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Dr. Sara Greenberg 1 Systematic Analysis of Evolution Patterns in Bio Medical Systems Dr. Sara Greenberg Holon Institute of Technology.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Sara Greenberg 1 Systematic Analysis of Evolution Patterns in Bio Medical Systems Dr. Sara Greenberg Holon Institute of Technology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Sara Greenberg 1 Systematic Analysis of Evolution Patterns in Bio Medical Systems Dr. Sara Greenberg Holon Institute of Technology

2 Dr. Sara Greenberg 2 What is systematic innovation ? A set of knowledge tools methods which can enable systematic development of innovative problem solving.

3 Dr. Sara Greenberg 3 TRIZ was founded in 1946 by a Russian engineer and scientist, Genrich S. Altshuller (Oct.15 1926 - Sept. 24,1998) " Теория решения изобретательских задач" או בעברית: "תֵּיאוֹרִיָה רֶשֶנִיָה אִיזוֹבְּרֵטַאטֵלְסְקִיךְ זַאדַאץ"

4 Dr. Sara Greenberg 4 Genrich S. Altshuller " תאוריה היא מרשימה יותר ככל שהנחותיה פשוטות יותר, ככל שהיא מקשרת בין יותר סוגי דברים שונים וככל שתחום הישימות שלה רחב יותר " אלברט איינשטיין

5 Dr. Sara Greenberg 5 Evolution – were it all begins...

6 Dr. Sara Greenberg 6 Laws of Technological Systems Evolution Evolution in stages. Evolution towards increased ideality. Non-Uniform development of system elements. Evolution towards increased dynamism and controllability. Increased complexity and then simplification. Evolution with matching and mismatching components. Evolution towards Micro-level and increased use of fields. Evolution towards decreased human involvement.

7 Dr. Sara Greenberg 7 Evolution in stages

8 Dr. Sara Greenberg 8 Lines of System Development "Life Lines" Technical Systems by G. S. Altshuller Efficiency t α β γ Number of Inventions t Level of Invention t Profit IIIIIIIV t

9 Dr. Sara Greenberg 9 Evolution in stages The Driving Forces of Technological Evolution Ideality, Innovation, Consumers, Resources t 1 2 3 4 Envelopecurve

10 Dr. Sara Greenberg 10 Evolution in stages Development of Electronics

11 Dr. Sara Greenberg 11 What is a Contradiction? P P An improvement in one characteristic of a system results in the degradation of another characteristic. Traditionally addressed by compromise, sacrifice or trade-off Y X Y= -f(X) Y=C Y= f(X) No compromise! Contradiction = Barrier Prevent from Achievement of the Most Desirable Result

12 Dr. Sara Greenberg 12 Evolution in stages Horns Trumpets Development of hearing aids Carbon aids Transistor Aids Digital Aids

13 Dr. Sara Greenberg 13 Evolution Towards Increased Ideality The main driving force for system evolution is increasing main system useful functions by elevating value and decreasing the harmful effects: Σ Useful Functions ` Σ Costs + Σ Harm. Functions Value = Ideality = Σ Functionality Σ Costs + Σ Harm

14 Dr. Sara Greenberg 14 Evolution Towards Increased Ideality Landing lights on airport runway Biological glue Melting stitches in surgery No-stitch surgery Drugs with no side effects Stem cells therapy

15 Dr. Sara Greenberg 15 Non-Uniform Development of System Elements The process: Every sub-system evolves according to its own S-curve New system variant Contradiction & problem solving

16 Dr. Sara Greenberg 16 Evolution Towards Increased Dynamism and Controllability Inventions: Improving Systems

17 Dr. Sara Greenberg 17 Projection Keyboard Projection Image Evolution Towards Increased Dynamism and Controllability Evolution for Cell Phone Design Monolithic Telephone Two-piece Telephone Three-piece Telephone with a flexible casing Telephone with projected Keyboard/Image Monolithic System System with one joint System with many joints Completely Elastic System F Field

18 Dr. Sara Greenberg 18 Evolution Towards Increased Dynamism and Controllability Segmentation of objects and substances Transition pattern

19 Dr. Sara Greenberg 19 Evolution Towards Increased Dynamism and Controllability Line of Increasing Flexibility suggests that the lens systems should evolve through the following stages: ?

20 Dr. Sara Greenberg 20 Substance – Field Analysis

21 Dr. Sara Greenberg 21 The Evolution of the Microscope

22 Dr. Sara Greenberg 22 Evolution Towards Micro-level and Increased Use of Fields Macro- and bio-nano- equivalence of robot components From: Biomimetics, Biologically Inspired Technologies. Edited by Yoseph Bar-Cohen

23 Dr. Sara Greenberg 23 Evolution Towards Micro-level and Increased Use of Fields A vision of a nano-organism: carbon nanotubes (CNT) form the main body; peptide limbs can be used for locomotion and object manipulation, a biomolecular motor located at the head can propel the device in various environments.

24 Dr. Sara Greenberg 24 Transition Patterns Complication of Geometrical Shape of Systems and Objects Cylindrical Complicate Spherical 2-D curve 3-D curve Complicate One curvature Complicate Point Line Surface Volume Transition Point – Line - Surface – Volume Lines evolution Double curvature Surface evolution Volume evolution Complication of geometrical shape

25 Dr. Sara Greenberg 25 Functions of Biological Surfaces The functions of biological surfaces: Adhesion Friction Filtering Sensors Wetting phenomena Self-cleaning Thermoregulation Optics

26 Dr. Sara Greenberg 26 Technological systems directed evolution

27 Dr. Sara Greenberg 27 Evolution Potential Radar Plot Structure (Dynamization(

28 Dr. Sara Greenberg 28 System Evolutionary Potential Radar Plot Increased use of resources Increased use of fields Decreased human involvement Evolution toward micro-levels

29 Dr. Sara Greenberg 29 תודה רבה !

30 Dr. Sara Greenberg 30 Ideal Book - System Function Sony® Reader

31 Dr. Sara Greenberg 31 What are the application of systematic innovation? Product improvement New product development Process improvement New process development

32 Dr. Sara Greenberg 32 רמה % מהפתרונות מקורות מידע + מספר הנסיונות לפתור בעיות שימוש בכלים של TRIZתכונות הפתרון 1 פתרון הנראה בנקל 32% ידע אישי (10~) אין שימוש בכלים " המצאתיים " ( אין הגדרת contradictions). פתרון הנראה בנקל שיפור פשוט של המערכת אינו פותר בעיה אמיתית. 2 שיפור קל 45% ידע בתוך כלל החברה (100~) שימוש ב - inventive principles ( עקרונות ה " מצאתיים ") לפתרון בסיסי של contradictions (" סתירות ") לא פותרים את כולן. שיפור קל של המערכת. 3 שיפור משמעותי 19% ידע מתוך כלל התעשיה (1000~) " פתרונות TRIZ סטנדרטיים " ופתרון של contradictions (" סתירות ") בתוספת של שימוש באפקטים פיסיקליים, כימיים גאומטריים וכו. שיפור משמעותי של המערכת. 4 תפיסה חדשה 4%> מדע ומידע מיחוץ לתעשיה (100,000~) ARIZ, חוקי התפתחות מערכות.תפיסה חדשה מתקבלים פתרונות חדשים. מערכת חדשה המלווה בהחלפת הטכנולוגיה. 5 תגלית 0.3%> (1,000,000~)פריצת דרך מדעית. תגלית מדעית, מהפכנית. טרנזיטורים, לייזרים, נפתח עידן חדש. כיצד פותרים בעיות טכנולוגיות ?

33 Dr. Sara Greenberg 33 Discover the core of a problem with TRIZ Physical Contradiction Technical Contradiction Administrative Contradiction (one problem with dozen of sub problems) System Thinking Functional Analysis Trimming Root Cause Analysis Technology Transfer Patents More..

34 Dr. Sara Greenberg 34 Super-systems In the Present In the Future F1 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 F2 1 2 3 5 4 3 2 1 6 F3 1 2 3 4 5 3 2 1 F4 1 2 3 4 5 F5 5 4 3 2 1 F1 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 F2 5 4 3 2 1 6 F3 3 2 1 F4 1 2 3 4 5 F5 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 F3 1 2 3 F2 1 2 3 4 5 6 Starting point of the project, existing system - subject of the project Developed system – result of the project Super-systems In the Present In the Future Super-systems requirements & ones values Systems output functions & ones values F2: +3 F1: 0 F3: -2 F4: - F5: + Improving Systems with TRIZ

35 Dr. Sara Greenberg 35 Technical contradictions Step 1. Create list of parameters of the given system. Truck: Speed, Stability, Fuel consumption, Air drag friction, Weight of cargo, Power of engine, Safety Step 2. Select your favorite parameter and change its value. Truck: Speed -> increase Step 3. Analyze interactions between changed favorite parameter and other parameters of the list. Select conflicting pairs. Each conflicting pair means Technical Contradiction (TC) Speed Stability => conflict – TC Speed Fuel consumption => conflict – TC Speed Air drag friction => conflict – TC Speed Weight of cargo => not a conflict Speed Power of engine => conflict – TC Speed Safety => conflict – TC

36 Dr. Sara Greenberg 36 Problem solving example How to miniaturize the size of the printer? Restriction of reduction in the printer size is the standard width of the most widespread А4 paper which makes 210 mm. Contradiction: Contradiction: The printer should be the size of an А4 paper dimensions and should be less then the dimensions of an A4 paper in order to be portable. The contradiction was resolved by separation in space by using a geometrical effect. The sheet of a paper can be rolled up in a tube using less space.

37 Dr. Sara Greenberg 37 Portable Printer Solution The printer head in formed in a circle. Printer-ring stretches out the sheet of a paper roll up in a tube. The new printer is almost three times less, than its portable competitors working under the old circuit.

38 Dr. Sara Greenberg 38 Solving Contradictions Altshullers Matrix Physical Contradiction Altshulers Matrix Altshulers Matrix Identification of Key Problem/ Conceptual Direction Identification of Key Problem/ Conceptual Direction AC EC PC IFR IDEA Secondary Problem Solving Secondary Problem Solving Route 1 Route 2 Standard EC Standard EC Separation Strategic Separation Strategic

39 Dr. Sara Greenberg 39 Engineering Contradictions Formulating the Technical Contradiction Inventive Problems written in the form of If - then - but Technical Contradiction for the Airplane Wing IFwe increase the area of the wing THENIt generates more lift BUTthe weight of the wing increases AC EC/TC sEC IFR Matrix S

40 Dr. Sara Greenberg 40 Engineering Contradictions and Altshullers Matrix Identifying Specific Parameters Identify the parameters in the Engineering Contradiction Area and Weight are two parameters in the Engineering Contradiction of the airplane wing problem AC EC/TC sEC IFR Matrix S

41 Dr. Sara Greenberg 41 Engineering Contradictions and Altshullers Matrix Identifying Typical Parameters Identify from Altshullers list those Typical Parameters that are similar in meaning to the Specific Parameters or are derivatives of Specific Parameters Specific Parameters Altshullers Typical Parameters AC EC/TC sEC IFR Matrix S

42 Dr. Sara Greenberg 42 Altshuller s Matrix - Table of different combinations of conflicting parameters

43 Dr. Sara Greenberg 43 Engineering Contradictions and Altshullers Matrix Identifying Typical Parameters Specific ParametersTypical Parameters Area of moving object Area of WingsWeight of a stationary object Weight of a moving object Length of a moving object Weight of WingsLength of stationary object Strength Typical Parameter for Weight Typical Parameter for Area AC EC sEC IFR Matrix S

44 Dr. Sara Greenberg 44 Engineering Contradictions and Altshullers Matrix IFR: Increasing the Area of moving object (Area of wings) will not increase Weight of a moving object (Weight of wings) AC EC sEC IFR Matrix S

45 Dr. Sara Greenberg 45 12345 1 Weight of moving object + - 15,8 29,34 - 29,17 38,34 2 Weight of stationery object -+- 10,1 29,35 - 3 Length of moving object 8,15 29,34 -+- 15,17,4 4 Length of stationery object 35,28 40,29 --+ 17,7 10,70 5 Area of moving object 2,17 29,4 - 14,50 18,4 -+ Weight of stationery object Weight of moving object Length of moving object Length of stationery object Area of moving object Worsening Parameters Improving Parameters Inventive Principles 39 Parameters 39 Parameters Altshullers Contradiction Matrix AC TC EC IFR Matrix S

46 Dr. Sara Greenberg 46 Engineering Contradictions and Altshullers Matrix Description of the Inventive Principles NumberNameDescription of Inventive Principles 2Taking out Separate an interfering part or property from an object, or single out the only necessary part (or property) of an object 17 Another dimension To move an object in two- or three-dimensional space Use a multi-story arrangement of objects instead of a single-story arrangement Tilt or re-orient the object, lay it on its side Use 'another side' of a given area 29 Pneumatics and hydraulics Use gas and liquid parts of an object instead of solid parts (e.g. inflatable, filled with liquids, air cushion, hydrostatic, hydro-reactive) 4Asymmetry Change the shape of an object from symmetrical to asymmetrical If an object is asymmetrical, increase its degree of asymmetry AC EC sEC IFR Matrix S

47 Dr. Sara Greenberg 47 Engineering Contradictions and Altshullers Matrix Pneumatics and hydraulics The Exhaust gasses are released in such a way that they are a functional extension of the wing. They contribute to generating lift and do not add weight to the airplane. (from US Patent N 4 648 571)

48 Dr. Sara Greenberg 48 Separation Principles Solving Physical Contradictions Separation upon condition Separation in space Separation in time In Space In Demands

49 Dr. Sara Greenberg 49 Inventive principles

50 Dr. Sara Greenberg 50 Principle 3. Local quality Change an object's structure from uniform to non-uniform, change an external environment (or external influence) from uniform to non-uniform. Make each part of an object work in the conditions that are most suitable for its operation. Make each part of an object fulfill a different and useful function. Example: Non-uniform winding for uniform heating An infrared lamp heats a semiconductor wafer. The wafer edge cools more quickly making the temperature higher in the center. Can a uniform heating be achieved? The heater spiral is wound with more windings at its edges. This gives more heat at the edges than in the center, provides a uniform temperature over the entire surface of the wafer

51 Dr. Sara Greenberg 51 Transition from Technical to Physical Contradiction

52 Dr. Sara Greenberg 52 Effects: Physical, Chemical, Geometrical, Biological

53 Dr. Sara Greenberg 53 Separation principle: Space

54 Dr. Sara Greenberg 54 What does the Solution of Problem Mean? It Means – We Found a Way to Change Values of System Parameters Chemical Deformation Electric field Electromagnetic wave and light Fluid Force, energy, and momentum Geometric Magnetic Mechanical and sound wave Motion and vibration Process Quantity Radioactivity Solid Surface Thermal

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