CONTENTS * TOPIC :(MEANS OF COMMUNICATION ) * OBJECTIVES (LONG TERM & SHORT TERM) * INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY * DESCRIPTION OF TOPICS (TELEPHONE,FAX COMPUTER,INTERNET, ,RADIO & T.V * CONCLUSION * RESOURCES * Q/ANS SESSION
LONG TERM OBJECTIVE *. To implement 21 st century teaching approaches in my class room to enhance students knowledge about social studies in world perspective.
SHORT TERM OBJECTIVES 1.To impart knowledge about different means of communication like Telephone,fax,computer,Radio,T.V,etc. 2. To make students understand the importance and necessity of means of communication in modern development. 3. To enable students to use these means of Communication effectively for the transfer of information and communication.
INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY 1. LECTURE 2. GROUP DISCUSSIONS 3. GROUP ASSIGNMENTS 4. PROJECTS
What are means of communication? The resources used for transfer of information and exchange of messages are called means of communication. The important means of communication are telephone,computer,T.V,radio,internet, , fax etc.
Evolution of Means of Communication The history of communication dates back to prehistory. Communication can range from very subtle processes of exchange, to full conversations and mass communication. Human communication was revolutionized with speech perhaps 200,000 years ago. Symbols were developed about 30,000 years ago, and writing about 7,000. On a much shorter scale, there have been major developments in the field of telecommunication in the past few centuries.
TELEPHONE The telephone (from the Greek: τ λε, tēle,"far" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice"), often colloquially referred to as a phone, is telecommunications device that transmits and receives sound, most commonly the human voice. Telephones are a point-to-point communication system whose most basic function is to allow two people separated by large distances to talk to each other. It is one of the most common appliances in the developed world, and has long been Indispensible to businesses, households and Governments.
A landline telephone is connected by a pair of wires to the telephone network, while a mobile phone or cell phone is portable and communicates with the telephone network by radio. A cordless telephone has a portable handset which communicates by radio with a base station connected by wire to the telephone network, and can only be used within a limited range of the base station.
All telephones have a microphone to speak into, an earphone which reproduces the voice of the other person, a ringer which makes a sound to alert the owner when a call is coming in, and a keypad (or in older phones a telephone dial or no manual device) to enter the telephone number of the telephone being called. The microphone and earphone are usually built into a handset which is held up to the face to talk.
HISTORY OF THE TELEPHONE Credit for the invention of the electric telephone is frequently disputed, and new controversies over the issue have arisen from time to time. Innocenzo Manzetti, Antonio Meucci, Johann Philipp Reis, Elisha Gray, Alexander Graham Bell, and Thomas Edison, among others, have all been credited with pioneering work on the telephone.
An undisputed fact is that Alexander Graham Bell was the first to be awarded a patent for the electric telephone by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) in March That first patent by Bell was the master patent of the telephone, from which all other patents for electric telephone devices and features flowed.
IMPACT OF TELEPHONE The telephone has made communication more efficient and faster since it was first developed. There is no doubt that it has made a dramatic impact on writing and teaching. The telephone has transformed societies social behavior by changing the way we communicate with each other. The telephone has fostered a whole host of new inventions, both the cellular phone and the internet are a result of the telephone system "The human voice carries too far as it is.. and now you fellows come along and seek to complicate matters... MARK TWAIN
FACSIMILE(FAX) TRANSMISSION Facsimile comes from the Latin word Fac simile, which translates to make similar. Traditional Facsimile systems are unique as They communicate image Information, rather than audio or data. Edward Davy invented the first practical facsimile machine in 1837, but abandoned the invention shortly thereafter. Alexander Bain, a Scottish clockmaker, revived the concept in 1846.
FAX APPLICATIONS * Facsimile technology has been designed to transmit documents like letter, an invoice, a blue print, a photograph. * Numerous sales oriented enterprises now rely heavily on fax broad cast systems, in place of more traditional direct mail or other forms of mail. * Fax Over IP(FOIP) can transmit and receive pre digitized documents at near real time speed using TTU.T.recommendations T.38 to send digitized images over an IP network.
COMPUTER (INTERNET, ) A computer is a programmable machine designed to sequentially and automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations. The particular sequence of operations can be changed readily, allowing the computer to solve more than one kind of problem.
HISTORY OF COMPUTER he first electronic computers were developed in the mid-20th century (1940–1945). Originally, they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs).
INTERNET The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies.
INTERNET APPLICATIONS * Most traditional communications media including telephone, music, film, and television are reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and IPTV. * Newspaper, book and other print publishing are adapting to Web site technology, or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds *The Internet has enabled or accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking.
*Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries.
WI-FI TECHNOLOGY Wi-Fi ( / ˈ wa ɪ fa ɪ / is a branded standard for wirelessly electronic devices. A Wi-Fi device, such as a personal computer, video game console, Smartphone, or digital audio player can connect to the Internet via a wireless network access point. An access point (or hotspot) has a range of about 20 meters (65 feet) indoors and a greater range outdoors. Multiple overlapping access points can cover large areas.
Electronic mail, commonly called or , is a method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients. Modern operates across the Internet or other computer networks. Today's systems are based on a store-and- forward model. servers accept, forward, deliver and store messages. Neither the users nor their computers are required to be online simultaneously; they need connect only briefly, typically to an server, for as long as it takes to send or receive messages.
APPLICATIONS * traditionally has been text oriented, but now it is often appended with binary,audio, video and image files. * has become essential for the conduct of business. * It is virtually universal, having found its way in to wide spread consumer use through on line information service, connected via the internet and mail gate ways, which serve as protocol converters.
RADIO Radio is the transmission of signals by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space. Information is carried by systematically changing (modulating) some property of the radiated waves, such as amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
HISTORY OF RADIO In 1895, Marconi built a wireless system capable of transmitting signals at long distances (1.5 mi./ 2.4 km). In radio transmission technology, early public experimenters had made short distance broadcasts. Marconi achieved long range signaling due to a wireless transmitting apparatus and a radio receiver claimed by him. From Marconi's experiments, the phenomenon that transmission range is proportional to the square of antenna height is known as "Marconi's law". This formula represents a physical law that radio devices use. Marconi's experimental apparatus proved to be a complete, commercially successful radio transmission system.
USES OF RADIO * Today, radio takes many forms, including wireless networks and mobile communications of all types, as well as radio broadcasting * Commercial radio broadcasts include not only news and music, but dramas, comedies, variety shows, and many other forms of entertainment * TETRA, Terrestrial Trunked Radio is a digital cell phone system for military, police and ambulances. Commercial services such as XM, World Space and Sirius offer encrypted digital Satellite radio.
TELEVISION Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochromatic (shades of grey) or multicolored. Images are usually accompanied by sound. "Television" may also refer specifically to a television set, television programming, television transmission.
HISTORY OF TELEVISION Scottish inventor John Logie Baird demonstrated the transmission of moving silhouette images in London in 1925, and of moving, monochromatic images in Baird's scanning disk produced an image of 30 lines resolution, just enough to discern a human face, from a double spiral of lenses.This demonstration by Baird is generally agreed to be the world's first true demonstration of television
USES OF TELEVISION * It makes it possible for us to see what is happening far away. In our homes we watch on television, films or events taking place in other cities, countries and other continents. * Television can be used to teach uneducated people. we can present on TV educational programmers of different categories. * Television motivates the learners by attracting him/her and increases the interest in the learning process
CONCLUSION Modern means of communication are very much important for social, commercial and economic progress of the country. these means of communication have turned the world in to a global village. this has spread scientific and technological knowledge and promoted literacy all over the world. Todays commerce and industry depend a lot on telephone, postal service,radio,t.v,the internet etc. These means of communication extend great help in expanding the internal and foreign trade.
REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHY * Illustrated Encyclopedia of science(machines&inventions 1&2) * The copmuter age 1&2(illustrated encyclopedia of sceince and nature. * Communications systems and networks by RAY HORAK * Social studies for class viii by AKHGAR ANWAR AWAN
REFERENCES * Social studies for class viii SINDH TEXT BOARD,JAMSHORO * INTERET (Google,yahoo,wikipedia)