Presentation on theme: "Model Railroading Operations 101: Part 3 – Train Operation"— Presentation transcript:
1Model Railroading Operations 101: Part 3 – Train Operation Tom CrosthwaitPresident, Mogollon & Southwestern RR&Fred Bock, MMR,Chief Dispatcher, M&Sw
2What is “operations”? It’s a game! “Operations” is simulating (in miniature) the day-to-day activities of real railroads -- picking up freight, assembling trains, delivering cars to consignees, sorting arriving freight cars by their future destinations, returning empty cars.TrainOperationsSimulating:-- keep important details-- omit unimportant ones-- objective: have fun!It’s a game!
3The “Rules” of the Game (All games have “rules” – e.g. Monopoly). On the M&Sw, the “rules” are:The M&Sw “Standard Code of Operating Rules for Model RRs”.The M&Sw “Employee Timetable and Special Instructions”.(The above documents are modeled on the prototype).A RailOp Switching Manifest.All M&Sw employees will receive a copy of the “Standard Code” and of the “Employee Timetable” and should keep these with them while on duty. [Rule 4](An “employee” is a person who has been invited by the Superintendent to participate in an operating session and has accepted the invitation for a particular date and time).
4Model Train (vs. Prototype) Engineer can easily see what’s ahead.Can stop train in 3 feet.Cost of accident:usually < $500usually nobody killed Simplification for fun’s sake is OK.
5A typical freight train A “train”:Has a locomotive at the front end.May have 0, 1 or more cars behind.Displays “markers” at the end of the trainOn the M&Sw: freight trains must have a caboose. [Rule 19]
6Train Crews Prototype: Model: Two-man crew - best: Engineer:Operates locomotivesFireman:Feathers the bedConductor:In charge of the whole trainHead-end BrakemanSwitches, uncouples, flagsRear-end Brakeman(Other Brakemen)Long trains; as neededModel:EngineerConductor (sometimes)Brakeman (seldom)Two-man crew - best:Conductor-BrakemanOne-man crew - usual:Engineer et al.(Hereafter, all references to “train crews” are to model train crews).
7Train Crew Roles Engineer: Conductor-Brakeman Operates the locomotive. Model RailroadingTrain Crew RolesEngineer:Operates the locomotive.STAYS AHEAD OF HIS MOVING LOCOMOTIVE AT ALL TIMES!Communicates only with conductor.Keeps a keen eye on his loco and train.Watches / listens for derailed cars or locos.Conductor-Brakeman“Boss” of the train.Directs the engineer on running the train.Communicates with dispatcher, yardmaster, and other conductors.Directs switching moves.Throws turnouts.Uncouples cars as needed.Does roll-by inspections of other trains. [Rule 712, Rule 713]Watches / listens for derailed cars or locomotives.[Rule 920, Rule 800, 801, Rule 712]
8Using the M&Sw’s throttles Keep the antenna vertical.Don’t touch the antenna.Hold the case in your left hand*. . . at least 1’ from your body.Rotate the speed control knob with your right hand *[use two hands]Rotate GENTLY – it breaks.Don’t MASH down on the keys; be GENTLE – they break.Turn Throttle “OFF” when done.
9The Yardmaster Yardmaster - Large Model Railroad: [Rule 803]Yardmaster - Large Model Railroad:Has 1 or more yard switch crews working for him.May have separate local industry switch jobs.May have separate passenger yard.Admits trains into yard; releases trains leaving.Yardmaster – Medium-size model railroad:Crew of yard switcher serves as yardmaster.Yardmaster – Small model railroad:Train crews serve as the yardmaster.The train crew currently in yard serves as yardmaster.
10The Dispatcher[Rule 990]#1: Keep trains on the main line from crashing into each other!#2: Keep trains from creating a traffic jam that ties up the railroad.#3: Keep traffic flowing smoothly#4: Give each train crew the “time and track” it needs to get it’s job done.On the M&Sw, it’s usual practice to have a dispatcher when there are 3 or more trains in mainline operation at the same time.
11Yardmaster vs. Dispatcher As Frank Ellison once put it:“For all practical purposes, main line and yard are two wholly independent operating layouts connected by the fewest possible entrance and exit tracks. . .”“The yardmaster is supreme in one, and the dispatcher in the other. . .”Movements between the two are made only by mutual agreement.”(Quotation from Bruce A. Chubb, “How to Operate your Model Railroad”)
12Leaving the YardA conductor needs permission of the Yardmaster for his train to move thru the yard to the Yard Limit.A conductor needs permission from the Dispatcher for his train to pass the Yard Limit and proceed out of the yard onto the main line.The Yard Limit is the boundary between the Yardmaster’s yard and the Dispatcher’s railroad [Rule 93].
13Yard Limit sign A Union Pacific Moment! SP Common Standard sign The Yard Limit sign will be on the right-hand side of the track as you ENTER the yard. (the engineer’s side).The Yard Limit sign will be on the left-hand side of the track as you LEAVE the yard.A Union Pacific Moment!RailroadMainlineSP CommonStandard sign(used on M&Sw)
14Simulated Radio Traffic Leaving Globe Yard-- Conductor, Train 121-- Yardmaster, Globe-- Dispatcher(M&Sw Local Freight, Train 121, is ready to leave Globe and make it’s run to Happy Jack, setting-out and picking-up cars at towns along the way. It’s first stop is in Miami, Arizona)
15Simulated Radio Traffic “Yardmaster, Globe: this is Conductor, Train 121 (holding on Track 3) (over).”“Go ahead 121”“Yardmaster: Train 121 requests clearance to depart Globe Yard for Miami at 1:12 pm”.“Hold one, Train 121, while I get clearance (from the Dispatcher); Dispatcher: this is Yardmaster, Globe Yard (over).”“Go ahead, Globe.”“Dispatcher: Train 121 is ready to depart Globe at 1:12 pm and requests clearance to Miami (over).”
16Simulated Radio Traffic (cont.) “Yardmaster, Globe: Train 121 has clearance to depart Globe for Miami at 1:12 pm. Please advise Train 121 to hold at Miami for further orders.”“Thank you, Dispatcher. Yardmaster, Globe clear. Train 121: this is Yardmaster,Globe.”“Go ahead, Yardmaster”.“Train 121: this is Yardmaster, Globe. You are cleared to depart Globe Yard for Miami. Please hold in Miami and contact Dispatcher for further orders”.“Very well, Yardmaster. I will hold in Miami and contact Dispatcher for further orders. Thank you, Yardmaster. (Gives engineer signal to proceed). Train 121 is rolling. Train 121 clear.”
17Notes on Leaving Globe Yard Conductor controls the train; the engineer controls the locomotive.Conductor must have Yardmaster’s clearance to move thru and leave yard.Yardmaster must coordinate with and get clearance from Dispatcher (Rule 201).Yardmaster and Dispatcher must agree.Yardmaster releases train from yard.
18Simulated Radio Traffic Arriving in Miami-- Conductor, Train 121-- Dispatcher(Train 121, which left Globe Yard, has now arrived in Miami to carry out local switching)
19Simulated Radio Traffic “Dispatcher: this is Train 121, OS in Miami (over)”.“Very well, Train 121, I have you OS in Miami”.“Dispatcher: request 1 hour ‘time and track’ in Miami for local switching (over).”“Train 121: you are cleared for 1 hour ‘time and track’ in Miami. Please notify me when you are done.”“Dispatcher: will do. Train 121 clear.”
20Notes: Arrival in Miami The conductor always notifies the Dispatcher when his train arrives at or passes by a station (in either case). [Rule 953(a)]Arriving train takes siding unless told otherwise.“OS” means “On-Sheet” or “On-Station”, i.e. “I am at this town”.“Time and track”: the train may occupy the track within the limits stated (in this case, Miami) for the amount of time approved (in this case, 1 hour) for the purpose stated.If there are changes, the Dispatcher will radio the Conductor.
21Turnouts – Ground Throws Main route – usually straightDiverging route – usually curvedRule 104: Train crews are responsible for the position of turnouts used by them and members of their crew, except when control is remote. Turnouts must be properly lined after having been used.
22RailOp Switching Manifest - Miami TRAIN 121: Happy Jack TurnMiami:<<Pick-up>>BREX 2334 Reefer San Carlos PackingCB&Q 2134 Cov.Hop. Bock Perlite<<Set-Out>>SP Box Team TrackPFE Reefer San Carlos PackingSFRD 8923 Reefer San Carlos PackingArizona Southern Junction:<<Pick-Up>>NdeM 4423 Flat AZS InterchangeFCP Box AZS InterchangeM&Sw 798 Flat AZS InterchangeTrain 121 is to pick these cars up in Miami.Cars that left Globe on Train 121; your job is to set them out at the industries listed for Miami.Train 121 picks these two cars up off the AZS Interchange Track.Train 121 sets this car out on the AZS Interchange Track.
23Local Switching - Miami CutterFlourMillSan CarlosPacking Co.GilaLumber Co.(to Payson)AZS InterchangeTeam TrackFreightHousebagginghouseTRAIN 121: Happy Jack TurnMiami:<<Pick-up>>BREX 2334 Reefer San Carlos PackingCB&Q 2134 Cov.Hop. Bock Perlite<<Set-Out>>SP Box Team TrackPFE Reefer San Carlos PackingSFRD 8923 Reefer San Carlos PackingArizona Southern Junction:<<Pick-Up>>NdeM 4423 Flat AZS InterchangeFCP Box AZS InterchangeM&Sw 798 Flat AZS Interchange“Ore House”(Crusher)BockPerliteloading(to Globe)ZingerleBridge
24Set-outs: empties-in, loads-out spur SAN CARLOS PACKINGSpot the car at the end of the San Carlos Packing spurTrain to deliver this boxcar to San Carlos Packing plant.If you have cars to be set out at a multiple-car capacity spur that is already partially occupied . . .. . . then set out the empty boxcar BEHIND the reefer(s) already on the spur.
25Set-outs: empties-in, loads-out spur SAN CARLOS PACKINGFirst: uncouple train ahead of boxcar to be set out.Train to deliver this car to San Carlos Packing plant.Second: pull reefers already at plant.Spot the car at the end of the San Carlos Packing spurThird: couple reefer string to boxcar to be set out.Fourth: uncouple boxcar to be set out from train and pull entire string clear.
26Set-outs: empties-in, loads-out spur SAN CARLOS PACKINGThe two reefers will be ready for pickup before the boxcar is ready.With the boxcar at the end of the spur, it will not block the reefers from being easily picked up by the next train.Fifth: push string of cars back to packing plant.Finally: re-couple locomotive to train and leave town.
31Simulated Radio Traffic Departing Miami-- Conductor, Train 121-- Dispatcher(Train 121’s next stop is Happy Jack; however, Dispatcher schedules a meet in Payson with Train 324).
32Simulated Radio Traffic “Dispatcher: this is Train 121, ready to depart Miami. Request clearance to proceed to Happy Jack (over)”.“Train 121: you are cleared as far as Payson. Take the siding, and meet Train 324 southbound.”“Thank you, Dispatcher. Train 121 has clearance as far as siding at Payson, meeting Train Train 121 clear.”
33Notes on Departing Miami Conductor tells Dispatcher when he is finished in the current town.Conductor requests clearance to the next town on his schedule. (Rule 201)Dispatcher may hold the train either in (Miami) or another town en route if necessary . . .If a hold is not necessary, then the Dispatcher may give train clearance all the way to the next scheduled town.
34Meets & Passes: Etiquette The first train arriving for a meet normally pulls into the siding. (Rule S-89).The first train crew re-lines the turnouts for the main track for the train that it will meet. (Rule 104).The departing train sets the turnouts it leaves behind aligned for the main track (Rule 104).
35Meets & Passes: Etiquette Passenger and Freight Trains A passenger train almost always takes the track next to the station, regardless whether it arrives for the meet first or second.A thru passenger train that does NOT stop at the station will normally take the mainline past the station.The train arriving first for the meet or pass stops and re-aligns the turnouts behind it for the train arriving after it. [Rule S-89] [Rule 104]The train departing last makes sure the turnouts it leaves behind are aligned for the main line. [Rule 104]Rule 107: Trains must run at restricted speed when passing a train that is receiving or discharging passengers at a station. They must not pass between the standing train and the station, except when properly protected.Rule 108: In case of doubt or uncertainty, the safe course must be taken.
36Simulated Radio Traffic Arriving back atGlobe Yard-- Conductor, Train 122-- Yardmaster, Globe-- Dispatcher(M&Sw Local Freight, Train 121 arrived at Happy Jack. It has returned en route to Globe as Train It is currently located in Miami. It is ready to return to the Globe Yard and terminate it’s run).
37Simulated Radio Traffic “Dispatcher: this is Conductor, Train 122, OS at Miami (over).”“Go ahead 122; I have you OS at Miami (over)”“Dispatcher: Train 122 requests clearance to depart Miami for Globe Yard (over)”.“Hold one, Train 122, while I get clearance (from the Yardmaster); Yardmaster, Globe Yard: this is Dispatcher (over).”“Go ahead, Dispatcher.”“Yardmaster: Train 122 is ready to depart Miami and requests clearance to enter Globe Yard (over).”
38Simulated Radio Traffic “Dispatcher: ask Train 122 to hold at the Yard Limit; I have switching to clear the arrival track (over).”“Very well, Yardmaster. Dispatcher clear. Train 122: this is Dispatcher (over)”“Go ahead, Dispatcher.”“Train 122: you are cleared to proceed as far as the Yard Limit, Globe Yard. Contact Yardmaster upon arrival (over).”“Very well, Dispatcher. Train 122 is cleared to proceed as far as Yard Limit, Globe Yard, and will contact the Yardmaster on arrival (over).”“Very well, Train Dispatcher clear”.(Train 122 enters Globe and stops at the Globe Yard Limit).
39Simulated Radio Traffic “Yardmaster, Globe: This is Train 122, OS at Globe Yard Limit (over).”“Go ahead, Train 122.”“Yardmaster: Train 122 requests clearance to terminate in Globe Yard (over).”(Yardmaster checks to be sure all turnouts are properly set for Train 122 to proceed to the Arrival Track or other designated track).“Train 122: you are cleared to enter Globe Yard to (the Arrival Track) (to Track #__). Notify me upon arrival (over).”“Very well, Yardmaster. Train 122 is cleared to the Arrival Track, Globe Yard. (signals engineer to proceed). Train 122 rolling.”“Yardmaster: Train 122 has arrived on the Arrival Track and has terminated it’s run. Train 122 clear.”“Very well, Train Welcome home.”
40Notes on Arrival back at Globe Dispatcher and Yardmaster have many options upon which they can agree:Hold Train 122 at Miami until further notice.Hold Train 122 at Miami until a train about to leave Globe Yard meets Train 122 in Miami.Hold Train 122 at Miami until Globe Yard is clear, then have Train 122 proceed all the way from Miami directly to the Arrival Track.Have Train 122 proceed as far as the Yard Limit and hold; Yardmaster will tell Train 122 when it is clear to enter.Train 122 may be directed to the Arrival Track, to the run-around track, or to another yard track in Globe.
41Dispatching & Signaling Myth: “You can’t operate a large model railroad without a dispatcher and an electronic CTC panel.”Fact: Dispatching is helpful on a large model railroad, but not always necessary if all trains are locals. A “train graph” (paper) or “manual CTC” is all that is necessary for train control. (Used on M&Sw).Myth: “You can’t operate a large model railroad without signaling.” (False)Fact: Many prototype railroads for years did and still do operate “dark” just fine. So does the M&Sw.Myth: “You must have 3-position light or semaphore signals for effective operations.” (False).Fact: Model railroads with signaling systems work fine with just red and green. (Why). And cost less.
42Dispatching on the M&Sw SignalingTrain sequencing –RailOps (regular freight)Manual (passenger)Manual (special freight)Simulated radio-telephone train orders.CTC – manual
44Dispatching on the M&Sw SignalingTrain sequencing –RailOps (regular freight)Manual (passenger)Manual (special freight)Simulated radio-telephone train orders.CTC – manualTrain-order signalingCurrently only one station – Strawberry – has a train order board installed; not operating.
45Dispatching on the M&Sw SignalingTrain sequencing –RailOps (regular freight)Manual (passenger)Manual (special freight)Simulated radio-telephone train orders.CTC – manualTrain-order signalingCurrently only one station – Strawberry – has a train order board installed; not operating.Automatic Block Signaling (ABS) – (block detection)Currently only one block has ABS: the start of the Arizona Southern System.Currently, staging for the AZS has ABS and control panel display.Under discussion: ABS for “the Helix” between Payson and Strawberry.
46Speed Limits[Rule 720]On a model railroad, speed limits are posted to protect you from having to purchase a new locomotive for yourself or your buddy.On the M&SWThe Zingerle Bridge (wood truss) is 200 scale feet above a concrete floor.Adams’ Trestle and the E. Verde Creek wooden bridge-trestles are 350 scale feet above a concrete floor.The Mogollon Rim (the upper deck) is about 500 scale feet above a concrete floor.The posted speed limit across the Zingerle Bridge (just north of Globe), Adams’ Trestle and E. Verde Creek bridge (just north of Strawberry) is 10 mph.In HO scale, 10 mph is about 10 real feet per minute, or about as slow as you can go without stalling.10
47Scale Speeds In HO scale, 1 scale mile = 60 real feet. In HO scale: [Rule 3]In HO scale, 1 scale mile = 60 real feet.In HO scale:60 mph = 60 real feet per real minute.30 mph = 30 real feet per real minute.20 mph = 20 real feet per minute.10 mph = 10 real feet per minute (dead slow).Even though it may be “prototypical”, an HO train traveling faster than 60 scale mph looks toy-like. Why? Scale distances on a model railroad are MUCH smaller than prototypical distances.
48Scale Time[Rule 1, Rule 2]To “look right”, we run an HO train at a speed measured in (scale) miles per (real) hour.But, for building a schedule (timetable) for operations, we use a “fast clock” for the time between stations and the time allowed for station stops.A “6:1” fast clock means that each minute that passes in real time is equal to six minutes on the model railroad’s timetable.
49Scale Time (continued) For these examples, we use a 6:1 fast clock.If Train 121 takes 2 minutes in real time to travel between Miami and Payson, that equals 12 minutes on our model timetable.A 3-minute station stop for passengers in Payson equals 30 seconds in real time.A 30-minute stop in Strawberry to take on more water equals 5 minutes in real time.A 1-hour stop at Mary Lake for switching equals 10 minutes in real time.A 24-hour day equals a real 4-hour operating session.
50Whistle & Bell Signals All aboaaaard! Train is leaving MODEL RAILROAD^Whistle & Bell Signals[Rule 30]All aboaaaard!Train is leavingGrade Crossing warningApproaching StationApproaching Station (last 200’)Leaving Station (first 200’)While Switching (sometimes)“TooooooooooooooooT”“Toot-Toot” (two short)“Toooot-Toooot-Tut-Tooooooot”(last “toot” is extended until the loco passes over road crossing)“ToooooooooooooooooooT”(ends after loco is past the station or comes to a stop).Bell should start ringing to warn people on the ground near the train before the train stops or before the train begins to move again.
51THE END of Model Railroading Operations 101: Part 3 – Train Operation
52Appendix: Additional Topics Review of Hand SignalsDispatching and Signaling - typesClasses of TrainsPriorities among trains of same and different classesScheduled Trains vs. Extra TrainsNumbering of Scheduled Trains: North vs SouthTurns – out and backDispatcher override – changing prioritiesAREMA Speed Classes and turnouts
53Hand Signals for Switching With modern DCC sound systems, the noise in an operating session is high.Some operators have hearing problems.Implication: it’s better to use hand signals between conductor-brakeman and engineer than to try to talk above the noise of locomotives and other operators.Rule 7: hand signals must be given sufficiently in advance to permit compliance. . .
54Common Hand Signals Back-up (reverse) MODEL RAILROAD^Common Hand Signals[RULE 8]Back-up (reverse)Slowly (inching)Controlled stopStopYou are coupled upGo forwardOKHighball (leave town)- beckon toward self with circular motion.- fingers come together- hands come together- hold closed hand up.- make closed fist, shake once.- move open palm, fingers closed, up and down away from you.- thumbs-up /or/ circle- pull imaginary steam whistle twice (“Toot – Toot”)
56Classes of Trains – M&Sw First Class:Through, limited, usually named & numbered passenger trainsThrough or limited freight serviceSecond Class:Local passenger trainsMail and express service trainsGeneral freight serviceThird Class:Way freight / “Turns” / local freight trainsFourth Class:Log trainsOre trainsFifth Class:Work extras
57Priorities among Trains First Class trains have priority over all other classes of trainsSecond Class trains have priority over all other classes except First Class.And so on, for all other classes. (Rule 72).Passenger trains normally take priority over freight trains of the same class.Northbound trains take priority over southbound trains of the same class. (Rule S-73).Extra trains are inferior to regular (scheduled) trains (Rule 73) unless overridden by dispatcher.
58Scheduled Trains vs. Extras A scheduled train (regular train) is:Listed on the official timetable.Runs according to the schedule in the timetable.Has priorities based on timetable schedule.An extra train is:Not normally listed on the timetable.Runs as needed per RR traffic manager.Has priorities assigned by dispatcher.The dispatcher may change priorities among scheduled and extra trains to maintain traffic flow.
59Train Numbering – M&SwNorthbound named passenger or freight trains are assigned odd train numbers: e.g. Train 21, Train 357Southbound trains – are assigned the next higher even numbers -- e.g. Train 22, Train than their northbound counterparts.M&Sw “Turns” originating from Globe are assigned an odd train number; returning, they adopt the next higher even number: e.g. Train 121 departs Globe north for Happy Jack, Train 122 is the same train returning from Happy Jack south to Globe.Extra trains are assigned the road name, number, and direction of the lead locomotive: e.g. M&Sw Extra #251 North (X251-north), SP Extra 5270 South (X5270-south).
60Changing PrioritiesThe dispatcher may change priorities among trains as he deems necessary to keep traffic moving.E.g. Allowing a local freight (4th Class) to pass a stopped local passenger train (2nd Class) to proceed to the siding at the next station and hold.E.g. “Extra 2341 takes priority over all other trains to expedite movement of personnel and equipment to Mary Lake to fight forest fire.”Priorities are usually changed by written train orders (Form 19), track warrants, or verbal train orders sent to all trains affected.
61Train Order Station – Strawberry, AZ Train Order Signal(Lower Quadrant)Train Order Station – Strawberry, AZ
62Track Warrant “Pre-written” train order form. Check-off boxes for most common situations.Fill in the blanks for most common details.
63Track Warrant Written by dispatcher. 2316 July XX 2006Train 121PaysonWritten by dispatcher.Sent by dispatcher over radio to train crew (conductor).Copied by train crew.Read back to dispatcher for verification.Cleared when actions specified are completed.XPAYSON STRAWBERRYXSTRAWBERRY HAPPY JACKXStrawberry Happy JackX9:34 AFMBTC
64AREMA SPEED CLASSESReal-world trains seldom get to go “fast”.