturing Communications Logistics Bio-based materials Biomemetics Personalized, Predictive Medicine Synthetic Biology Biofuels Etc. The payoffs will come from bridging these frontiers. Our students must be prepared to do this. Frontiers and synergies (natural and social sciences) must be reflected in the university education. 1. Breakthroughs in Technology: New Context for Engineering

8 8 Global Challenges are a New Reality 8 billion people; a 25% increase since Balance tipped toward urbanization and Mega Cities. By 2007, for the 1 st time, majority of population lived in cities By the end of 2010, more than 59 cities with population of more than 5 million; 50% increase since 2001 Challenges: Environmental issues, congestion, delivery systems (water, electric power, sanitation, etc.) For instance, in 2007, congestion in American populated cities caused: travel 4.2B hours more, and an extra 2.8B gallons of fuel---a total congestion cost of $87.2B (and the avg. cost of gas was $2.78). 2. Demographics New Context for Engineering

9 9 Global Challenges are a New Reality Youth bulge in underdeveloped nations while developed nations age. If the world condensed to 100 people: 56 in Asia 7 in Eastern Europe/Russia 16 in Africa in the United States 4 in the United States 2. Demographics New Context for Engineering

10 10 3. Challenges: Fresh water shortages Aging infrastructure Energy demands Global warming New diseases Security New Context for Engineering

11 Civil and Mechanical Infrastructure Bridges: More than 600,000 in U.S. Pipelines: 2 million miles of natural gas lines in U.S. Commercial Aircraft: 9,000 in use in U.S. Wind Turbines: 21,000 MW capacity in the U.S.

12 Motivation for SHM R/D in Infrastructure The emerging storm necessitates immediate attention: – Aging infrastructure systems – Exposure to natural hazards – Population growth in urban centers – Need for more sustainable practices At stake- the economic prosperity of the nation: – Resilient infrastructure renders more competition – Need collaboration with other countries and sharing practices Nation is facing baby-boomer infrastructure problem with many systems approaching the end of intended design lives (~50 years) Japan Tohoku Earthquake (March 2011) recent reminder of the destruction possible during natural hazard events Densification translates to increased demand on infrastructure and renders responses to more complex catastrophes

13 13 4. Economic/Societal/Global Forces: High speed communications /Internet Terrorist attacks; wars Sustained investment in higher education in countries like China, India Population is more diverse Growing imperative for environmental sustainability Increasing focus on security, privacy, and safety New Context for Engineering

14 14 Social/cultural/political forces will shape and affect the success of technological innovation – A series of reports, workshops, … organized by the NAE to identify the most important engineering challenges in the 21 st Century. New Context for Engineering

15 January 10, the NAE launched a Website to receive ideas from around the world: What are the grand challenges for engineering in the next one hundred years?. People from more than 40 countries responded. NAE collected this impressive body of ideas. February NAE convened an international panel of highly accomplished experts to review the global responses and to identify several extremely challenging and important themes; deemed to be doable in the next few decades. Panel proposed/selected14 challenges. They chose opportunities that were achievable and would help people and the planet thrive. Over 50 subject-matter experts were invited to review the Panel's recommendations. NAE also received world-wide input from prominent engineers and scientists and the general public. Grand Challenges- Identification

16 Make solar energy economical Provide energy from fusion Develop carbon sequestration methods Manage the nitrogen cycle Provide access to clean water Restore and improve urban infrastructure Advance health informatics Engineer better medicines Reverse- engineer the brain Prevent nuclear terror Secure cyberspace Enhance virtual reality Advance personalized learning Engineer the tools of scientific discovery The Engineering Grand Challenges (Unveiled February 15, 2008)

17 Sustainability of civilization & the planet Make Solar Energy Economical Provide Energy from Fusion Develop Carbon Sequestration Methods Manage the Nitrogen Cycle Provide Access to Clean Water Threats to personal and public Health Engineer Better Medicines Advance Health Informatics Vulnerability to pandemic diseases, violence, natural disasters Secure Cyberspace Prevent Nuclear Terror Restore and Improve Urban Infrastructure Products/processes that enhance the Joy of Living Reverse Engineer the Brain Enhance Virtual Reality Advance Personalized Learning Engineer the Tools of Scientific Discovery 17 The Challenges represent four broad realms of concern: The Engineering Grand Challenges (Unveiled February 15, 2008)

18 18 Are vital for human survival and will make us more secure against natural and human threats. Public will understand and appreciate the impact of engineering on socio-cultural systems, and will recognize engineerings ability to address the worlds complex and changing challenges. Will improve quality of life; what engineering is all about. Larger context for engineering and technology. Why Are They Important?

19 Engineering is pivotal to meet the 21 st Century challenges. Engineering solutions must be designed by considering the governmental, institutional, political, economical, and social barriers. Grand Challenges are Global, require a multi-disciplinary solution and a new breed of engineers Implications for Engineering Education

20 Understand the four broad realms of Grand Challenges for the 21 st Century Can find, implement and maintain innovative solutions with an appreciation of the economic, social and global parameters Can effectively function in a diverse, complex and ever-changing world Can solve complex technical problems using creative problem solving skills through a multi-disciplinary team-based approach Need a New Breed of Engineers

21 21

22 Communicator Understands engineering fundamentals Hands-on Team Player Creative Designer Multidisciplinary orientation Socio-Political Awareness Systems Thinker Global Awareness Need A New Breed of Engineers Who Understand the Four Realms of Grand Challenges

23 Developed at the first GC Summit in 2009 and endorsed by the NAE. 38 Universities have now joined the program 8 have developed active programs A series of annual Grand Challenges Scholar workshops A Proposed Curriculum: NAE Grand Challenges Scholar Program

24 Five Components of NAE Grand Challenges Scholar Program Research experience. Related to a Grand Challenge. Interdisciplinary curriculum - Engineering+. Work at the interface of public policy, business, law, ethics, sociology, medicine and the sciences. Entrepreneurship. Translate invention to innovation for global solutions in the public interest. Global dimension. Develop global perspective necessary to address global challenges; innovation in a global economy. Service learning. Develop social consciousness and motivation to bring technical expertise to bear on societal problems. (e.g. Programs such as EWB)

25 How To Develop An Active Program: Initially attract a select cadre of students at each school. Replicated at many other engineering programs to yield a pool of several thousand graduates per year prepared to address the most challenging global problems. Will serve to pilot innovative educational approaches that will eventually become the mainstream educational paradigm for all engineering students. Each participating institution will develop its own specific realization of the five components. Students who complete the program successfully will receive a distinction of Grand Challenge Scholar endorsed by their institution and the NAE. Five Components of NAE Grand Challenges Scholar Program

26 Duke University (Typical-similar to Olins) : Freshman/Sophomore Year - Involvement in curricular or extra-curricular GC related projects, courses, seminars, etc. Junior Year- Declare GC Focus, and submit proposal for the GC portfolio and GC senior thesis. Senior Year- Complete of the GC portfolio and GC senior thesis, and attend the national GC Summit. There are Required Components of the GC Portfolio and GC Senior Thesis. Initiatives To Address the Grand Challenges A Few Samples

27 Incorporation of Grand Challenges into Design Spine Grand Challenges can be incorporated as elements into the early design courses Provides a context and engineering background for students Indicates areas where MEs are needed to provide leadership in the development of innovative and sustainable solutions. Challenges relevant to mechanical engineering students: –the environment, –energy, –health, –security, –global collaboration. –quality of life ASME-NAE GCS Program Initial Efforts

28 Year 1 – problem solving course, engineering computer graphics course Year 2 – product manufacturing course, design process course Year 3 – product development course Year 4 – two semester capstone senior design Reinforce the design/ professional topics are year by year, with no gap in the sophomore and junior years, All courses would incorporate group projects, teamwork, oral and written communication. Implementation will require both intellectual and financial resources: buy-in from the faculty, increased industrial expertise and support, increased workshop, laboratory and design studio space. Design/Professional Spine ASME-NAE GCS Program Initial Efforts

29 Strengthening the practical experience component of the students skill set. A significant portion of the curriculum should be dedicated to such activities. The curriculum should contain a design/professional spine with significant design-build Practical experience ASME-NAE GCS Program Initial Efforts

30 Design/Professional Spine Professional skills such as problem solving, teamwork, leadership, entrepreneurship, innovation, and project management will be central features of the design spine. These skills should be learned in the context of a structured approach to problem solving - problem formulation, problem analysis, and solution. ASME-NAE GCS Program Initial Efforts

31 Incorporate PBL with a GC focus throughout the curriculum. A sequence of courses, projects, and extracurricular activities starting from the first year culminating in the senior design, and a combined BS/MS – through a Holistic multidisciplinary project based approach. Faculty Team from all Programs (Innovative Content and Delivery) Industry Steering Board Industry MD-MS or 4+1 w/ a focus on Thrusts An Initiative at Cal Poly As Part of A Plan for NAE GCS Program

32 1st Year: A 10 hour/wk community service, (Poly House, Habitat, etc.). Industry sponsored seminars. Join the multi-disciplinary senior design project mentored by a senior student. An independent research project on Grand Challenges. 1st Year: A 10 hour/wk community service, (Poly House, Habitat, etc.). Industry sponsored seminars. Join the multi-disciplinary senior design project mentored by a senior student. An independent research project on Grand Challenges. 2nd Year: Similar to 1st Year + an extracurricular team/design project related to GC. Participate in Engineering Summer Camp as a mentor. 2nd Year: Similar to 1st Year + an extracurricular team/design project related to GC. Participate in Engineering Summer Camp as a mentor. 3rd Year: A year long interactive qualifying project (societal impact of technology). A Global experience, EWB. A GC project advised by a Professor of Practice (sponsored by industry). Summer internship. Mini Design Projects. 3rd Year: A year long interactive qualifying project (societal impact of technology). A Global experience, EWB. A GC project advised by a Professor of Practice (sponsored by industry). Summer internship. Mini Design Projects. A Proposed Plan for NAE GCS Program (Cal Poly)

33 4th Year: A year long multi-disciplinary GC senior design project (can be done at industry, or with a Global Partner). Involve Business students. A plan for the incubation of the resulting product. A GC project (GR level). 4th Year: A year long multi-disciplinary GC senior design project (can be done at industry, or with a Global Partner). Involve Business students. A plan for the incubation of the resulting product. A GC project (GR level). 5th Year : GC Team thesis/project. A half year at a Global Site. A quarterly Design Review Summit held at Cal Poly with all students, faculty, and industry liaisons. Public will be invited. 5th Year : GC Team thesis/project. A half year at a Global Site. A quarterly Design Review Summit held at Cal Poly with all students, faculty, and industry liaisons. Public will be invited. A Proposed Plan for NAE GCS Program (Cal Poly)

34 1.Identify core competencies that map the Grand Challenges (e.g. Renewable Energy). 2.Identify a multi-disciplinary faculty team representing the core competencies to form an interdisciplinary cluster. Initial Phases Developed and Implemented 3.Make Project Based Learning Institute the link between the interdisciplinary engineering cluster" and industry. 4.Form a steering committee (representatives from the cluster, industry and other non- engineering disciplines).

35 5.Create a year-long Multidisciplinary Senior Design program as the first step for extending multi-disciplinary project-based education throughout the entire curriculum. In launched the first Multidisciplinary Senior Design Project at any major university. An opportunity for the students to complete Sr. Project as part of an interdisciplinary team. Enable students to apply Design, Build & Test a solution to a design problem that will benefit society (GC). Faculty Advisor Technical Mentors Industry Champion Phases Developed and Implemented Multidisciplinary Senior Project

36 Industry (external) sponsored projects Provide Problem + Funding Industry Champion/Engineer Liaison Full year program (30 weeks) 3 Quarters (3 units/quarter = 9 units) 1 Lecture/week (ENGR470) 2 Design Labs/week (ENGR481/482/483) Learning Outcomes: ABET Criterion 3 (a-k) (Both Technical and Non-Technical) 6 Faculty Advisors (6 departments) All IP Belongs to Project Sponsor Open to all Engineering Seniors and business majors Multidisciplinary Senior Project - Format

37 Sample Projects: Solar Robo Trimmer Robotic Finger Spelling Hand Neonatal Medical Device Anchoring Device for Spinal Cord Stimulation Student Participation: 28 6 Teams: 5-6 students/team BMED: 10, MATE: 7, ME: 5, GENE: 2 SE: 2, EE: 1 (2), IE/IME: 1 Multidisciplinary Senior Project – Sponsored Projects

38 Design Process & Systems Engineering Technical Reports & Presentations Design for Manufacturability Idea selection & Decision Schemes Teamwork Systems Engineering Creativity, Idea Generation & Conceptual Modeling Project Planning Safety & Risk Sustainable Design Material Selection Ergonomics Intellectual Property Entrepreneurship Product Liability Design for Quality Industrial Design Cost Estimating Reliability Documentation & Product User Guides Global Perspective, Self-directed Learning & Life-long Learning Resume, Interviews & Portfolios Multidisciplinary Senior Project – Key Topics

39 Team Intro Letter to Sponsor Team Contract Project Requirements Document Conceptual Design Review Final Design Review Prototype Status Presentations Senior Design Expo (6/4/09) Final Project Reports Multidisciplinary Senior Project – Deliverables

40 645 m^2 Student Shop 645 m^2 Student Shop No Classes/ Only Projects No Classes/ Only Projects IME Resources Multidisciplinary Senior Project – Hands-On Manufacturing Support

41 Multidisciplinary Senior Project – Senior Design Expo 6/4/09

42 What Can Be Concluded? Due to the new Global/Societal Landscape The Need for Improvement both in Context and Pedagogy is Recognized A Number of Excellent Examples Have Been Noted, However, with Minimum Impact on the Mainstream of Eng. Ed. How Should We Approach This Problem- A Suggested Path Forward NAE GCS Program And the Ongoing Dialogue

43 The rise to dominance of school culture in engineering education took place much later in England and the U.S.A. than in France or Germany. The academic training of state engineers set a powerful role model in Continental Europe but was absent in Anglo-America. Consequently, the academic training of engineers for the private sector of the economy started earlier in Europe, and the professional strategies of the engineers included emulating the public service. Historical Context

44 Development in the US, two Schools of Thought: French Approach – Thayer, – Influenced by La Place. Visited Ecole Polytechnique. Founded West Point – Later contributed to the establishment of RPI British – Apprenticeship. Result of the Industrial Revolution (1750 to 1850) Land Grant Act (Morrill) Historical Context

45 The evolution and History of Engineering Education in the Past 60 Years Is Particularly Relevant: o GI Bill of 1944, Grinter Report, 1955 o Sputnik Era, 1957, Grinter Report, 1955, Est. of NSF, NASA, booming era of Eng. Ed. and a shift to Research and Basic Sciences The wave of change from 1950 to 1990s- o Creation of the Research Focus and New Tenure RequirementsA New Culture o Compartmentalization of Disciplines o Focus on Sci/Math and de-emphasizing Hands-on, Industry collaboration o ABET and regulating engineering education o Unsuccessful NSF EECP Initiative Historical Context

46 While vast majority of programs shifted towards applied science, compartmentalized and disciplinary focus, a few some notable exceptions established remarkably innovative models that addressed the need to retain engineering design, team work, multidisciplinary approach and socially aware engineer. The most notable and innovative effort was WPI Plan, introduced in Although under the pressure of ABET had to change, it forced ABET to change: ABET Innovative and Visionary Programs- WPI PLan

47 Science Mathematics Humanities & Social Sciences Freshman Science Mathematics Eng. Science H. & S. S. Sophomore Eng. Science Disciplinary Eng. H. & S. S. Junior Disciplinary Eng. Design Project H. & S. S. Senior Passing Through Filters Traditional, Compartmentalized Course Based Curriculum

48 75% of learning takes place outside the classroom Eliminated courses and pre-requisites as degree requirements in favor of demonstrated competencies with a focus on project- based-education, requiring: o a year long project in social sciences and humanities o a year long interdisciplinary project on the impact of technology on society and a global experience o completion of a year long, multi-disciplinary, team design o a competency exam with an oral defense in front of a multi- disciplinary team of faculty. Integration of knowledge across disciplines and academic years. Educating a hands on, team oriented, socially aware engineer with a global perspective and interdisciplinary skills. WPI Plan

49 Grand Challenges As the Driving Force New Generation: o Self Learners, YouTube/Internet Savvy o Global Awareness o Prefer YouTube and Internet Instead of Textbooks o Technology Savvy o More Service Oriented Open Courseware trend Rising Cost of Higher Education and the Societal Pressure for More Accountability for Academia We need a major overhaul with all cards on the table: o ABET, General Education, Course-Based Curriculum, Grading System, Departmental Barriers, Pre-requisites, …. A New Era:

50 This is the most exciting time for engineering and science in human history. The opportunity to lead the world to a more prosperous and sustainable future is before us. We must garner the global will to do so. It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the ones most responsive to change. Charles Darwin THANK YOU! Summary


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