Presentation on theme: "OBJECTIVE You should be able to: State and explain the effects of computers on society with respect to: - Employment - Health - Crime - Privacy - Communication."— Presentation transcript:
OBJECTIVE You should be able to: State and explain the effects of computers on society with respect to: - Employment - Health - Crime - Privacy - Communication & The Environment
AREAS WHICH ARE AFFECTED BY COMPUTER USE Employment Health Privacy Crime Communication & the Environment
REFERENCE LOG ON TO IT FOR CSEC- 2 nd Edition (Purple Book) - Chapter 9 - Chapter 17
EFFECTS OF COMPUTERS ON EMPLOYMENT JOB LOSS JOB CREATION CHANGE IN JOB SKILLS CHANGE IN WORK PATTERNS
Job Loss Jobs previously performed by humans are now being done by computers. e.g Automated assembly lines in car manufacturing plants can assemble cars faster and more precisely than humans. Dangerous jobs can now be done by robots. e.g Handling dangerous chemicals in a chemical company. Regulating valve pressure in oil refineries. Jobs done by more than one person can now be done by one person with a computer e.g Multiple filing clerks and filing cabinets can be replaced by one person and a computerized database
Job Creation The computer industry has created many new jobs in the areas of research, design, manufacturing, programming, maintenance, communication, consultation and security. Some jobs created by the use of computers are: 1. Programmers 2. Database Administrators 3. Computer Technicians 4. Network Administrators 5. Computer Engineers
Change of Job Skill The introduction of computers into different areas means that workers have had to get new skills and upgrade old ones. eg. Office secretaries using typewriters needed to learn word processing software. eg. Draughtsmen and architects who would manually draw their designs had to learn to produce their designs on computers using computer-aided design (CAD).
Change in Work Pattern Computers have changed the way people do their jobs. They allow persons to work outside their usual working hours and away from their usual workplaces i.e. telework or telecommute. eg. An accountant can stay at home and work at anytime using her computer along with the internet by sending and receiving accounting information to and from her workplace via email.
THE EFFECTS OF COMPUTERS ON HEALTH REPETITIVE STRAIN INJURY (RSI)- COMPUTER VISION SYNDROME BACK PAIN
Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) An RSI is an injury that occurs over time as a result of repetitive, forceful or awkward body movements. RSI can occur as a result of a lot of typing over a period of years. Two types of RSIs are: 1. Tendonitis 2. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Tendonitis This occurs when a tendon becomes inflamed as a result of a repetitive motion or stress on the tendon. Symptoms of tendonitis of the wrist include: 1. Extreme pain from forearm to hand 2. Tingling in fingers
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) Is an inflammation of the nerve that connects your forearm to the palm of your hand. Symptoms of CTS include: 1. Burning pains when the nerve is compressed 2. Numbness and tingling in thumbs and fingers
Methods of Preventing or Reducing RSI Taking breaks from computer Roll shoulders Exercise hands and arms (shaking them letting them hang loose) Typing lightly on keyboard Move fingers when typing rather than wrists Position mouse same height as keyboard Move arm rather than wrist when using mouse
Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) Is a disorder cause by focusing the eyes on the computer screen for long periods of time. Symptoms to CVS include: 1. Sore, tired, burning, itching, dry eyes 2. Blurred or double vision 3. Headache or sore neck 4. Long distance vision becomes blurred 5. Color fringes or after images when looking away from monitor 6. Increased insensitivity to light 7. Difficulty focusing on the screen image
Methods of Preventing or Reducing CVS Taking 5-10 min break every hour while using the computer Clean computer screen and removing or blocking light sources which cause glare Adjust contrast and brightness for high contrast between text and background Prevent eye strain- eyes about 28 inches away from monitor - place monitor slightly below eye level Gently massage eyes, cheeks forehead neck often to improve blood flow
Back Pain Back pain can be caused by bad posture as well as poorly designed or incorrectly assembled furniture or equipment.
Methods of Preventing or Reducing Back Pain Use firm, adjustable chair with back support Make sure thighs are horizontal to feet Feet flat on floor Stretch lower back periodically Relax shoulders, make sure forearms and upper arms should form 90 degree angle. Wrists and hands in a straight line Walk around 5-10 minutes for every hour
EFFECTS OF COMPUTERS ON PRIVACY INVASION OF PRIVACY DATA PROTECTION LAWS
Invasion of Privacy Businesses and government bodies store personal information (name, age, address telephone number etc.) on individuals in an electronic form in databases This information can be accessed, transmitted and copied easily from computer to computer through LANs and WANs making it more likely that it be could sold to other companies or stolen. An invasion of privacy is the access and use of a person's information for unintended purposes.
Data Protection Laws In order to protect the personal data of individuals many countries have implemented data protection laws. These laws generally require that: 1. Data stored must be accurate 2. Data stored must only be used for the purpose for which they were collected 3. Data stored must be protected from unauthorized access or use 4. Individuals have the right to view the data stored about them Some data protection laws are: 1. UK, Data Protection Act of 1998 http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/29/contents http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/29/contents 2.USA, Privacy Act of 1984 http://www.loc.gov/law/find/hearings/pdf/00184035145.pdf
COMPUTER CRIME SOFTWARE PIRACY HACKING INTERNET FRAUD INDUSTRIAL ESPIONAGE
Software Piracy This is the unauthorized copying, use or selling of software that is copyrighted. Some types of software piracy are: Licensed-user duplication for unlicensed users - Making copies of software from a legally purchased copy. Pre- installed software - Computer store installs software licensed for one computer on many computers Internet Piracy -Downloading unauthorized copies from the internet Counterfeiting - Making illegal copies of software and packaging them to look like the original
Why shouldn't Pirated Software be used ? Pirating software is theft and using it is morally wrong. Software may not contain all elements or documentation Software may not have upgrade options Software may contain viruses Piracy is illegal as most countries have piracy laws which carry heavy fines. Selling pirated software deprives the writer of the software of income that is legally theirs.
Hacking Hacking is the unauthorized accessing of a computer system; the individual who does this is referred to as a hacker. Hackers access computer systems to: 1. Steal important confidential information 2. Copy computer programs illegally 3. Alter data 4. Destroy data by deleting it or installing viruses 5. Make illegal electronic transfers of money between bank accounts (EFT)
How do Hackers gain access? Impersonation - pretending to be someone who is a legitimate user Brute force Attack - trying every possible combination of characters to find the password Remote Login - using flaws in operating system to find a back door that allows the hacker to connect to a remote computer and control it
Internet Fraud This refers to fraud schemes which use internet components such as email, chat rooms, message boards or websites. Some major types of fraud are: Telemarketing schemes online - Companies set up virtual shops online and offer items for sale but when customers purchase products they either do not receive them or they are less valuable than what was advertised Credit card fraud -Bogus businesses are set up on the internet which lure individuals into giving up credit card information in order to steal their money. They often request this information via email by pretending to be a bank. Business opportunity/ work –at- home schemes - Schemes which use the internet to advertise these false businesses and job opportunities. They require persons to make an initial payment for information and materials but give them nothing in return.
Industrial Espionage This is when confidential information from within a company or organization is obtained by spying in an effort to gain some advantage to the detriment of the company being spied on. Some types of information obtained may be: 1. A design for a new device 2. An unpublished price list 3. The addresses and phone numbers of senior employees The information obtained may be used to cause the company which was spied upon to lose revenue or to blackmail them.
OTHER EFFECTS OF COMPUTERS ON: - COMMUNICATION - THE ENVIRONMENT
Effects of Computers on Communications Computers have allowed us to communicate instantaneously. We no longer use just telephones and mail but also email, instant messaging and video chatting. Email has brought with it shortened words such as using U in place of You and symbols called emoticons such as which indicate emotions. Email is impersonal allowing us to express differently than face to face communications. Email however impedes the development of normal working relationships if it is the only means on communication
Effects of Computers on the Environment Technology has been blamed for polluting the environment as a result of improper disposal of old computer parts or used ink/toner cartridges. Technology has also had a positive effect on the environment as better communication has made telecommuting possible causing a reduction in traffic pollution. Technology has also made it possible to store data electronically rather than on paper thereby saving trees.
QUESTIONS 1. Give ONE advantage and ONE disadvantage of the use of computers in employment. 2. List TWO types of Repetitive Strain Injury.
QUESTIONS 3. Briefly explain how each of the following persons job has changed with the use of computers: Doctor Secretary Teacher 4. List and explain the different types of computer crimes 5. Briefly explain how communicating with friends and loved ones has changed with the use of computers. Give examples of the different ways in which we now communicate with each other.
PROJECT The class will be divided into groups of 7 students and given one area to work on (Employment, Health, Privacy, Crime, Communication & the Environment). The members of the group should research their assigned topic and present their information in one of the following forms: Power Point Chart Role Play Models Or any other creative form. The group has to present their project in class orally along with the above. Marks will be awarded!!!!!!!!!
WHEN DOING YOUR PROJECT CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING: RESEARCH CONTENT TEAM-WORK PRESENTATION KNOWLEDGE ORIGINALITY PREPAREDNESS