2A Developmental Transition InitiationComing of Age Rituals: CommonExample: Apache Tribes, 4-Day Chanting CelebrationPassage of ChildhoodAdulthoodMarked by period of time rather than a single-eventADOLESCENCE (encompassing years between 11-19)“Developmental transition involving physical, cognitive, emotional and social transformations”Changes can vary by factors (cultural, social, economic)Puberty: Important physical change
3A Time of Risks and Opportunities Early Adolescence (approximately ages 11-14)Opportunities for GrowthOf course Physical, but don’t forget these….Cognitive and Social Competence, Autonomy, Self-Esteem and Intimacy.Period of RISKSSome adolescents may need help: coping&dealing w/changesFace environmental hazards –National Center of Health StatisticsRisky BX reflects Immaturity of the Mind
5Stage I Adrenarche: (beginning age 7-8) DHEA Adrenal Glands: secrete increased levels of ANDROGENSSpecifically: DHEA – DehydroepiandrosteroneDHEAPlays a part in many different growthsBody Hair (P,A,F)Overall Body GrowthOilier SkinAND, best of all…. Body Odor
6Stage IIMaturation of sex organs triggers burst numero 2 of DHEA production (rising to adult levels)GonadarcheGirls: Ovaries increase Estrogen outputStimulates growth of : Female genitals, breasts and pubic and ax. hair.Boys: Testes increase manufacture of androgensParticularly TestosteroneGenitals, muscle mass, and body hair.Note: Hormones present in both genders but one has more than the other.Testosterone: Plays part in the development of reproductive organs, in both males and females.Interesting note: Several Studies (first sexual attraction)
7Time of Increased Hormonal Production… Correlates with appropriate body fatNecessary for reproduction (successfully)Leptin, a hormone identified as having a role in over-weight, may trigger the onset of puberty by signaling the brain that sufficient fat has accumulated.Accumulation within bloodstream may stimulate the HYPOTHALAMUSSending signals to Pituitary gland signal sex glands to increase hormone secretion.
8Timing, Signs, and Sequence of Puberty and Sexual Maturity Changes that herald puberty 8 in girls and 9 in boysPubertal Process- Usually 3-4 yearsAfrican and Mexican American girls enter puberty earlier than white girls. Reported as early as age 6.
9Primary/Secondary Sex Characteristics Primary Sex Characteristics: Organs Necessary for ReproductionGirls: Ovaries, fallopian tubes, clitoris, uterus, and vagina.Boys: Testes, Penis, scrotum, seminal vesicles, and prostate glandOrgans enlarge and mature for both sexesSecondary Sex Characteristics: Physiological signs of sexual maturation that do not directly involve the sex organsExample: Girls: Breasts Male: Broad shoulders**Changes unfold in a sequence that is much more consistent than their timing.
101st Signs of Puberty Begins around….and lasts about 2 years. Girls: Typically breast tissue and pubic hairNipples, Areolae, Conical Round ShapeBoys: Enlargement of testes and pubic hairPubic hair- silky, smooth dark, coarse; voiceAdolescent Growth Spurt- characterized by a rapid increase in height, weight, and muscle and bone growth that occurs during puberty.Begins around….and lasts about 2 years.Girls: age 10; Boys: 12 or 13G: Taller, heavier and stronger than boys at ages 11-13***After their growth spurt, boys are again larger, as before
11Signs of Sexual Maturity Maturation: Menstruation and Sperm ProductionMenarche and SpermarcheSpermarcheOccurs at AVG age of 13.Wet Dream= Nocturnal EmmissionConnection with Erotic DreamsEJACULATIONMenarcheOccurs late in seq. of female developmentTime varies: ½Overtime, 1st menstruation has occurred progressively earlierAge 14 in 1900 compared to age 12, currently.Secular Trend p425MENSTURATION
12Psychological Effects of Early/Late Maturation Time of Maturation tends to predict:Adolescent Mental Health & Mental-Health Bx in adulthoodBoys: Prefer to mature early, resulting in high self-esteem, poise, composure, relaxation, good-natured along with a popular/less impulsive attitude than late maturers. 426Girls: Prefer maturation occurrence in conjunction with their peers. If not, may tend to be less sociable, less expressive, and less poised; more introverted and shy; and more negative about menarche than later maturing girls.Low self-esteem can arise from the formation of breasts**Among both boys and girls, early maturers are more vulnerable to risky behavior and influence of deviant peers.
13Adolescent BrainStudies reveal adolescent brain as still being a work in progress. Dramatic changes in brain structure involved with -emotion -judgment -organization of bx -self-control .. Can take place during puberty -Usage of particular parts of the brain within adolescence compared to adulthood may provide insight on why adolescents’ make unwise choices Immature brain development <pg427> -After growth spurt, the portion of grey matter located within the pre-frontal cortex is significantly smaller, due to synaptic pruning. unused: destroyed used: strengthened
14Physical and Mental Health Exercise affects both physical and mental health of adolescent.Lots of benefits in sport participationHealth problems reduced1/3 Hschoolers don’t engage in enough p.a.Loss of Sleep insomnia due to sleep patternsMelatonin
15Nutrition and Eating Disorders Obesity is a significant problem- pg 430Sometimes the determination not to become overweight can yield additional problemsBody Image Problems and Media and Social Influences <431>- Anorexia Nervosa/ Bulimia NervosaAbnormal food-intake pattersIncluding constant use of laxatives, erratic eating, self-starvation, binge eating, etc.
16Anorexia NervosaTypically beginning in Adolescence, characterized by an obsessive preoccupation with being thin.Anorexics: 15 below NBW, have a distorted body image and think they’re fat.2 Types (R&P)(1) Self-starvation, often accompanied by compulsive, excessive exercise.***(2) binge eating, purging or both along with laxatives.****-Highest death-rate/suicide rate of any mental disorder.Wear and tear on body medical complications
17Bulimia NervosaIn bulimia Nervosa, a person regularly goes on huge eating binges within a short time, usually 2 hours or less, and then may try to undo the high caloric intake with self-induced vomiting, strict dieting or fasting, excessively vigorous exercise, or laxatives, enemas, or diuretics to purge the body.Not abnormally underweight (may even be overweight)More common than anorexia (3%men/women)Little evidence of bulimia historicallyObsessed with their weight and shape.
18Use and Abuse of DrugsSubstance abuse: harmful use of alcohol or other drugsCan lead to substance dependence (addiction)PhysiologicalPsychological, or both.Addictive drugs are especially dangerous in adolescence bc they stimulate pars of brain that are changing in adolescenceNegatively impacting development of childRisk factors: difficult temperament; poor impulse control and a tendency to seek out sensation; family influences (genetic predisposition) ; early and persistent bx problems (particularly aggression); academic failure.-Early use leads to greater tendency for drug abuse
19Influences on Smoking/Drinking As with hard drugs, the influence of older siblings and their friends increases the likelihood of tobacco and alcohol use in younger adolescents.Counteracted by:Rational Discussion with ParentsDiscouraging or limiting drinkingMedia InfluencesDepictions of smoking/drinking and other drug use increase and influence likelihood of adolescent participation in such acts
20DepressionCharacterized by irritability, boredom and/or inability to experience pleasure.Subject to Depression : Girls> BoysDuring MaturationRisk Factors:Anxiety, fear of social contact, stressful life events, chronic illnesses such as diabetes or epilepsy, parent-child conflict, abuse or neglect, alcohol and drug use, sexual activity, and having a parent w/ history of depression.1:5 Bipolar (mania, depressive)
21Death in Adolescence 2006: 71% of adolescent death (ages 10-24) due to Motor vehicle crashes, homicide, unintentional injuries, and suicide.Suicide- readily available gunsGenerally, boys 5X more successfulGLBT- unusually high suicide rates and attempted suicide ratesYoung people engaging in suicidal acts have histories of emotional illness, typically.Can be reduced by the presence of: sense of connectedness to family and school, emotional well-being, and academic achievement.Telephone Hotlines- Common Intervention
22Protective Factors: Health in Context Study of 12,1187-12th Graders- looked at risk/protective factors affecting four major aspects of adolescence.Emotional Distress and Suicidal BxInvolvement in fighting, threats of violence, or use of weaponsUse of cigarettes, alcohol and MarijuanaSexual experience, including age of sexual initiation and any history of pregnancy.Adolescence who get emotional support at home and are well-adjusted at school have the best chances of avoiding the health hazards of adolescence