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CHAPTER 15 Physical Development & Health

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1 CHAPTER 15 Physical Development & Health

2 A Developmental Transition
Initiation Coming of Age Rituals: Common Example: Apache Tribes, 4-Day Chanting Celebration Passage of ChildhoodAdulthood Marked by period of time rather than a single-event ADOLESCENCE (encompassing years between 11-19) “Developmental transition involving physical, cognitive, emotional and social transformations” Changes can vary by factors (cultural, social, economic) Puberty: Important physical change

3 A Time of Risks and Opportunities
Early Adolescence (approximately ages 11-14) Opportunities for Growth Of course Physical, but don’t forget these…. Cognitive and Social Competence, Autonomy, Self-Esteem and Intimacy. Period of RISKS Some adolescents may need help: coping&dealing w/changes Face environmental hazards –National Center of Health Statistics Risky BX reflects Immaturity of the Mind

4 Puberty Begins w/ Hormonal Changes
Involves dramatic biological changes Result of heightened production II Stages Adrenarche: Adrenal gland Gonadarche: Reproductive organs

5 Stage I Adrenarche: (beginning age 7-8) DHEA
Adrenal Glands: secrete increased levels of ANDROGENS Specifically: DHEA – Dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA Plays a part in many different growths Body Hair (P,A,F) Overall Body Growth Oilier Skin AND, best of all…. Body Odor

6 Stage II Maturation of sex organs triggers burst numero 2 of DHEA production (rising to adult levels) Gonadarche Girls: Ovaries increase Estrogen output Stimulates growth of : Female genitals, breasts and pubic and ax. hair. Boys: Testes increase manufacture of androgens Particularly Testosterone Genitals, muscle mass, and body hair. Note: Hormones present in both genders but one has more than the other. Testosterone: Plays part in the development of reproductive organs, in both males and females. Interesting note: Several Studies (first sexual attraction)

7 Time of Increased Hormonal Production…
Correlates with appropriate body fat Necessary for reproduction (successfully) Leptin, a hormone identified as having a role in over-weight, may trigger the onset of puberty by signaling the brain that sufficient fat has accumulated. Accumulation within bloodstream may stimulate the HYPOTHALAMUS Sending signals to Pituitary gland signal sex glands to increase hormone secretion.

8 Timing, Signs, and Sequence of Puberty and Sexual Maturity
Changes that herald puberty  8 in girls and 9 in boys Pubertal Process- Usually 3-4 years African and Mexican American girls enter puberty earlier than white girls. Reported as early as age 6.

9 Primary/Secondary Sex Characteristics
Primary Sex Characteristics: Organs Necessary for Reproduction Girls: Ovaries, fallopian tubes, clitoris, uterus, and vagina. Boys: Testes, Penis, scrotum, seminal vesicles, and prostate gland Organs enlarge and mature for both sexes Secondary Sex Characteristics: Physiological signs of sexual maturation that do not directly involve the sex organs Example: Girls: Breasts Male: Broad shoulders **Changes unfold in a sequence that is much more consistent than their timing.

10 1st Signs of Puberty Begins around….and lasts about 2 years.
Girls: Typically breast tissue and pubic hair Nipples, Areolae, Conical Round Shape Boys: Enlargement of testes and pubic hair Pubic hair- silky, smooth dark, coarse; voice Adolescent Growth Spurt- characterized by a rapid increase in height, weight, and muscle and bone growth that occurs during puberty. Begins around….and lasts about 2 years. Girls: age 10; Boys: 12 or 13 G: Taller, heavier and stronger than boys at ages 11-13 ***After their growth spurt, boys are again larger, as before

11 Signs of Sexual Maturity
Maturation: Menstruation and Sperm Production Menarche and Spermarche Spermarche Occurs at AVG age of 13. Wet Dream= Nocturnal Emmission Connection with Erotic Dreams EJACULATION Menarche Occurs late in seq. of female development Time varies: ½ Overtime, 1st menstruation has occurred progressively earlier Age 14 in 1900 compared to age 12, currently. Secular Trend p425 MENSTURATION

12 Psychological Effects of Early/Late Maturation
Time of Maturation tends to predict: Adolescent Mental Health & Mental-Health Bx in adulthood Boys: Prefer to mature early, resulting in high self-esteem, poise, composure, relaxation, good-natured along with a popular/less impulsive attitude than late maturers. 426 Girls: Prefer maturation occurrence in conjunction with their peers. If not, may tend to be less sociable, less expressive, and less poised; more introverted and shy; and more negative about menarche than later maturing girls. Low self-esteem can arise from the formation of breasts **Among both boys and girls, early maturers are more vulnerable to risky behavior and influence of deviant peers.

13 Adolescent Brain Studies reveal adolescent brain as still being a work in progress. Dramatic changes in brain structure involved with -emotion -judgment -organization of bx -self-control .. Can take place during puberty -Usage of particular parts of the brain within adolescence compared to adulthood may provide insight on why adolescents’ make unwise choices Immature brain development <pg427> -After growth spurt, the portion of grey matter located within the pre-frontal cortex is significantly smaller, due to synaptic pruning. unused: destroyed used: strengthened

14 Physical and Mental Health
Exercise affects both physical and mental health of adolescent. Lots of benefits in sport participation Health problems reduced 1/3 Hschoolers don’t engage in enough p.a. Loss of Sleep insomnia due to sleep patterns Melatonin

15 Nutrition and Eating Disorders
Obesity is a significant problem- pg 430 Sometimes the determination not to become overweight can yield additional problems Body Image Problems and Media and Social Influences <431> - Anorexia Nervosa/ Bulimia Nervosa Abnormal food-intake patters Including constant use of laxatives, erratic eating, self-starvation, binge eating, etc.

16 Anorexia Nervosa Typically beginning in Adolescence, characterized by an obsessive preoccupation with being thin. Anorexics: 15 below NBW, have a distorted body image and think they’re fat. 2 Types (R&P) (1) Self-starvation, often accompanied by compulsive, excessive exercise.*** (2) binge eating, purging or both along with laxatives.**** -Highest death-rate/suicide rate of any mental disorder. Wear and tear on body medical complications

17 Bulimia Nervosa In bulimia Nervosa, a person regularly goes on huge eating binges within a short time, usually 2 hours or less, and then may try to undo the high caloric intake with self-induced vomiting, strict dieting or fasting, excessively vigorous exercise, or laxatives, enemas, or diuretics to purge the body. Not abnormally underweight (may even be overweight) More common than anorexia (3%men/women) Little evidence of bulimia historically Obsessed with their weight and shape.

18 Use and Abuse of Drugs Substance abuse: harmful use of alcohol or other drugs Can lead to substance dependence (addiction) Physiological Psychological, or both. Addictive drugs are especially dangerous in adolescence bc they stimulate pars of brain that are changing in adolescence Negatively impacting development of child Risk factors: difficult temperament; poor impulse control and a tendency to seek out sensation; family influences (genetic predisposition) ; early and persistent bx problems (particularly aggression); academic failure. -Early use leads to greater tendency for drug abuse

19 Influences on Smoking/Drinking
As with hard drugs, the influence of older siblings and their friends increases the likelihood of tobacco and alcohol use in younger adolescents. Counteracted by: Rational Discussion with Parents Discouraging or limiting drinking Media Influences Depictions of smoking/drinking and other drug use increase and influence likelihood of adolescent participation in such acts

20 Depression Characterized by irritability, boredom and/or inability to experience pleasure. Subject to Depression : Girls> Boys During Maturation Risk Factors: Anxiety, fear of social contact, stressful life events, chronic illnesses such as diabetes or epilepsy, parent-child conflict, abuse or neglect, alcohol and drug use, sexual activity, and having a parent w/ history of depression. 1:5 Bipolar (mania, depressive)

21 Death in Adolescence 2006: 71% of adolescent death (ages 10-24) due to
Motor vehicle crashes, homicide, unintentional injuries, and suicide. Suicide- readily available guns Generally, boys 5X more successful GLBT- unusually high suicide rates and attempted suicide rates Young people engaging in suicidal acts have histories of emotional illness, typically. Can be reduced by the presence of: sense of connectedness to family and school, emotional well-being, and academic achievement. Telephone Hotlines- Common Intervention

22 Protective Factors: Health in Context
Study of 12,118 7-12th Graders- looked at risk/protective factors affecting four major aspects of adolescence. Emotional Distress and Suicidal Bx Involvement in fighting, threats of violence, or use of weapons Use of cigarettes, alcohol and Marijuana Sexual experience, including age of sexual initiation and any history of pregnancy. Adolescence who get emotional support at home and are well-adjusted at school have the best chances of avoiding the health hazards of adolescence

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