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The changes in the working world of journalist The profile of the journalist and the discourses on journalism: the investigation of changes in the working.

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Presentation on theme: "The changes in the working world of journalist The profile of the journalist and the discourses on journalism: the investigation of changes in the working."— Presentation transcript:

1 The changes in the working world of journalist The profile of the journalist and the discourses on journalism: the investigation of changes in the working world of journalism in São Paulo. Supported by Fapesp (process n ) Communication and Work Research Center 1

2 Aims - To outline the profile of the journalists in São Paulo. - Conhecer o ponto de vista desse profissional sobre o seu trabalho. To understand the point ov view of these professionals on their own work. The investigation considered information on age, socioeconomical profile and cultural consumption. 2 Communication and Work Research Center

3 Methodological approach - Methodological triangulation (Jensen; Jankowski, 1993): quantitative questionnaire, in-depht interview and focus group. - Quantitative analysis of data; discourse analysis of the interviews and the discussions conducted with the focus groups. 3 Communication and Work Research Center

4 Sample Year of the questionnaire application Selection Employment relationship Work Places Group A (Pre- test) 2009 Randomly selected via social networking professionals from different employment contracts (freelancer, contract, cooperative, etc.) Working in different medium Group B (Members from the Union of Journalists of São Paulo) 2009Information given by the Union professionals from different employment contracts and functions. Working in different Group C (Publishing company) 2007 Selected according to the function selecionados a partir da função que exerciam na empresa Journalists working in communication companies Working in magazines from the same magazine Group D (Freelancers) 2010From the social networking for freelancers (Freela.com.br e Clicfólio) and through the snowball technique (Bernard, 1996) Journalists without employment relationship (freelancers) Working in different medium/ companies Construction of the sample 4 Communication and Work Research Center

5 Composition of the samples Quantitative phaseQualitative phase ConsolidatedSelection* Group A - Journalists contacted through social networking websites (pre-test) 30(**)26 2 Group B – Union of Journalists of the state of São Paulo Group C – Publishing Company738/142(***)82 4 Group D - Freelance journalists from the city of SP152 (****)90 5 Total Communication and Work Research Center

6 Results In Group B, 3% of the interviewees did not respond this question 6 WomenMen Group AGroup BGroup C Group D Communication and Work Research Center

7 Results 7 Age Group A Age Group B Age Group C or more or more or more or more or more Communication and Work Research Center

8 8 Group A Group B Group C Group D High School/ Incomplete college College degree College and specialization degrees Masters degree Doctorate degree Did not respond Group A Group B Group CGroup D Less than 1 From 1 to 5 Communication and Work Research Center How long have you been graduated?

9 Results 9 Group A Group BGroup CGroup D yes no Communication and Work Research Center Did you take specialization courses in the last five years?

10 Results 10 Daily Working Hours (hours/day) 5-7 h/day 8h/day10h/day 12h/day Group A Group B Group C Group D Communication and Work Research Center

11 Results Obs.: The publishing company (group C – green) did not allow this question. 11 Salary Range Group AGroup B Group CGroup D Up to R$2.000 R$2.000 – R$6.000 R$6.000 – R$ R$ – R$ More than R$ Did not respond. Communication and Work Research Center

12 Results Obs: This question was not proposed to the Group A (pre-test) 12 Technological character Work organization process Extinction of functions Business Self- management Communication and Work Research Center No changes have occurred None of the above Did not respond The nature of the functions has changed Group AGroup BGroup CGroup D

13 13 Group D Group CGroup B Group A Did not respond Better quality of life Workforce reduction No changes have been made Less control of the company over the work Salary reduction More control over the work Stress Possibilities of professional growth Competition between co-workers Productivity increase More dificulty in finding a job Faster pace of work The changes turned into: Communication and Work Research Center

14 Results Obs: This question was not proposed to the Group A (pre-test) and D (freelancers) 14 And also into: Group A Group B Group CGroup D Workforce reduction Productivity increase Emphasis on leadership Increase in profit sharing Closer relationship with chief Possibilities of professional growth No changes have occurred Did not respond Communication and Work Research Center

15 Results Obs: This question was not proposed to the Group A (pre-test) 15 They work Alone/Individually Group DGroup C Group B Group A With a small teamWith a medium team With a big team Did not respond Communication and Work Research Center

16 Results Obs: This question was not proposed to the Group A (pre-test) 16 Their pace of work FastModerated Stressful Did not respond Group D Group C Group B Group A Communication and Work Research Center

17 Results 17 Where do you work? Group A Group B Group CGroup D At home At the company, in the newsroom At the company, as freelancer At the company, as legal entity At the office, as legal entity At the office, in a teamwork It depends on the job Did not respond Communication and Work Research Center

18 Results 18 What do you miss the most in the job? Group AGroup BGroup C Group D Specific and updated technical knowledge General cultures knowledge Knowledge from other areas from journalism Appropriate technical equipment Appropriate methods of work None of the options Did not respond Communication and Work Research Center

19 Results 19 In the relationship between personal and professional life, you are able to: Group A Group B Group CGroup D Make long-term planning Make medium term planning Make short term planning Not able to make plans Did not respond Communication and Work Research Center

20 Results 20 Which external factor most affected the journalistic activity? Group D Group C Group B Group A Advertising revenue The courses of politics Competition Public opinion Capturing and retaing customers None of the options Did not respond Communication and Work Research Center

21 Results 21 The communication medium are: Group A Group B Group C Group D Business like another else A political tool A tool for information, culture and education A different business, with social role The most promising business of the globalized world Did not respond Communication and Work Research Center

22 Results Obs.: This question was not proposed to the group C (publishing company), on request from the company. 22 What kind of information the ordinary citizen prefers Group DGroup AGroup B Information and emotion Information from different perspectives Information with clear perspective Did not respond Communication and Work Research Center

23 Results Obs.: This question was not proposed to the Group A. 23 And you, what kind of information do you want? Information and emotion Information from different perspectives Information with clear perspective Did not respond Group D Group CGroup B Group A Communication and Work Research Center

24 Results 24 The activity you perform allows you to assume that information: Group AGroup BGroup CGroup D Is a profitable business Is a fundamental product in society Is a citizens right Is an instrument of power Did not respond Communication and Work Research Center

25 Results 25 Which newspaper do you read? Group DGroup AGroup B Group C I do not read newspapers Other Communication and Work Research Center

26 Results 26 Which news magazine do you read? Group D Group A Group B Group C Other Communication and Work Research Center

27 27 Do you watch TV? Group D Group A Group B Group C Sometimes Only on weekends EverydayOnce a weekNever Did not respond Sometimes Only on weekends Everyday Never Did not respond Group AGroup B Group C Group D Do you listen to radio? Communication and Work Research Center

28 Results 28 In order of priority, what are the reasons for you to access the internet? Group A Group B Group C Group D Working, studying, shopping Studying, leisure, reading news Research, leisure, shopping Shopping, reading news, working Reading news, working, research Other reasons I do not access the internet Did not respond Communication and Work Research Center

29 Results 29 Did not respond Other media Great newspapers Internet Radio Newsletter and newspaper Great magazines Television Neighbours and friends Newsletter and newspapers from Chief Co-workers Group A Group B Group C Group D Do you know the most important issues for your life through: Communication and Work Research Center

30 Results 30 How do you spend most of your free time? Group D Group A Group B Group C Watching TV Talking to friends Watching movies at home Practicing sports Traveling on weekends Going to pubs and restaurants Listening to music Visiting family Going out with friends Accessing the internet Reading Going to the movies Going to the theater None of the above Did not respond Communication and Work Research Center

31 31 Did you read books in the last month? Communication and Work Research Center Did you go to the movies last month? Did you go to the theater in the last six months? YesNoDid not respond NoYesDid not respond NoYesDid not respond Group DGroup AGroup BGroup C Group DGroup AGroup BGroup C Group DGroup AGroup BGroup C

32 Results 32 Communication and Work Research Center Did you usually go to: Group DGroup AGroup BGroup C ChurchCharitiesSports ClubTheater club Musical group GymOtherNone Did not respond

33 (...) the working world today demands intimacy with the digital world (...) journalism is a change that no one knows very well how is going on, specially because of the social media the multifulction journalist and the online social networks have revolutionized the search for news characters, they left the press seated putting content in the blog in 30 minutes, 30 minutes... Five minutes, and the guy thinks he is a journalist, this is my opinion. The journalist talks about his identification, work and formation Ive worked in a publishing company for a while and then I got out from the formal labor market and now I am a freelance journalist, but I also have a digital agency company it was not a choice to be a freelance journalist, for sure (...) The companies take you to this kind of employment relationship Being a stable freelancer has only negative aspects 33 Communication and Work Research Center

34 I think flexibility is essential, because we have to be professionals and multitasking the journalist has to be curious, have general culture, read, be informed, write well and be...upstanding and honest to know how to present the facts as honestly as possible. I really think some things have changed, we feel a higher demand for multimedia skills, it is something that is more in the air than in the everyday practice. (...) my generation is an analogical generation, the computer itself is for me a more agile typewriter i have a certain autonomy to define the communication strategy of the bank (...)Even during an isolated process, the production never results from one journalist. Never. I studied journalism because I wanted to tell the truth, and many people study journalism because they want to tell the truth, but nowadays you see that the truth is not exactly what is going on. 34 Communication and Work Research Center The journalist talks about his identification, work and formation

35 But never mind, because one thing is the person who knows what he wants and then does research on Google and another is the person who wants to be surprised by a denunciation, with a beautiful story, a human sight that I think it is what journalism should do (...) If it is a news about music, we should use a YouTube video. So, we should create interactions between magazines and internet, create this dialogue, right? Today most of journalists do... Not most of them, but many of them do some kind of publicity work, like creating content to ads. And that sucks, but they are much better paid than in journalism, so these things are worth doing as a freelancer journalist. 35 Communication and Work Research Center The journalist talks about his identification, work and formation

36 (...I think it is really nice who is able to do something like that, like Look, Im interviewing the president, it is nice, but I am not the kind of person who can do this and then the contact is more to know a lot of people). (... The internet helps a lot, because I have already got four jobs through my twitter account; people see and like my tweets and oh, youre a journalist, etc., I dont even know what appears there...). (…But youre always working, you work too much or, you never work less, and you never refuse jobs, even when it is too much...). (…But I don't think the advisor is a journalist, because when you are defending a company's point of view... I have done some corporative work, I was working only for the magazines Bons Fluidos, Vida Simples... we are always working according the agenda, and I don't have to defend the company, you know, I have to think in my reader...) (...Yes, when... you are going to write a news story on pimples, on how to heal pimples, you are going to talk about many products, many things that have to do... the press advisor will tell you that are the interesting features of the product, and the journalist will do the same thing... the public interest on the product...) 36 Communication and Work Research Center The journalist talks about his identification, work and formation

37 (... it is exactly this criticism, for example, to sell an agenda is something that... the relationship between the chief and the advisors is, in my opinion, misrepresented in the sense that the advisory has to sell the chief, regardless of who is the chief or what he does... it is also that thing: you always have to write a story in a specific form, so I think it is a lack o criticism... it lacks because you have to evaluate, because the great companies are conducted by rich families and they have many interests; there are few journalists that can afford to refuse things, there are few that really come to... to return anything that comes to the editorial room and...) (…press advisory is something very explicit. It has no intention of hiding anything because it does not have two sides. It is not telling:"look, we have a toy from Estrela here, but there is another one very nice from the competitor's company). (…The journalists from editorial room, maybe because of the rush, is a little lazy. He wants that the press advisory send the story all finished. I have already done something like that, I received the story and just put my name on it. It was everything done. I am not looking to both sides, I am going to write about my perspective and at most, I will put the telephone of the company on it…). (…A boy, twenty-something, is exactly this product that the companies put on the labor market. A boy that escape the critical discussion on ethics, on journalism, because he does not have... He finished school, he did not have this formation, he could have learned some things, but he enters in the labor market and become neurotic about the chief that...) 37 Communication and Work Research Center The journalist talks about his identification, work and formation

38 (I always talk to the boys that the moment we live today is worst than the dictatorship on journalism, because in those days the story was censored and now the mind of the journalist is censored and he just accept that.) (... is is that old same discussion about the diploma on journalism. It is necessary or not? I think, for example, that a doctor is more capable of writing a story on medicine than me. I think that a politician is more competent to write about politics than me, because if I have to write a story on politics, I'd have to study for a week. And also, I don't even know what is PMDB or PSDB, my knowledgement on politics is restrict... So, if you say to me "do you want to write a story on politics or can I ask Maluf to do it?". I'd tell: ask Maluf.) (I think journalism is done by journalists. It is something that we can't give up. Opinion is opinion, journalism is journalism. People who write on medicine are going to construct an opinion. He is a specialist and he is going to write about a specific area.) (... information is a public welfare, it has to be constructed by professionals, and these professionals are prepared in universities to know how to deal with public information. If he is going to be a specialist on sports or another issue, ok, it is persoanl taste... but information has to be treated as a public welfare, so the journalist must have ethics, know the limits of information - it is not a mess how it is nowadays, right?) 38 Communication and Work Research Center The journalist talks about his identification, work and formation

39 Conclusions - -Most of the journalists are women, white and have no children. They are young (about 35 years-old). They have university degree in journalism, have already taken a graduation degree; they work under precarious work relationships, are multiplatform and work for many clients. 39 Communication and Work Research Center

40 Conclusions - -Therefore, it is reductionist to affirm the existence of only ONE profile. Also, it is not accurate to what the research reveals. Generational factors related to the changes in the technological and organizational processes in the working world show that another professional profile is emerging. 40 Communication and Work Research Center

41 Conclusions -The most diverging result between the samples, in relation to the professional profile, arouse from the journalists members of the Union. The main difference was related to gender, age and professional experience period. The data related to the type of work relationship and function show a higher employment stability, in other words, more effective contractual relationships. 41 Communication and Work Research Center

42 Conclusions -The journalist is defeated by the instantaneity of new medium, what requires changes in the self-management at work to deal with other notions of time and space. -The renormalization of the prescriptions of the journalistic process brings some news: new discourse genres, new elements in the news value, new elements as sources, new organizational procedures on the life and work routine, reinforced engagement in attention, sensibility and recognition. 42 Communication and Work Research Center

43 Conclusions -The situation of service providers, with precarious relationship, put into question the challenge of the journalist to see himself as the manager of his own business, with all the burden of the economic uncertainties, excess of work, lack of security to plan the personal life; and, in the other side, with the fredom to choose where and how to work. 43 Communication and Work Research Center

44 Conclusions The discourses of the interviewees and focus group participants enunciate a concern: to account for the increasing demand of tasks and challenges that require skills to translate content on the most diverse topics, directed and offered to different audience, customers and businesses, in various platforms and languages, in little or no stable economic situation. 44 Communication and Work Research Center

45 Conclusions -The older journalists feel rejected by the labor market, however they do not recognize themselves in the current practices. It happens mainly because of the higher demand for intuitive abilities, responding to the compression of time, the nanotime. -The time that is saturated for the market gain, the real time of the information with circulation value is now experimented in different ways by the older and the younger journalist. -The more experienced journalists and the younger and critical ones resent the quickness that the decisions are made. Others do not even realize where the values of news and information ethics as citizen rights are going. 45 Communication and Work Research Center

46 Conclusions -The cultural consumption, the family life, the cultural and leisure activities are really affected by the pace of work of the journalists. This characteristic from personal life does not seem to have changed for the better; in fact, the lack of out-of-work time has deepened. -Among many concerns and disagreements there are those people who understand their work as a collective activity, which depends on a group of people, even when working alone; in other hand, other people see themselves, even in the newsrooms of great media companies, as individual workers. -Some professionals dress up and prepare themselves to work at home, others work in pajamas. The freelancer journalists are the ones that apparently suffer from the lack of prescriptions and from the uncertainty about what and how they will work in the next day. 46 Communication and Work Research Center

47 Conclusions -The click metrics generates the audience profiles and the editorial lines, dictating rules not only for the web journalism or online journalism, but for all media chain of production, from newspaper to magazines. -The click metrics outlines the audience profile that the executive director brings to the press room.And also this nanotime is not the dangerous present life which is always a risk, because it is measured in the watch of the client's company. 47 Communication and Work Research Center

48 Conclusions -With the acceleration of times, the variety of platforms and the media convergence, some problems – that are not exactly new – arise, they remain unsolved. They concern to the deontological guidelines of the profession, of journalism ethics in the sources handling, to the view toward not the public interest, but to the client's interest. These difficulties are enunciated in the contradiction: to maintain the basis or to take account of the crazy rhythms and demands of the job. 48 Communication and Work Research Center

49 Conclusions -The quickness of the access to facts, elected as event, characterize the value of the news. The time is now more important than the fact. The fact that does not happen in the nanotime of post updating does not exist. -The time presents itself as the impostor that prevents the critical and responsible practice of the profession. -It is a time measured by the action-response increasingly more intuitive; reflecting, pondering, analyzing and interpreting in order to produce a discourse permeated by various voices, full of arguments from different points of view seem almost like a daydream of a romanticized time. 49 Communication and Work Research Center

50 Conclusions The novelties that challenge the profession are the new journalistic genres and the citizen reporter, that is, the witness that enunciates his discourse and circulates his contribution. The blog, Facebook, Orkut and Twitter appear, firstly, as new instruments for collaborative work that can be done on the worldwide web. Then journalists extrapolate the instrumental function to use them to search, as source, to contact, as guideline, to construct characters to create a discourse genre. 50 Communication and Work Research Center

51 Conclusions - The journalistic genre in blogs contributes to the polyphony of voices. However, how to prevent the increasing simulation of transparency between the event and the journalistic material? -If the nanotime and the symmetry of what is related as an event are part of the news value (one of the journalists says: in the Internet less is less, nothing to be different), what is the difference between the information given by the audience testimony and the journalistic work? -The responsibility with the information has as main condition and necessity of the journalist to contextualize the fragmentary information that comes from everyday life – that's what constructs the journalism. 51 Communication and Work Research Center

52 Conclusions The research also showed that the different functions and occupations of the journalists put the question: what are the competences and habilities that allow the journalists to work in different areas? -Generalist competences; hability to produce, translate and work with different discourse genres; hability to research, synthetise and to deal with people are competences that are still and increasingly required. - The issue of ethical values and responsability with the right to information must be reinforced as main aspects in the professional formation of the journalist. 52 Communication and Work Research Center

53 Suggestions Report: The changes in the working world of journalists Dissertations Lima, Cláudia do Carmo Nonato. Comunicação e mundo do trabalho do jornalista : o perfil dos jornalistas de São Paulo a partir da reconfiguração dos processos produtivos da informação. São Paulo, p.: il. Acesso em Muniz Jr., J. S. O trabalho com o texto na produção de livros: os conflitos da atividade na perspectiva ergodialógica Picciarelli Jr., Sérgio. As relações de comunicação no processo de produção na Gráfica Abril: inovações, criatividade e reconhecimento do uso de si na atividade de comunicação e de trabalho. Grohmann, Rafael N. Os Discursos dos Jornalistas Freelancers sobre o Trabalho: comunicação, mediações e recepção. São Paulo, 2012, 273 p. Researches O perfil do jornalista e os discursos sobre o jornalismo. Um estudo das mudanças no mundo do trabalho do jornalista profissional em São Paulo (2012) As mudanças no mundo do trabalho nas empresas de comunicação (2008) 53 Communication and Work Research Center

54 References ABRAMO, Claudio. A regra do jogo – o jornalismo e a ética do marceneiro. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, ABREU, Alzira; LATTMAN-WELTMAN, Fernando; ROCHA, Dora. Eles Mudaram a Imprensa: depoimentos ao CPDOC. Rio de Janeiro: Ed. FGV, ________; ROCHA, Dora. Elas Ocuparam as Redações: depoimentos ao CPDOC. Rio de Janeiro: Ed. FGV, 2006 BARBOSA, Marialva. História Cultural da Imprensa: Brasil Rio de Janeiro: Mauad, 2007 BURKHARDT, Fabiano. Jornalistas Free-lancers : trabalho precário na grande imprensa da Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre. Dissertação (Mestrado em Sociologia) – Instituto de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Orientador: Prof. Antonio David Cattani CARDOSO, Adalberto. Jornalistas: ética e democracia no exercício da profissão. Novos Estudos, n. 42, CEBRAP, jul GRISCI, Carmem; RODRIGUES, Paulo. Trabalho Imaterial e Sofrimento Psíquico: o pós-fordismo no jornalismo industrial. Psicologia & Sociedade. N. 19, v. 2, p , HELOANI, Roberto. O Trabalho do Jornalista: estresse e qualidade de vida. Interações. Vol. XII, n. 22. São Paulo, JOHNSTONE, John. The News People: a sociological portrait of American journalists and their work. Illinois: University of Illinois Press, KUCINSKI, Bernardo. Jornalismo na era virtual. Ensaios sobre o colapso da razão ética. São Paulo: Editora Fundação Perseu Abramo: Editora UNESP, ________ Jornalistas e revolucionários: nos tempos da imprensa alternativa, 3ª Ed. São Paulo, EDUSP, Communication and Work Research Center

55 References MARSHALL, Leandro. O Jornalismo na era da publicidade. São Paulo: Summus, MARCONDES FILHO, Ciro. A Saga dos Cães Perdidos. São Paulo: Hacker Editores, ________. Ser Jornalista: a língua como barbárie e a notícia como mercadoria. São Paulo: Paulus, MORETZSOHN, Sylvia. Pensando contra os fatos: jornalismo e quotidiano – do senso comum ao senso crítico. Rio de Janeiro: Revan, PARISER, Eli. O filtro invisível. O que a internet está escondendo de você?. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar, RIBEIRO, Jorge Cláudio. Sempre Alerta: condições e contradições do trabalho jornalístico. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1994 RIBEIRO, José Hamilton. Jornalistas 1937 a 1997: história da imprensa de São Paulo vista pelos que batalham laudas (terminais), câmeras e microfones. São Paulo: Imprensa Oficial do Estado, ROMANCINI, Richard e LAGO, Cláudia. História do Jornalismo no Brasil. Florianópolis: Ed. Insular, 2007 ROXO, Marco Antonio. Jornalistas, para quê? Militância Sindical e o Drama da Identidade. Tese (Doutorado em Comunicação). Universidade Federal Fluminense, Orientador: Afonso de Albuquerque. SODRÉ, Muniz. A narração do fato. Notas para uma teoria do acontecimento. Petrópolis, RJ: Vozes, SODRÉ, Nelson Werneck. História da Imprensa no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Mauad, TRAVANCAS, Isabel. O Mundo dos Jornalistas. São Paulo: Summus, WEAVER, David et alli. The American Journalist in the 21 st Century: U.S. News People at the dawn of a new millennium. New Jersei: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, WOLTON, Dominique. Informar Não é Comunicar. Porto Alegre: Sulina, _______. Internet, e depois? Uma teoria crítica das novas mídias.2.ed. Porto Alegre: Sulina, Communication and Work Research Center


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