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Model Railroading Operations 101: Part 3 – Train Operation Tom Crosthwait President, Mogollon & Southwestern RR & Fred Bock, MMR, Chief Dispatcher, M&Sw.

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Presentation on theme: "Model Railroading Operations 101: Part 3 – Train Operation Tom Crosthwait President, Mogollon & Southwestern RR & Fred Bock, MMR, Chief Dispatcher, M&Sw."— Presentation transcript:

1 Model Railroading Operations 101: Part 3 – Train Operation Tom Crosthwait President, Mogollon & Southwestern RR & Fred Bock, MMR, Chief Dispatcher, M&Sw

2 What is operations? Operations is simulating (in miniature) the day-to-day activities of real railroads -- picking up freight, assembling trains, delivering cars to consignees, sorting arriving freight cars by their future destinations, returning empty cars. Simulating: -- keep important details -- omit unimportant ones -- objective: have fun! Train Operations Its a game!

3 The Rules of the Game (All games have rules – e.g. Monopoly). On the M&Sw, the rules are: –The M&Sw Standard Code of Operating Rules for Model RRs. –The M&Sw Employee Timetable and Special Instructions. »(The above documents are modeled on the prototype). –A RailOp Switching Manifest. All M&Sw employees will receive a copy of the Standard Code and of the Employee Timetable and should keep these with them while on duty. [Rule 4] (An employee is a person who has been invited by the Superintendent to participate in an operating session and has accepted the invitation for a particular date and time).

4 Model Train (vs. Prototype) Engineer can easily see whats ahead. Can stop train in 3 feet. Cost of accident: – usually < $500 – usually nobody killed Simplification for funs sake is OK.

5 A typical freight train A train: –Has a locomotive at the front end. –May have 0, 1 or more cars behind. –Displays markers at the end of the train On the M&Sw: freight trains must have a caboose. [Rule 19]

6 Train Crews Prototype: –Engineer: Operates locomotives –Fireman: Feathers the bed –Conductor: In charge of the whole train –Head-end Brakeman Switches, uncouples, flags –Rear-end Brakeman Switches, uncouples, flags –(Other Brakemen) Long trains; as needed Model: –Engineer –Conductor (sometimes) –Brakeman (seldom) Two-man crew - best: –Engineer –Conductor-Brakeman One-man crew - usual: –Engineer et al. (Hereafter, all references to train crews are to model train crews).

7 Train Crew Roles Engineer: –Operates the locomotive. –STAYS AHEAD OF HIS MOVING LOCOMOTIVE AT ALL TIMES! –Communicates only with conductor. –Keeps a keen eye on his loco and train. –Watches / listens for derailed cars or locos. Conductor-Brakeman –Boss of the train. –Directs the engineer on running the train. –Communicates with dispatcher, yardmaster, and other conductors. –Directs switching moves. –Throws turnouts. –Uncouples cars as needed. –Does roll-by inspections of other trains. [Rule 712, Rule 713] –Watches / listens for derailed cars or locomotives. [Rule 920, Rule 800, 801, Rule 712] Model Railroading

8 Using the M&Sws throttles Keep the antenna vertical. Dont touch the antenna. Hold the case in your left hand*... at least 1 from your body. Rotate the speed control knob with your right hand. * [use two hands] Rotate GENTLY – it breaks. Dont MASH down on the keys; be GENTLE – they break. Turn Throttle OFF when done.

9 Yardmaster - Large Model Railroad: –Has 1 or more yard switch crews working for him. –May have separate local industry switch jobs. –May have separate passenger yard. –Admits trains into yard; releases trains leaving. Yardmaster – Medium-size model railroad: –Crew of yard switcher serves as yardmaster. Yardmaster – Small model railroad: –Train crews serve as the yardmaster. –The train crew currently in yard serves as yardmaster. [Rule 803] The Yardmaster

10 #1: Keep trains on the main line from crashing into each other! #2: Keep trains from creating a traffic jam that ties up the railroad. #3: Keep traffic flowing smoothly #4: Give each train crew the time and track it needs to get its job done. On the M&Sw, its usual practice to have a dispatcher when there are 3 or more trains in mainline operation at the same time. [Rule 990] The Dispatcher

11 Yardmaster vs. Dispatcher As Frank Ellison once put it: For all practical purposes, main line and yard are two wholly independent operating layouts connected by the fewest possible entrance and exit tracks... The yardmaster is supreme in one, and the dispatcher in the other... Movements between the two are made only by mutual agreement. (Quotation from Bruce A. Chubb, How to Operate your Model Railroad)

12 Leaving the Yard A conductor needs permission of the Yardmaster for his train to move thru the yard to the Yard Limit. A conductor needs permission from the Dispatcher for his train to pass the Yard Limit and proceed out of the yard onto the main line. The Yard Limit is the boundary between the Yardmasters yard and the Dispatchers railroad [Rule 93].

13 Yard Railroad Mainline Yard Limit sign The Yard Limit sign will be on the right- hand side of the track as you ENTER the yard. (the engineers side). The Yard Limit sign will be on the left- hand side of the track as you LEAVE the yard. SP Common Standard sign (used on M&Sw)

14 Simulated Radio Traffic Leaving Globe Yard -- Conductor, Train Yardmaster, Globe -- Dispatcher (M&Sw Local Freight, Train 121, is ready to leave Globe and make its run to Happy Jack, setting-out and picking-up cars at towns along the way. Its first stop is in Miami, Arizona)

15 Simulated Radio Traffic Yardmaster, Globe: this is Conductor, Train 121 (holding on Track 3) (over). Go ahead 121 Yardmaster: Train 121 requests clearance to depart Globe Yard for Miami at 1:12 pm. Hold one, Train 121, while I get clearance (from the Dispatcher); Dispatcher: this is Yardmaster, Globe Yard (over). Go ahead, Globe. Dispatcher: Train 121 is ready to depart Globe at 1:12 pm and requests clearance to Miami (over).

16 Simulated Radio Traffic (cont.) Yardmaster, Globe: Train 121 has clearance to depart Globe for Miami at 1:12 pm. Please advise Train 121 to hold at Miami for further orders. Thank you, Dispatcher. Yardmaster, Globe clear. Train 121: this is Yardmaster,Globe. Go ahead, Yardmaster. Train 121: this is Yardmaster, Globe. You are cleared to depart Globe Yard for Miami. Please hold in Miami and contact Dispatcher for further orders. Very well, Yardmaster. I will hold in Miami and contact Dispatcher for further orders. Thank you, Yardmaster. (Gives engineer signal to proceed). Train 121 is rolling. Train 121 clear.

17 Notes on Leaving Globe Yard Conductor controls the train; the engineer controls the locomotive. Conductor must have Yardmasters clearance to move thru and leave yard. Yardmaster must coordinate with and get clearance from Dispatcher (Rule 201). Yardmaster and Dispatcher must agree. Yardmaster releases train from yard.

18 Simulated Radio Traffic Arriving in Miami -- Conductor, Train Dispatcher (Train 121, which left Globe Yard, has now arrived in Miami to carry out local switching)

19 Simulated Radio Traffic Dispatcher: this is Train 121, OS in Miami (over). Very well, Train 121, I have you OS in Miami. Dispatcher: request 1 hour time and track in Miami for local switching (over). Train 121: you are cleared for 1 hour time and track in Miami. Please notify me when you are done. Dispatcher: will do. Train 121 clear.

20 Notes: Arrival in Miami The conductor always notifies the Dispatcher when his train arrives at or passes by a station (in either case). [Rule 953(a)] Arriving train takes siding unless told otherwise. OS means On-Sheet or On-Station, i.e. I am at this town. Time and track: the train may occupy the track within the limits stated (in this case, Miami) for the amount of time approved (in this case, 1 hour) for the purpose stated. If there are changes, the Dispatcher will radio the Conductor.

21 Turnouts – Ground Throws Main route – usually straight Diverging route – usually curved Rule 104: Train crews are responsible for the position of turnouts used by them and members of their crew, except when control is remote. Turnouts must be properly lined after having been used.

22 RailOp Switching Manifest - Miami TRAIN 121: Happy Jack Turn Miami: » > –BREX 2334ReeferSan Carlos Packing –CB&Q 2134Cov.Hop.Bock Perlite » > –SP 32861BoxTeam Track –PFE 12345ReeferSan Carlos Packing –SFRD 8923ReeferSan Carlos Packing Arizona Southern Junction: » > –NdeM 4423FlatAZS Interchange –FCP 23876BoxAZS Interchange » > –M&Sw 798FlatAZS Interchange Cars that left Globe on Train 121; your job is to set them out at the industries listed for Miami. Train 121 is to pick these cars up in Miami. Train 121 sets this car out on the AZS Interchange Track. Train 121 picks these two cars up off the AZS Interchange Track.

23 Local Switching - Miami Zingerle Bridge Gila Lumber Co. Cutter Flour Mill San Carlos Packing Co. Bock Perlite loading bagging house Team Track AZS Interchange Ore House (Crusher) (to Payson) (to Globe) Freight House TRAIN 121: Happy Jack Turn Miami: > BREX 2334ReeferSan Carlos Packing CB&Q 2134Cov.Hop.Bock Perlite > SP 32861BoxTeam Track PFE 12345ReeferSan Carlos Packing SFRD 8923ReeferSan Carlos Packing Arizona Southern Junction: > NdeM 4423FlatAZS Interchange FCP 23876BoxAZS Interchange > M&Sw 798FlatAZS Interchange

24 Set-outs: empties-in, loads-out spur If you have cars to be set out at a multiple- car capacity spur that is already partially occupied then set out the empty boxcar BEHIND the reefer(s) already on the spur. SAN CARLOS PACKING Train to deliver this boxcar to San Carlos Packing plant. Spot the car at the end of the San Carlos Packing spur

25 Set-outs: empties-in, loads-out spur SAN CARLOS PACKING Train to deliver this car to San Carlos Packing plant. Spot the car at the end of the San Carlos Packing spur First: uncouple train ahead of boxcar to be set out. Second: pull reefers already at plant. Third: couple reefer string to boxcar to be set out. Fourth: uncouple boxcar to be set out from train and pull entire string clear.

26 Set-outs: empties-in, loads-out spur SAN CARLOS PACKING Fifth: push string of cars back to packing plant. Finally: re-couple locomotive to train and leave town. The two reefers will be ready for pickup before the boxcar is ready. With the boxcar at the end of the spur, it will not block the reefers from being easily picked up by the next train.

27 LD MT LD MT Mine Pick-ups & Set-outs Loads in FRONT Empties in BACK LD MT Ore train spots Empty Ore Cars at the BACK of mine spurs. Ore train pulls Loaded Ore Cars from the FRONT of mine spurs. LD MT LD

28 MT LD MT Mine Pick-ups & Set-outs Loads in FRONT Empties in BACK Ore train spots Empty Ore Cars at the BACK of mine spurs. MT LD

29 MT LD MT Mine Pick-ups & Set-outs Empties in BACK Ore train spots Empty Ore Cars at the BACK of mine spurs. MT LD

30 MT Mine Pick-ups & Set-outs Empties in BACK Ore train spots Empty Ore Cars at the BACK of mine spurs. MT LD MT LD MT

31 Simulated Radio Traffic Departing Miami -- Conductor, Train Dispatcher (Train 121s next stop is Happy Jack; however, Dispatcher schedules a meet in Payson with Train 324).

32 Simulated Radio Traffic Dispatcher: this is Train 121, ready to depart Miami. Request clearance to proceed to Happy Jack (over). Train 121: you are cleared as far as Payson. Take the siding, and meet Train 324 southbound. Thank you, Dispatcher. Train 121 has clearance as far as siding at Payson, meeting Train 324. Train 121 clear.

33 Notes on Departing Miami Conductor tells Dispatcher when he is finished in the current town. Conductor requests clearance to the next town on his schedule. (Rule 201) Dispatcher may hold the train either in (Miami) or another town en route if necessary... If a hold is not necessary, then the Dispatcher may give train clearance all the way to the next scheduled town.

34 Meets & Passes: Etiquette The first train arriving for a meet normally pulls into the siding. (Rule S-89). The first train crew re-lines the turnouts for the main track for the train that it will meet. (Rule 104). The departing train sets the turnouts it leaves behind aligned for the main track (Rule 104).

35 Meets & Passes: Etiquette Passenger and Freight Trains A passenger train almost always takes the track next to the station, regardless whether it arrives for the meet first or second. A thru passenger train that does NOT stop at the station will normally take the mainline past the station. The train arriving first for the meet or pass stops and re-aligns the turnouts behind it for the train arriving after it. [Rule S-89] [Rule 104] The train departing last makes sure the turnouts it leaves behind are aligned for the main line. [Rule 104] Rule 107: Trains must run at restricted speed when passing a train that is receiving or discharging passengers at a station. They must not pass between the standing train and the station, except when properly protected. Rule 108: In case of doubt or uncertainty, the safe course must be taken.

36 Simulated Radio Traffic Arriving back at Globe Yard -- Conductor, Train Yardmaster, Globe -- Dispatcher (M&Sw Local Freight, Train 121 arrived at Happy Jack. It has returned en route to Globe as Train 122. It is currently located in Miami. It is ready to return to the Globe Yard and terminate its run).

37 Simulated Radio Traffic Dispatcher: this is Conductor, Train 122, OS at Miami (over). Go ahead 122; I have you OS at Miami (over) Dispatcher: Train 122 requests clearance to depart Miami for Globe Yard (over). Hold one, Train 122, while I get clearance (from the Yardmaster); Yardmaster, Globe Yard: this is Dispatcher (over). Go ahead, Dispatcher. Yardmaster: Train 122 is ready to depart Miami and requests clearance to enter Globe Yard (over).

38 Simulated Radio Traffic Dispatcher: ask Train 122 to hold at the Yard Limit; I have switching to clear the arrival track (over). Very well, Yardmaster. Dispatcher clear. Train 122: this is Dispatcher (over) Go ahead, Dispatcher. Train 122: you are cleared to proceed as far as the Yard Limit, Globe Yard. Contact Yardmaster upon arrival (over). Very well, Dispatcher. Train 122 is cleared to proceed as far as Yard Limit, Globe Yard, and will contact the Yardmaster on arrival (over). Very well, Train 122. Dispatcher clear. (Train 122 enters Globe and stops at the Globe Yard Limit).

39 Simulated Radio Traffic Yardmaster, Globe: This is Train 122, OS at Globe Yard Limit (over). Go ahead, Train 122. Yardmaster: Train 122 requests clearance to terminate in Globe Yard (over). (Yardmaster checks to be sure all turnouts are properly set for Train 122 to proceed to the Arrival Track or other designated track). Train 122: you are cleared to enter Globe Yard to (the Arrival Track) (to Track #__). Notify me upon arrival (over). Very well, Yardmaster. Train 122 is cleared to the Arrival Track, Globe Yard. (signals engineer to proceed). Train 122 rolling. Yardmaster: Train 122 has arrived on the Arrival Track and has terminated its run. Train 122 clear. Very well, Train 122. Welcome home.

40 Notes on Arrival back at Globe Dispatcher and Yardmaster have many options upon which they can agree: –Hold Train 122 at Miami until further notice. –Hold Train 122 at Miami until a train about to leave Globe Yard meets Train 122 in Miami. –Hold Train 122 at Miami until Globe Yard is clear, then have Train 122 proceed all the way from Miami directly to the Arrival Track. –Have Train 122 proceed as far as the Yard Limit and hold; Yardmaster will tell Train 122 when it is clear to enter. –Train 122 may be directed to the Arrival Track, to the run-around track, or to another yard track in Globe.

41 Dispatching & Signaling Myth: You cant operate a large model railroad without a dispatcher and an electronic CTC panel. Fact: Dispatching is helpful on a large model railroad, but not always necessary if all trains are locals. A train graph (paper) or manual CTC is all that is necessary for train control. (Used on M&Sw). Myth: You cant operate a large model railroad without signaling. (False) Fact: Many prototype railroads for years did and still do operate dark just fine. So does the M&Sw. Myth: You must have 3-position light or semaphore signals for effective operations. (False). Fact: Model railroads with signaling systems work fine with just red and green. (Why). And cost less.

42 Dispatching on the M&Sw Train sequencing – – RailOps (regular freight) –Manual (passenger) –Manual (special freight) Simulated radio- telephone train orders. CTC – manual Dispatching Signaling

43 M&Sw CTC Panel

44 Dispatching on the M&Sw Train sequencing – – RailOps (regular freight) –Manual (passenger) –Manual (special freight) Simulated radio- telephone train orders. CTC – manual Train-order signaling –Currently only one station – Strawberry – has a train order board installed; not operating. Dispatching Signaling

45 Dispatching on the M&Sw Train sequencing – – RailOps (regular freight) –Manual (passenger) –Manual (special freight) Simulated radio- telephone train orders. CTC – manual Train-order signaling –Currently only one station – Strawberry – has a train order board installed; not operating. Automatic Block Signaling (ABS) – (block detection) –Currently only one block has ABS: the start of the Arizona Southern System. –Currently, staging for the AZS has ABS and control panel display. –Under discussion: ABS for the Helix between Payson and Strawberry. Dispatching Signaling

46 10 Speed Limits On a model railroad, speed limits are posted to protect you from having to purchase a new locomotive for yourself or your buddy. On the M&SW –The Zingerle Bridge (wood truss) is 200 scale feet above a concrete floor. –Adams Trestle and the E. Verde Creek wooden bridge- trestles are 350 scale feet above a concrete floor. –The Mogollon Rim (the upper deck) is about 500 scale feet above a concrete floor. The posted speed limit across the Zingerle Bridge (just north of Globe), Adams Trestle and E. Verde Creek bridge (just north of Strawberry) is 10 mph. In HO scale, 10 mph is about 10 real feet per minute, or about as slow as you can go without stalling. [Rule 720]

47 Scale Speeds In HO scale, 1 scale mile = 60 real feet. In HO scale: – 60 mph = 60 real feet per real minute. – 30 mph = 30 real feet per real minute. –20 mph = 20 real feet per minute. –10 mph = 10 real feet per minute (dead slow). Even though it may be prototypical, an HO train traveling faster than 60 scale mph looks toy-like. Why? Scale distances on a model railroad are MUCH smaller than prototypical distances. [Rule 3]

48 Scale Time To look right, we run an HO train at a speed measured in (scale) miles per (real) hour. But, for building a schedule (timetable) for operations, we use a fast clock for the time between stations and the time allowed for station stops. A 6:1 fast clock means that each minute that passes in real time is equal to six minutes on the model railroads timetable. [Rule 1, Rule 2]

49 Scale Time (continued) For these examples, we use a 6:1 fast clock. If Train 121 takes 2 minutes in real time to travel between Miami and Payson, that equals 12 minutes on our model timetable. A 3-minute station stop for passengers in Payson equals 30 seconds in real time. A 30-minute stop in Strawberry to take on more water equals 5 minutes in real time. A 1-hour stop at Mary Lake for switching equals 10 minutes in real time. A 24-hour day equals a real 4-hour operating session.

50 Whistle & Bell Signals All aboaaaard! Train is leaving Grade Crossing warning Approaching Station Approaching Station (last 200) Leaving Station (first 200) While Switching (sometimes) TooooooooooooooooT Toot-Toot (two short) Toooot-Toooot-Tut-Tooooooot (last toot is extended until the loco passes over road crossing) ToooooooooooooooooooT (ends after loco is past the station or comes to a stop). Bell should start ringing to warn people on the ground near the train before the train stops or before the train begins to move again. [Rule 30] MODEL RAILROAD ^

51 THE END of Model Railroading Operations 101: Part 3 – Train Operation

52 Appendix: Additional Topics Review of Hand Signals Dispatching and Signaling - types Classes of Trains –Priorities among trains of same and different classes –Scheduled Trains vs. Extra Trains –Numbering of Scheduled Trains: North vs South –Turns – out and back –Dispatcher override – changing priorities AREMA Speed Classes and turnouts

53 Hand Signals for Switching With modern DCC sound systems, the noise in an operating session is high. Some operators have hearing problems. Implication: its better to use hand signals between conductor-brakeman and engineer than to try to talk above the noise of locomotives and other operators. Rule 7: hand signals must be given sufficiently in advance to permit compliance...

54 Common Hand Signals Back-up (reverse) Slowly (inching) Controlled stop Stop You are coupled up Go forward OK Highball (leave town) - beckon toward self with circular motion. - fingers come together - hands come together - hold closed hand up. - make closed fist, shake once. - move open palm, fingers closed, up and down away from you. - thumbs-up /or/ circle - pull imaginary steam whistle twice (Toot – Toot) [RULE 8] MODEL RAILROAD ^

55 Types of Dispatching & Signaling Station agents – train orders. [Rule 200] Timetable & (written) train orders. [Rule 82, Rule 200] Train sequencing & train orders. Radio-telephone (verbal) train orders. Track warrants. CTC – manual CTC - electronic Two basic types of signals: –Block signals [Rule 261] –Interlocking signals Train-order signaling Staff system (SP – Donner Pass) Manual interlocking Electronic interlocking Automatic Block Signaling (ABS) – (block detection) Centralized Traffic Control (CTC) – (dispatcher) Dispatching Signaling

56 Classes of Trains – M&Sw First Class: Through, limited, usually named & numbered passenger trains Through or limited freight service Second Class: Local passenger trains Mail and express service trains General freight service Third Class: Way freight / Turns / local freight trains Fourth Class: Log trains Ore trains Fifth Class: Work extras

57 Priorities among Trains First Class trains have priority over all other classes of trains Second Class trains have priority over all other classes except First Class. And so on, for all other classes. (Rule 72). Passenger trains normally take priority over freight trains of the same class. Northbound trains take priority over southbound trains of the same class. (Rule S-73). Extra trains are inferior to regular (scheduled) trains (Rule 73) unless overridden by dispatcher.

58 Scheduled Trains vs. Extras A scheduled train (regular train) is: –Listed on the official timetable. –Runs according to the schedule in the timetable. –Has priorities based on timetable schedule. An extra train is: –Not normally listed on the timetable. –Runs as needed per RR traffic manager. –Has priorities assigned by dispatcher. The dispatcher may change priorities among scheduled and extra trains to maintain traffic flow.

59 Train Numbering – M&Sw Northbound named passenger or freight trains are assigned odd train numbers: e.g. Train 21, Train 357 Southbound trains – are assigned the next higher even numbers -- e.g. Train 22, Train than their northbound counterparts. M&Sw Turns originating from Globe are assigned an odd train number; returning, they adopt the next higher even number: e.g. Train 121 departs Globe north for Happy Jack, Train 122 is the same train returning from Happy Jack south to Globe. Extra trains are assigned the road name, number, and direction of the lead locomotive: e.g. M&Sw Extra #251 North (X251-north), SP Extra 5270 South (X5270-south).

60 Changing Priorities The dispatcher may change priorities among trains as he deems necessary to keep traffic moving. E.g. Allowing a local freight (4 th Class) to pass a stopped local passenger train (2 nd Class) to proceed to the siding at the next station and hold. E.g. Extra 2341 takes priority over all other trains to expedite movement of personnel and equipment to Mary Lake to fight forest fire. Priorities are usually changed by written train orders (Form 19), track warrants, or verbal train orders sent to all trains affected.

61 Train Order Station – Strawberry, AZ Train Order Signal (Lower Quadrant)

62 Track Warrant Pre-written train order form. Check-off boxes for most common situations. Fill in the blanks for most common details.

63 Track Warrant Written by dispatcher. Sent by dispatcher over radio to train crew (conductor). Copied by train crew. Read back to dispatcher for verification. Cleared when actions specified are completed July XX 2006 Train 121 Payson PAYSON STRAWBERRY STRAWBERRY HAPPY JACK X X X 10 Strawberry Happy Jack 9:34 A FMB TC X

64 AREMA SPEED CLASSES Real-world trains seldom get to go fast.

65 AREMA TURNOUT SPEED CHART Frog # Speed Length of Points AREMA Category Restricted Slow Medium Limited

66 Speeds & Layout Design No. 24 No. 12 Main track, Maximum Speed Turnout About a 2:1 ratio for Frog Number

67 THE END of Model Railroading Operations 101: Appendix – Additional topics


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