Presentation on theme: "3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU1 What Quality of Service is About Hanoch Levy Feb 2004."— Presentation transcript:
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU1 What Quality of Service is About Hanoch Levy Feb 2004
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU2 Outline What is Quality of Service on the Internet about What the aims of this workshop Structure of the course
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU3 The Users and the service: What Communications Network serve User A and User B Placed in different locations Want to pass data of some type, from one to another. Want this to be done good/best/ASAP. Want to do it with certain minimal quality requirements.
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU4 The Users and the service: The user point of view The single User is at the center of focus User is interested in getting the quality / performance it wants Selfish: User does not care about other users!!
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU5 The Scarce Resource problem Resources are (arent?) limited Giving the user as much as it needs/ wants may be difficult due to limited resource problem. Subjects where there is not resource limitation – do not face Quality of service problem.
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU6 The Scare Resource problem: Does it exist Are car-road resources limited? –Definitely, At least at large fractions of the day. Are Network resources limited: –Open question –A debated question –A subjective question: (cost-wise? Indirect- cost? Damage?)
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU7 The Scarce Resource problem: A Moving Target / Relative issue Technology and economics are changing Technology LEAPS: –Open bottlenecks –Move bottlenecks / create bottlenecks –Examples: Widening a major road removes traffic jam on road and create one in the city entrance. Creation of WEB on mid 90s: –Makes access to WEB servers easy –Creates traffic jams on the internet. The hot issue of today, is not that of tomorrow
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU8 The Scarce NETWORK Resource problem: Does it exist? - revisit Late 90s: Telecomm boom: –Massive investment in infrastructure, especially at long distance – Many claim: today a lot of bandwidth in the ground – No resource problem for communications. –Really? Access networks? Still may be a problem Wireless networks? Can be a major problem.
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU9 The Scarce NETWORK Resource problem: Does it exist? (3) Note: –no problem of long distance due to major economics investment –wireless problem due to technological leap in wireless
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU10 Communications Network and QoS :The network angle The network serves MANY users The network aims at providing good/Best quality to all of its users. The network must account for the needs of all users and achieve a mechanism that can meet them.
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU11 Communications Network and QoS :The network angle Communications Network is like a set of car roads Communication applications are like streams of cars. QoS deals with how to operate these roads in order to provide the cars with good quality of service.
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU12 How does it look like: the network from 10K feet
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU13 The User perspective / The application perspective 1.Given the set of traffic rules used by the network user/ application want to: 1.Get the quality it wants 1. As good as possible? 2.Good above certain quality? 2.Pay as little as possible to get that quality. 2.User probably does not care about: 1.Other users (their quality) 2.Fairness to other users.
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU14 The User perspective / The application perspective 1.The application: 1.May care or may not care about other users / their fairness, etc. 2.This depends with what perspective the application was built. 1.Social objective / or : 2.Selfishness
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU15 The eternal race between the network and the users 1.There is an eternal race/game between the network and the users. 1.Network set up rules of operations 2.Users try to exploit them 3.Go back to 1. 4.(Sometimes: technology change, and goto 1) 2.The tighter the rules of operation the less freedom the user has. 3.The tighter the rules of operation the better quality is granted to the users.
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU16 Tightness of operational rules: example1 : Car traffic 1.The Transport (car) system 1.Semi loose system 1.One CAN drive 200 KM/Hour 2.One Can cross red lights 3.One can drive on sideway / and/or abuse lanes 4. getting better performance ones car 5. on the account of others. 2.Still rules are strict enough 1.One cannot really do it for long time 2.Where is the looseness: 1.Rules are strict 2.Enforcement less strict.
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU17 Tightness of operational rules: example1 : Car traffic 1.Most abuse is on speed / priority at junctions 2.No abuse at volume (bandwidth): 1.No limitation on the number of cars one can buy and send into the street. 2.Reason: 1.Not really necessary 2.Car is so expensive – one cannot really send many cars in (bottleneck in the car supply!). 3.Q: what will happen if car cost drops by factor of 5? (This is what happened to communications costs!!) 1.Probably increase, but then flatten (hard to drive 2 cars concurrently!)
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU18 Tightness of operational rules: Example2: Telephony 1.The Telephone system (non cellular) 1.Very strict system: 2.User has almost NO CONTROL of how application behaves 3.User has almost no control of the resources she gets from the network 4.User gets VERY GOOD QUALITY 2.What happens if phone cost drops by factor of 5? 1.Talk more… (perhaps not 5 times more). 2.And then flatten out (cannot talk to 10 people concurrently!!) todo
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU19 Tightness of operational rules: Example3: Internet 1.The Internet system 1.Quite loose system (freedom): 2.Application has some freedom in the traffic it introduces to the network 1.The way it sends the data (later) 3.The user has freedom in how / how much it uses the application: 1.One can send as much as one wants. 2.One can hit the browser button as hard as one wants. 3.One can download songs 24 hours a day. todo
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU20 Tightness of operational rules: Is freedom (Internet) good? 1.The unlimited resource paradox: How long can an unlimited resource remain unlimited? In theory – perhaps long In practice: Very few resources remained unlimited for long time. Road? Never! Food? Even bread hardly! Water: almost never (cost of shipping) Air? todo
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU21 What happens if we get 5 times more the service 1.If car prices drop by factor of 5? 1.Probably drive more 2.But then flatten – cannot drive 2 cars concurrently 2.If telephone costs drop by factor of 5: 1.Probably talk more. 2.But then flatten -- cannot talk to 10 people concurrently 3. If Internet price goes down by factor of 5 (or Bandwidth goes up by factor of 5): 1.We can use quite a bit of it 2.And when we reach our limit: Probably new applications (High definition TV, 3D movies, Monitor your kid/pet/refrigerator/…. todo
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU22 Objective of this workshop 1.To study and understand the quality of service issues of the Internet. 2.Understand the QoS problems 3.Understand the mechanisms that are used / can be used to provide QOS. 4.Create these mechanisms
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU23 Methodology and contents of the course 1.Theoretical background – will be provided at class. 2.Practical experience – at the lab. 3.Take the user (abuser?) perspective: 1.Given the network and the network rules, client aims at maximizing its performance. 2.What can client do / how should client operate.
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU24 Methodology : Project description 1.You have a client and your objective is to transfer (receive) X files from the network. 2.The files are distributed over N locations. 1.Some may appear in multiple locations. 2.The rate of downloading the files may depend on several parameters, some under your control.
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU25 Methodology : Project description 2 1.Your aim is to download the files to your best satisfaction: 1.As fast as possible 2.At lowest Bandwidth consumption(?)
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU26 Methodology : Project description Part I 1.You are given both the client and the server 2.You aim at building a mechanism (protocol) that will transfer from server to client at maximum efficiency 1.Only minimize time 2.Also minimize lost resources (lost packets)
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU27 Methodology : Project description Part II 1.You are given the client only 2.K Servers are given and they operate according to their protocol (FTP) 3.Want to download the files efficiently from the servers 1.Only minimize time 2.Also minimize lost resources (lost packets)
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU28 QOS Problems of Interest For network designer 1.Traffic classification and characterization –Properties of traffic (many to choose from) –Requirements of the application / traffic –Requirements of the system –Impact on the system todo
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU29 QOS Problems of interest (cont): 2. Policing and shaping – Monitor traffic for obeying the rules –Location: typically at network entrance 3. Node (Intersection) design: –Create fast intersections –Introduce mechanisms of prioritization into the intersections –Guarantee QoS to a traffic stream despite interference of other streams (fair queueing) –Location: In the nodes todo
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU30 QOS Problem of interest (cont) 4. Do not overflow your nodes (intersections) – estimate node capacity (Call Admission Control) 5. Efficient navigation of traffic (Routing) while obeying QoS 6. Managing your traffic: Virtual paths (transform your cars into trains…) todo 18/3 todo 18/3
3/3/2004Hanoch Levy, CS, TAU31 QOS Problem of interest (cont) 7. Coordinate through network nodes (reservations): Traffic engineering. 8. Traffic characterization. todo