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Presentation on theme: "HEARING IMPAIRMENTS A GUIDE FOR STUDENTS AND FOR TEACHERS. By Eric Ryan EDU 410 November 18 th 2009."— Presentation transcript:


2 Hearing Impairment Defined: Deafness means a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. Hearing impairment means an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child's educational performance but that is not included under the definition of deafness in this section. (IDEA 300.7[c][3][5])

3 Varying Types of Hearing Impairments Hearing Loss can manifest at different periods of life. Prelingual Hearing Loss – Hearing loss that occurs before an individual develops the use of language. Usually due to a cognitive defect. Postlingual Hearing Loss – Hearing loss that occurs after an individual has developed the use of language. Usually due to illness, disease, prolonged exposure to loud noises over dBs, or old age. Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary

4 Noises and How We Measure Them. Noise is measured in units called decibels, on a scale from zero to 140. Here is a list of common noises and their decibel levels: Aircraft at take-off (180) Fireworks (140) Snowmobile (120) Chain saw (110) Amplified music (110) Lawn mower (90) Noisy office (90) Vacuum cleaner (80) City traffic (80) Normal conversation (60) Refrigerator humming (40) Whisper (20) Leaves rustling (10) Calm breathing (10) Noise levels of 130 decibels or over will be painful and is very likely to cause immediate hearing damage. Deafness and Hearing Aids website

5 Varying Degrees of Hearing Loss The Normal range of hearing falls within 0-15dB. Hearing loss begins beyond that and is grouped into the following significant ranges: dB = Minimal loss dB = Mild hearing loss dB = Moderate hearing loss dB = Severe hearing loss Greater than 90 dB = Profound hearing loss Vaugn, Bos, and Schumm 2007

6 Minimal to Mild Hearing Loss In this range of hearing loss, dBs, an individual would be referred to as being hard of hearing. Their ability to hear whispering, watch gears ticking or simple voiced fricative consonants like z, v, f, s, k, and th would be compromised and complicated. Many voiceless fricatives would begin to be hard to distinguish for those individuals closer to the 40 dB hearing loss range: j, m, d, b, p, h, and g. Watkins, S. (Ed.). (1993). Sky*HI resource manual (p. G9).

7 Moderate to Severe Hearing Loss Those that are fortunate enough to be classified with Moderate hearing loss would retain the ability to hear some speech, musical instruments, loud animal sounds and motorized machinery and/or motorized equipment. Individuals in the highest portion of this range, dBs, would be referred to as deaf. These individuals would most certainly have lost all ability to hear simple speech and most aforementioned sounds. Watkins, S. (Ed.). (1993). Sky*HI resource manual (p. G9).

8 Profound Hearing Loss Very few individuals classified with Profound Hearing Loss, <90 dB, may be able to hear the loudest of sounds. Large scale sounds like live rock bands, airplanes, helicopters, large trucks, etc. Again, these individuals would be considered deaf, or totally deaf, and would be beyond any mode of amplification or technical assistance. Watkins, S. (Ed.). (1993). Sky*HI resource manual (p. G9).


10 The Prevalence and Incidence of Hearing Loss in Children The number of Americans with a hearing loss has evidentially doubled during the past 30 years. Data gleaned from Federal surveys illustrate the following trend of prevalence for individuals aged three years or older: 13.2 million (1971), 14.2 million (1977), 20.3 million (1991), and 24.2 million (1993) (1, 2). An independent researcher estimates that 28.6 million Americans had an auditory disorder in 2000 (3). This estimate is reasonably well within projections from the trend line that evolved from Federal surveys (4). Children who are hard of hearing will find it much more difficult than children who have normal hearing to learn vocabulary, grammar, word order, idiomatic expressions, and other aspects of verbal communication (5). The number of children with disabilities, ages 6-21, served in the public schools under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Part B in the school year was 5,775,722 (in the 50 states, D.C., and P.R.). Of these children, 70,767 (1.2%) received services for hearing. However, the number of children with hearing loss and deafness is undoubtedly higher, since many of these students may have other disabilities as well (6). Data by disability are not reported by the Department of Education for ages birth to 5 years American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

11 The Prevalence and Incidence of Hearing Loss in Children, continued. Several studies indicate variance in the prevalence of newborns with congenital hearing loss in the United States. The overall estimates are between 1 to 6 per 1,000 newborns (7, 8). Most children with congenital hearing loss have hearing impairment at birth and are potentially identifiable by newborn and infant hearing screening. However, some congenital hearing loss may not become evident until later in childhood (9). According to Blanchfield, et. al., as many as 738,000 individuals in the U.S. have severe to profound hearing loss. Of these, almost 8% are under the age of 18 (10). Among African-American, Cuban-American, Mexican-American, Puerto Rican, and non- Hispanic White children, it is estimated that approximately 391,000 school-aged children in the U.S. have unilateral hearing loss (11). According to Niskar and colleagues, approximately 14.9% of U.S. children have low- frequency or high-frequency hearing loss of at least 16-dB hearing level in one or both ears (12). Profound, early-onset deafness is present in 4-11 per 10,000 children, and is attributable to genetic causes in at least 50% of cases (13) American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

12 Co-Occurring Disabilities as a result of Hear Impairment The prevalence of several specific disabilities occurring with diminished hearing has been documented over time (Craig & Craig, 1993, 1983, 1973). The three additional disabilities most often reported in children who are deaf or hard of hearing are learning disabilities, intellectual disabilities, and emotional/behavioral disabilities. The 1993 reference issue of the American Annals of the Deaf reports: learning disabilities are the largest co-occurring disability. 9% prevalence. Intellectual disabilities occurring with a prevalence at 8%. Emotional/behavioral disabilities was the least with 4% prevalence. Hearing Impaired students with these Co-Occurring disabilities display a range of learning difficulties other than their limited hearing potential that range from: inappropriate, disruptive, aggressive behaviors generalized delay in development across all areas of learning Limited problem-solving abilities and lowered adaptive skills specific learning deficits that restrict accomplishments ERIC Digest #E548

13 Technology For Helping Those With Hearing Loss? "Blindness cuts you off from things; deafness cuts you off from people." Helen Keller American Sign Language (ASL) is the primary mode of communication for the deaf. This visual gesturing language uses agreed upon symbolism to convey words or actions. This is not a universal language, nor does it represent English language. It uses unique grammar and usage, but it does utilize Finger Spelling represent English letters to convey a word or action that has no symbol. Amplification devices, or Hearing Aids, are electronic devices that are usually worn in or behind the ear of a hearing-impaired person for amplifying sound. Hearing Implants are the next step in electronic aids when normal hearing aid apparatus are no benefit. Cochlear – small electronic device that can provide a sense of hearing to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard-of-hearing Middle Ear - Microphones that transmit sound from middle to inner ear for persons with conductive or mixed hearing loss. Bone-anchored - Conduct sound from an implant in the skull behind the ear to the inner ear for a variety of hearing loss. Auditory Brain – Electrodes applied to the brain stem providing electric impulses for a sense of hearing for those who do not have adequate auditory nerves. Vaugn, Bos, and Schumm 2007

14 Universal Design for Learning CAST, Center for Applied Special Technology, has been investigating and designing the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) since They have described UDL as a theoretical framework to guide the development of curricula that are flexible and supportive of all students, with all types of needs in mind, so that methods, materials, and assessment are usable by all. Hall, T., Strangman, N., & Meyer, A. (2003). Differentiated instruction and implications for UDL implementation (CAST)

15 UDL Continued, CASTs study of UDL has lead to the identification of the three network pathways the brain uses in processing information and learning. Recognition networks Gathering facts. How we identify and categorize what we see, hear, and read. Identifying letters, words, or an author's style are recognition tasks the "what" of learning. Strategic networks Planning and performing tasks. How we organize and express our ideas. Writing an essay or solving a math problem are strategic tasksthe "how" of learning. Affective networks How students are engaged and motivated. How they are challenged, excited, or interested. These are affective dimensionsthe "why" of learning.

16 Differentiated Instruction CAST suggests that the best method of meeting a Universal Designed Learning plan is through Differentiated Instruction. Differentiated Instruction (DI)is a process to teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class. The intent of differentiating instruction is to maximize each students growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is, and assisting in the learning process. There are three areas of focus for DI that CAST suggest are imperative for educators to be successful. Content, Process, and Products. Hall, T., Strangman, N., & Meyer, A. (2003). Differentiated instruction and implications for UDL implementation (CAST)

17 Differentiated Instruction cont, Content Several elements and materials are used to support instructional content. These include acts, concepts, generalizations or principles, attitudes, and skills. Access to the content is seen as key. Align tasks and objectives to learning goals. Designers of differentiated instruction view the alignment of tasks with instructional goals and objectives as essential. An objectives-driven menu makes it easier to find the next instructional step for learners entering at varying levels. Instruction is concept-focused and principle-driven. The instructional concepts should be broad-based, not focused on minute details or unlimited facts. The content of instruction should address the same concepts with all students, but the degree of complexity should be adjusted to suit diverse learners. Process Flexible grouping is consistently used. Learners are expected to interact and work together as they develop knowledge of new content. Teachers may conduct whole-class introductory discussions of content big ideas followed by small group or paired work. As one of the foundations of differentiated instruction, grouping and regrouping must be a dynamic process, changing with the content, project, and on-going evaluations. Classroom management benefits students and teachers. To effectively operate a classroom using differentiated instruction, teachers must carefully select organization and instructional delivery strategies. Products Initial and on-going assessment of student readiness and growth are essential. Meaningful pre-assessment naturally leads to functional and successful differentiation. Incorporating pre and on-going assessment informs teachers so that they can better provide a menu of approaches, choices, and scaffolds for the varying needs, interests and abilities that exist in classrooms of diverse students. Students are active and responsible explorers. Teachers respect that each task put before the learner will be interesting, engaging, and accessible to essential understanding and skills. Each child should feel challenged most of the time. Vary expectations and requirements for student responses. Items to which students respond may be differentiated so that different students can demonstrate or express their knowledge and understanding in different ways.

18 What does UDL & DI do for the Hearing Impaired Students & their classroom? The tools that may be required to help educate students with a hearing impairment may also be used or incorporated into whole-class lessons in an effort to benefit all students. Technology such as, closed captioning on classroom informational videos, additional vocabulary instruction, visual aides for lesson plans, and group work activities could help any struggling student, as well as aid in the development of the hearing impaired student(s). Furthermore, including the entire class in their aliment may help to socialize everyone to the problem, instead of reviling it.

19 Tools For Teachers To Help Students With Hearing Loss These are just a few helpful tips for the classroom from a book other than our text called The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Instruction Adapt the physical environment so students are seated close enough to the front of the class to maximize their hearing and enable them to read speech. They should also be able to turn to face other students while they are speaking. Because hearing aids are extra sound-sensitive, loud or irritating noises should be avoided. Consider choosing a room with carpeting and located away from noisy school areas, such as the cafeteria and gym. Use technology, including hearing aids, television captioning, adapted telephone equipment (TTY), computer-assisted instruction, and the Internet. When appropriate, use FM sound systems, which include cordless microphones for teachers, and receivers that attach to hearing aids for students. Pass your microphone to classmates who are speaking in a class discussion so they can also be heard. Use visuals such as illustrations, diagrams, pictures, and three-dimensional models to introduce vocabulary and concepts and enhance comprehension. Use language cards that contain vocabulary and illustrations of concepts and definitions that can accompany verbal presentations and be used to pre-teach. Encourage students to maintain personal dictionaries of their language cards. Create authentic experiences by connecting new language and knowledge to real-world experiences in a context relevant to the students linguistic and experiential background. The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Instruction, by M.A. Mastropieri & T.E. Scruggs, 2007

20 Tools For Teachers To Help Students With Hearing Loss, continued Reiterate major points, write out assignments, or write down questions on overhead transparencies or the chalkboard. Give students outlines or closing summaries as handouts. Repeat questions or answers that other students contribute, to enable hearing impaired students to fully participate in class. Sequence steps or procedures on written cards and place them in clear view. Use hand signals or devise a signaling system to denote transitions or allow students with hearing impairments or interpreters to review questions, answers, and concepts. Alert students as to when to look or listen and position yourself so students with hearing impairments can clearly see your face, without shadowing from backlighting or the reflection of glaring light. Use a listen, then look, then listen sequence of instruction, so students can focus on your face as you speak, then focus on the other aspects of the lesson separately, then focus on your face again. Say, for example, Now, Im going to pour the oil in with this water (listen); then pour the oil (look), then say, I poured the oil into the water. Who can tell me what happened? (listen). Plan for interpreters. Interpreters often assist students who are deaf, by translating lecture information, tutoring, and assisting special and regular education teachers. Extra space, including chairs or desks, may be required for interpreters to be near students with hearing impairments. Remember that an interpreter cannot proceed at the same pace as your verbal presentation, and you need to slow your rate of presentation accordingly. Work with family members. Parents and other family members have an important influence on students with hearing impairments, with respect to such activities as going out and interacting with people, joining sports and other recreational activities, and monitoring and assisting homework (Stewart & Kluwin, 2001). Work with family members to help them prioritize and encourage important activities. The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Instruction, by M.A. Mastropieri & T.E. Scruggs, 2007

21 References Benson, V., & Marano, M.A. (1995). Current estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 10(190). ( American Speech-Language-Hearing Association) Blanchfield, B.B., et. al. (2001). The severely to profoundly hearing-impaired population in the United States: Prevalence estimates and demographics. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 12, ( American Speech-Language-Hearing Association) Bunch, G. & Melnyk, T. (1989). A review of the evidence for a learning-disabled, hearing impaired sub-group. American Annals of the Deaf, 134, (ERIC Digest #E548 No. ED414666) Castrogiovanni, A. (2004, May 4). Incidence and prevalence of hearing loss and hearing aid use in the U.S. – 2004 edition. ( American Speech-Language-Hearing Association) Craig, W.N. & Craig, H.B. (Eds.).(1993). Tabular summary of schools and classes in the U.S. American Annals of the Deaf, 138(2), (ERIC Digest #E548 No. ED414666) Craig, W. N. & Craig, H.B. (Eds.). (1983). Tabular summary of schools and classes in the U.S. American Annals of the Deaf, 127(2), (ERIC Digest #E548 No. ED414666) Craig, W.N. & Craig, H.B. (Eds.). (1973). Tabular summary of schools and classes in the U.S. American Annals of the Deaf, 118(2), (ERIC Digest #E548 No. ED414666) Cunningham, M., & Cox, E.O. (2003, February). Hearing assessment in infants and children: Recommendations beyond neonatal screening. Pediatrics, 111(2): American Speech-Language-Hearing Association) Hall, T., Strangman, N., & Meyer, A. (2003). Differentiated instruction and implications for UDL implementation. Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. Retrieved November from

22 References, continued How Loud Is Too Loud. Retrieved November 09, 2009, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments Final Regulations for Part B of IDEA, 57 C.F.R (1992). Kemper, A.R., & Downs, S.M. (2000, May). A cost-effectiveness analysis of newborn hearing screening strategies. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 154(5): ( American Speech- Language-Hearing Association) Kochkin, S. (2001, December). MarkeTrak VI: The VA and direct mail sales spark growth in hearing aid market. The Hearing Review, 8(12): 16-24, ( American Speech-Language-Hearing Association) Lee, D.J., et. al. (1998, August). Prevalence of unilateral hearing loss in children: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II and the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Ear and Hearing, 19(4): ( American Speech-Language-Hearing Association) Marazita, M.L., et. al. (1993, June 15). Genetic epidemiological studies of early-onset deafness in the U.S. school-age population. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 46(5): ( American Speech-Language-Hearing Association) Mastropieri M.A. & T.E. Scruggs. (2007) The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Instruction, Prentice Hall, National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities. ( 2004, January). Deafness and hearing loss (Pub. No. FS3). Washington, DC: Author. ( American Speech-Language-Hearing Association) Niskar, A.S., et. al. (1998, April 8). Prevalence of hearing loss among children 6 to 19 years of age: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA, 279(14): ( American Speech-Language-Hearing Association)

23 References, continued postlingual. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary. Retrieved November 09, 2009, from website: prelingual. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary. Retrieved November 09, 2009, from website: Ries, P.W. (1994). Prevalence and characteristics of persons with hearing trouble: United States, National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 10(188). ( American Speech-Language- Hearing Association) Task Force on Newborn and Infant Hearing. (1999, February). Newborn and infant hearing loss: Detection and intervention. Pediatrics, 103(2): ( American Speech-Language-Hearing Association) U.S. Department of Education. (2002). To assure the free appropriate public education of all Americans: Twenty- fourth annual report to Congress on the I implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. ( American Speech- Language-Hearing Association) Vaughn, S, & C. Bos, & J. Schumm. (2007). Teaching Students Who Are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk In The General Education Classroom. United States of America, Pearson. (p ) Watkins, S. (Ed.). (1993). Sky*HI resource manual (p. G9). Retrieved November 09, 2009

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