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傳播與娛樂.

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1 傳播與娛樂

2 兼具傳播與娛樂功能的傳播方式 報紙:小說、文學、娛樂版 雜誌:旅遊、收藏、嗜好、流行資訊......
廣播:地區廣播、全國廣播、短波廣播..... 電視:無線播送網、有線系統...... 新科技整合,帶來新的娛樂與生活形態 整合通訊、網際網路與電腦、娛樂系統.....

3 The Electronic Age of Information: 1940 - Present
1939: The National Broadcasting Company initiates regular television broadcasts for two hours per week. The CBS and Dumont networks soon follow suit, but broadcasting is interrupted by World War II 1941: Kondrad Zuse constructs first fully operational binary computer, the Z3 1945: The first modern stored memory computer is designed by Johann von Neumann, J. Presper Eckert, and John W. Maucly 1946: Scientists at the University of Pennsylvania complete ENIAC, a room-sized computer consisting of 10,000 high-speed vacuum tubes 1947: The transistor is invented at Bell Telephone Laboratories

4 1948:Dennis Gabor, a Hungarian-born scientist, invents holography; in 1971 he receives the Nobel Prize for his invention 1949: In the U.S., there are 1,000,000 television receivers in use. The 10,000,000 mark is passed in 1951, and the 50,000,000 mark eight years later. Other developed nations reach these levels of penetration soon after 1952: The first numerical control machine tool is demonstrated at MIT 1952: The Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) system for U.S. air defense is developed at MIT. It is the first computer network 1952: Thomas Watson Jr. becomes president of IBM and launches all-out push into computer markets

5 1954: Color television broadcasting in the United States, several years after the first experimental broadcasts; the technology is adopted in Japan in 1960 1960: The Haloid Xerox Company introduces the plain-paper copier, based on a process invented by Chester F. Carlson. The copier rapidly revolutionizes office practices and makes carbon paper outdated 1960: Libraries begin to use on-line public access catalogs (OPAC), which begin to replace card catalogues

6 1961: The publication of Merriam-Webster's Third International Dictionary creates a furor in the United States when the dictionary is charged with abandoning prescriptive judgments of correctness in favor of neutral linguistic description 1961: The first programmable industrial robot installed, for unloading of parts at die-casting operation 1962: Western Union introduces the telex to the United States 1962: The first modem introduced in the United States marketed by the American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T)

7 1962: The first communication satellite, Telstar, is put into orbit for use by American companies. The first trans-Atlantic television broadcast is made in this year 1963: ATT offers push-button dialing to its consumers 1963: ZIP codes are instituted to facilitate local sorting and delivery of post in United States 1963: On November 24, accused presidential assassin Lee Harvey Oswald is being transferred to a jail cell when he is fatally shot by Jack Ruby. The assassination is witnessed by millions of people on live television

8 1965: The basis of virtual reality technology emerges in simulators that teach pilots how to fly planes by using head-mounted displays with tracking systems 1966: ASCII (the American Standard Code for Information Exchange) is established as a standard data-transmission code that converts characters into seven-digit binary numbers 1968: Douglas Engelbart demonstrates first computer mouse, hypertext, and WYSIWYG ("What you see is what you get") display of text 1968: The British Library and Library of Congress collaborate on a new system of cataloging library collections, Machine-Readable Cataloging Project, known since its revision in 1968 as MARC II

9 1969: The Department of Defense establishes the Arpanet, predecessor of the Internet
1969: Sony Corporation introduces the videocasette recorder 1970: American banks introduce electronic teller machines 1971: Introduction of the laser printer, which makes possible high quality computer graphics and desktop publishing 1971: The Intel corporation introduces the worldÌs first microprocessor, which combines the electrical functions once performed as many as 500,000 transistors on a single chip

10 1972: Introduction of C, the first widely adopted general-purpose high-level programming language
1972: Xerox introduces the Alto, the first computer with a bit-mapped screen, windows, and a mouse, which becomes the model for Apple Macintosh and other personal computers 1972: The first electronic mail system introduced 1973: The grocery industry adopts Universal Product Code, making possible the use of bar codes for pricing and inventory control 1976: Steven Jobs and Steve Wozniak found Apple Computer Inc., the first company devoted to selling personal computers

11 1976: The spacecraft Viking 1 orbits Mars and relays photographs of the Martian landscape to Earth
1977: Apple and Radio Shack introduce the first widely successful pre-assembled personal computers. IBM follows with its PC in 1981 1979: The Xerox Corporation introduces the Ethernet, which becomes the standard computer intercommunications network 1982: The Gannet company begins publishing USA Today, the United States' first national, general-interest newspaper 1982: Introduction of the spreadsheet program Lotus 1-2-3, the "killer application" that ensures wide popularity of personal computers

12 1989: Tim Berners-Lee and his colleagues at CERN create the first Web browser, based on the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which standardizes communication between servers and clients 1990: Start of the project of mapping the location of all genes on every chromosome in human beings, the Human Genome Project 1991: The Cable News Network (CNN) is created in by Ted Turner. The network gains worldwide attention for its around-the-clock coverage, much of it broadcast from Iraq, of the Persian Gulf War

13 1993: Marc Andreessen and others at the University of Illinois release Mosaic, a graphical Web browser that becomes widely popular and is the model for browsers from Netscape and Microsoft. By 1995 the World Wide Web has millions of users 1995: Release of Disney's Toy Story, the first full-length computer-generated feature film 1996: In the U. S., the Telecommunications Act of 1996 authorizes subsidies for information technology to libraries and schools. The provision of universal access the Internet becomes a policy goal a number of nations

14 1997: Major new libraries are opened in London, Paris, and New York containing extensive computational facilities 1998: The on-line bookseller Amazon.com becomes the world's largest book retailer as measured by market capitalization. The Internet craze sends the stocks in other Internet-related businesses to unprecedented highs 1998: The full testimony of President Clinton gathered by the special prosecutor Kenneth Starr receives millions of hits when it is released on the Web, marking the coming of age of the Web as a means for the dissemination of public information

15 整合資訊、通訊、傳播的科技,成為完整平台 互動電視(Interactive TV)、隨選視訊(Video on Demand)、
傳統大眾傳播科技的問題: Audience Measurement Target Market & Target Audience ? One way communication Audience response 整合資訊、通訊、傳播的科技,成為完整平台 互動電視(Interactive TV)、隨選視訊(Video on Demand)、 數位電視、機上盒等 必須思考: Business Model Investment Cost Access Cost

16 Telecommunication Industry
Wire line HFC HE Cable Modem system CATV Network Wireless VSAT DirecPC DBS/DTH PSTN Satellite Network Wireless Network MMDS/LMDS PTP Radio PMP Radio Telecom Network ADSL VDSL Fiber FTTC DSL xDSL technology Telecommunication Industry

17 Two-way, Multimedia Communication
全球整合資訊、通訊與傳播產業 Trend: Convergence of Industries 無線電視 單向、寬頻 單點對多點廣播 or 枝狀架構 視訊聲訊 廣播電視及有線電視 Two-way, Multimedia Communication 傳播業 電信業 資訊業 雙向、窄頻 星狀架構: 具有交換功能 語音為主,加入文字、影音 通信、電話 Telephony Industry TV Industry 同軸電纜 放大器 有線電視頭端 具有強大運算能力 Topology: Ring, Bus, Star 所組成網路以傳輸數據為主 電腦資訊 Computer Industry

18 Multimedia Home Platform http://www.tomw.net.au/2001/itv.html
Digital television in Australia 看看國際上的想法:by Tom Worthington

19 New Broadcast Technology
Tom Worthington FACS Visiting Fellow, Department of Computer Science, Australian National University and Director, Tomw Communications Pty Ltd For the POWER PANEL: "New technological capabilities" of Broadcast World 2002, Wednesday 27th February 2002, Sydney About the Speaker: Tom Worthington is a Visiting Fellow in the Department of Computer Science at the Australian National University. He is an independent electronic business consultant and author of the book Net Traveller. Tom is one of the architects of the Commonwealth Government's Internet and web strategy. The first Web Master for the Australian Department of Defence, in 1999 he was elected a Fellow of the Australian Computer Society for his contribution to the development of public Internet policy. Tom is a director and past President of the Australian Computer Society and a voting member of the Association for Computing Machinery.

20 Summary Free-to-air and pay-TV operators are making the same mistakes which bankrupted many Internet companies. New technological capabilities do not guarantee a return on investment. Lessons can be learned from the failure of WAP and success i-mode. Broadcasting examples are MHP and TeleWeb. Please note: these are just speaking notes for a just a brief talk in a panel session, not a full formal paper. The other panelists are broadcasting industry members and I feel that I am obliged to stir them up, on behalf of the Internet community. ;-)

21 What is Wrong with MHP? In theory the use of Internet and web standards for MHP should provide opportunities for convergence… However, the differences in business models and production techniques may make convergence infeasible… (Worthington 2001b): Internet-TV Convergence with the Multimedia Home Platform, Communications Research Forum, URL: Early last year I was reading the newspaper and came across an item reporting that Australian free-to-air broadcasters had adopted something called the Multimedia Home Platform (MHP) as the Australian standard for interactive TV. MHP was said to be based on Internet and web standards. This was interesting as I had previously looked at convergence of the Internet and mobile telephones (Worthington 2001a). It took several minutes (an eternity in Internet-time) to track down a copy of the MHP standard on-line. This turned out to be a complex document of more than 1440 pages. It was unlikely that many outside the broadcasting field were aware of the document, so I decided to prepare an overview of the main points of the standard, and its compatibility with the Internet and opportunities for convergence of content. This was presented at the 2001 Communications Research Forum: In theory the use of Internet and web standards for MHP should provide opportunities for convergence. Using common tools to produce content that can be used on the Internet should be possible and with broadcasting. Material used to construct a web site could be streamed for a broadcast. However, the differences in business models and production techniques may make convergence infeasible... It should not be assumed that MHP will succeed because it is based on Internet standards and has the support of the broadcasting industry. Technical standards, such as WAP, have failed, despite (or perhaps because of) high level support and detailed standards documents. MHP has the potential for success if the standard is simplified, aligned with Internet development and made freely available. However, the technical details of MHP may prove less relevant to its success that identifying a business model for multimedia content. Do people really want extensive interactive services, or just sit back and watch TV? Integrated PC/TVs have not been marketing successes in the past. Very simple text message services have proved popular on mobile telephones whereas sophisticated WAP applications have not. This aspect of MHP needs further research. (Worthington 2001b): Internet-TV Convergence with the Multimedia Home Platform, Communications Research Forum, URL: My presentation on MHP provoked little reaction from the delegates at the Forum, apart from interest from those who had not seen the inside of a digital set-top-box before. However, to my surprise several major european broadcasters and TV manufacturers read the document on-line and objected to what they saw as an attack on their standard. There was an assumption from the european broadcasting industry that I must be criticizing their standard as part of a hidden agenda in support of proprietary systems or some rival standard. There was also the suggestion that I didn't understand "broadcasting" and that MHP was not about integrating the Internet into TV.

22 WAP Lessons Wireless Access Protocol (WAP) for mobile telephony is a complex and expensive technology looking for an application. WAP had the support of the telecommunications industry But was complicated and not rellay the Simpler rival i-mode appears likely to succeed. The broadcasting industry risks failing to learn from history, by dismissing criticism of their adaption of the Internet. Similar questions were asked of the viability of Wireless Access Protocol (WAP) applications for mobile telephony (Worthington 2000) and were similarly dismissed by the mobile telephone industry. WAP proved to be a complex and expensive technology looking for an application. WAP had the support of the telecommunications industry and it was envisaged that would provide an Internet-like standard on mobile devices and support for m-commerce. But, WAP required implementation of a large and complex set of standards that, while based on existing Internet standards, were not upward compatible. In addition there was an attempt to isolate users of WAP from the real Internet and its free content. The telecommunications industry wanted to lock WAP users into specific content offerings and avoid the "free" Internet model. The result was that WAP failed as a product and the simpler rival i-mode appears likely to succeed. A cell phone with WAP

23 Internet lessons Benefits from cooperation, practical testing of standards Build up advanced services from compatible simpler technologies. The Internet is built with subtle social models. MHP distributed in the wrong format: 1448 page, 19 Mbyte zipped PDF document As an IT professional I look at MHP, and other Internet derived digital technologies, as information technology applications. These applications need to be well thought out from a technical and business point of view. There is an element of the unknown in any new technology. However, the Internet has shown that there are benefits from cooperation, practical testing of standards and of building up advanced services from compatible simpler technologies. An example of a problem with MHP is the format in which the standard is distributed. The draft was a 1448 page, 19 Mbyte zipped PDF document , making it difficult to use and at odds with the stated aim of using Internet and web standards. The format of the standard may seem a trivial criticism, but part of the success of the Internet and web has come from their standards documents being simple and quick to download, translate and copy.

24 The Multimedia Home Platform (MHP)
The Multimedia Home Platform (MHP) attempts to adapt existing Internet and web standards for to digital Television (DTV). Produced by the Digital Video Broadcasting Project (DVB) Work is underway to have MHP adopted in Australia, under the formal Standards Australia processes. The Multimedia Home Platform (MHP) attempts to adapt existing Internet and web standards for to digital Television (DTV). The aim is to provide interactive digital content that can be viewed on set top boxes and multimedia PCs. MHP is intended to operate with satellite, cable, terrestrial and microwave systems. MHP was produced by the Digital Video Broadcasting Project (DVB), a European-based consortium of broadcast companies and regulatory bodies. DVB Standards are published by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). Work is underway to have MHP adopted in Australia, under the formal Standards Australia processes. June 28, 2001 First MHP applications for digital TV First MHP applications for digital TV The first MHP (Multimedia Home Platform) applications for digital TV are now available. Watch a streaming video demonstrating the use of a browser in digital TV. The video was made by recording the video output of a MHP capable set-top-box. From: Sonera Plaza MediaLab 2001 How is an Internet TV Set-Top Box Built? Existing standards are used for content, such as PNG, JPEG (still images), MPEG-2 (Video/Audio), HTML (text/web pages) and Java. A tradeoff is required between newer more powerful formats which have been standardised but are not in wide use and older more proven technology which will run on lower cost hardware. One irony is that Java was originally designed for set-top boxes and then adapted for general computing and the Internet. Processors have only recently recently reduced in price enough to have Java feasible to use on a set-top-box. MHP is an example of the use of newer more powerful formats. Institut für Rundfunktechnik (IRT), have produced a partial MHP Reference Implementation (IRT’s MHP-RI) available to the MHP community. The MHP-RI is implemented in Java to run under Windows NT 4.0 on at least the equivalent of a 500-MHz Pentium III and 32 to 128 Mbytes of RAM. Diagram from: MHP Reference Implementation, Institut für Rundfunktechnik (IRT), 2001 While not needing the fastest PC available, MHP will still require more hardware than in the current typical set-top-box. Also MHP uses new Internet standards which means that content may not display on existing software used for the Internet.

25 How is an Internet TV Set-Top Box Built?
Existing standards are used for content, such as PNG, JPEG (still images), MPEG-2 (Video/Audio), HTML (text/web pages) and Java. A tradeoff is required between powerful formats and proven technology. MHP will require more hardware than in the current typical set-top-box. Existing standards are used for content, such as PNG, JPEG (still images), MPEG-2 (Video/Audio), HTML (text/web pages) and Java. A tradeoff is required between newer more powerful formats which have been standardised but are not in wide use and older more proven technology which will run on lower cost hardware. One irony is that Java was originally designed for set-top boxes and then adapted for general computing and the Internet. Processors have only recently recently reduced in price enough to have Java feasible to use on a set-top-box. MHP is an example of the use of newer more powerful formats. Institut für Rundfunktechnik (IRT), have produced a partial MHP Reference Implementation (IRT’s MHP-RI) available to the MHP community. The MHP-RI is implemented in Java to run under Windows NT 4.0 on at least the equivalent of a 500-MHz Pentium III and 32 to 128 Mbytes of RAM. Diagram from: MHP Reference Implementation, Institut für Rundfunktechnik (IRT), 2001 While not needing the fastest PC available, MHP will still require more hardware than in the current typical set-top-box. Also MHP uses new Internet standards which means that content may not display on existing software used for the Internet.

26 TeleWeb Super Teletext using web pages
Another European standard with an awful web site. More modest standard than MHP, using proven technology: HTML 3.2 & GIF. TeleWeb content displays a normal web browser and may be compatible with PDAs. TeleWeb is similar to Multimedia Home Platform (MHP) in that it is a European produced standard with an awful web site <http://www.superteletext.tv/>. As the URL suggests, the idea is to create super Teletext, by transmitting web pages in Teletext packets on analogue TV or MPEG-2/DVB packets for digital TV. It is much more modest standard than MHP, using proven web technology such as HTML 3.2 and GIF images. There are some demonstration TeleWeb pages on the web site which display successfully on a normal web browser. It should be possible to upgrade Teletext TVs and tuner card software inexpensively for TeleWeb, in comparison to MHP. If TeleWeb can provide a standard electronic program guide it might be the killer application for digital TV, or delay digital TV by enhancing analogue TV. TeleWeb and similar Internet TV devices target a screen of around VGA resolution (640 x 480 pixels), but the effective screen size is less because the viewer sits much further from a TV set than a computer. Web designers may be able to target both internet TV and Pocket Digital Assistants (PDAs) with the same content.

27 Broadcast Industry's Worst Nightmare
At CRF2001 I displayed this photograph of a TiVo digital video recorder and described it as the broadcast industry's worst nightmare. The TiVo is a Linux based TV device and the potential of such devices to be expanded, was demonstrated in Hacking the TiVo by Andrew Tridgell at Linux.conf.au 2001: I got truly amazed when I found out that Tridge and friends, not satisfied with adding more hard drive space, soldering memory on the motherboard, reverse engineering the proprietary connector on the motherboard and turning it into an ISA bus, turning a Tivo entirely into a PAL capable device, they reversed engineered the video format, got video from the Tivo to play over the network on outside computers, figured out the TV guide database format and wrote programs to make their own database feeding for Australia through information automatically gathered by scripts on a web TV guide. I mean these people created a new Tivo product from the existing one before Tivo, and with no technical help or docs from Tivo whatesoever. From: Inside Tivo, Marc Merlin, 2001 The nightmare is not that a few gifted individuals will modify their digital devices, but that if the industry does not provide devices which do what the customer wants, then someone else will. A digital set top box is just a small computer. The Linux community has shown that an informal cooperative effort can produce good quality software for such devices. The Internet has shown that complex standards from formal bodies will not necessarily succeed over simpler standards. If the broadcasting industry does not produce useful products, then the PC industry, with overcapacity and a hunger for new products may step in. This may not be confined to hardware for supporting existing broadcasting models, but new content formats and business models as well. From: Inside Tivo, Marc Merlin, 2001

28 Convergence may not be possible
TV is sufficiently different to the Internet that convergence of content may not be possible. MHP has not adopted the web's approach to multimedia (SMIL) Simple, low cost, analogue compatible MHP alternatives are possible The Electronic Programme Guide is the simple killer application. But when times going to 2005………. MHP is sufficiently different to the Internet that convergence of content may not be possible. MHP has not adopted SMIL, the web's approach to multimedia. It could be argued that SMIL has not been widely supported and a standard backed by the TV industry will be more successful. However, experience with Internet standards has shown this approach does not necessarily work. It is possible that simple alternatives to MHP may emerge, in the same way i-mode emerged from the shadow of WAP. As an example it would be feasible to carry multimedia content using the existing Teletext data channel of analog TV. This would provide many of the features of MHP, but at a lower cost and while maintaining compatibility with existing TV standards. Creating an Electronic Programme Guide format that could be used by MHP should be possible, in particular, web and Teletext services. It is not clear which services consumers will want. It is not even clear if consumers want to remain consumers of broadcasting at all, or if they want to take a more active role in content development and in person-to-person interactivity, as they do with the Internet and SMS digital telephones.

29 low cost set-top-boxes
Bob Edwards at the Australian National University is experimenting with is low cost set-top-box Internet TV appliances. Neon Technology's $USD79 set-top box Bob Edwards at the Australian National University is experimenting with is low cost set-top-box Internet TV appliances. Units such as those of Neon Technology's line of set-top boxes provide a continuum from low cost and web products, starting at US$79.00 retail, to more powerful video capable units. What is of interest to Bob is if the units can be reprogrammed to become capable network workstations, rather than simple consumer products. These can then be linked to low cost super computers, such as the Australian Bunyip, built from PC components. While academic research interests are in building Linux workstations for scientific work, once reprogrammed, the units can then take on more capabilities as consumer products. The same techniques for building low cost super computer servers can also be used to build audio, video and multimedia on-demand servers.

30 Broadcasting: Non-interactive Data Transmission
More possible Technology is now available to transform content so it is usable on hand held devices with limited Internet access. A digital set-top-box is a computer with limited programming to mimic a TV tuner. In the same way "broadcasting" is a limited form of one way communication. Digital content for broadcasting is similarly a form of multimedia which has been limited to operate on a broadcast network. Rather than seeking to limit digital technology so it can be used within the restrictions of broadcasting, the industry needs to look at the new expanded possibilities. As an example technology is now available to transform content so it is usable on hand held devices with limited Internet access.

31 Middleware development
Technologies for multimedia documents: The Extensible Markup Language (XML) XML Schema, Web Content Accessibility Guidelines A revolution is now taking place in software development. Technology developed for web applications is now being applied to conventional software devotement for business applications. Sophisticated applications which used to take years of development by hundreds of programmers can now be done by a handful of people. The Extensible Markup Language (XML) was originally intended for advanced formatting of documents. XML may not displace HTML for designing simple web pages, due to XML's greater complexity. However, through technologies such as XML Schema, it is possible to build simple applications which carry out complex transformations on data. These transformations can be carried out in middleware software, to allow information to be automatically converted into a format to suit the user. The World Wide Web Consortium's Web Content Accessibility Guidelines allow content to be prepared in a generalized format and then converted for the display device. While developed with static web pages and reading by disabled people in mind, these techniques can be used for multimedia documents, one limited form of which is video.

32 Metadata: The Killer Application?
Sell the meta-data and give the content away: the TV guide is metadata. ABC’s dig, could show the way. There may be a lot of technology available, but where is the business case for it? How do we make money out of this? The ability to transform content using XML will lower the cost of creation and delivery and the accessibility guidelines will allow it to be delivered to a wide range of devices, but how do you get people to pay for it? One approach is to sell the meta-data and give the content away. While the Tivo video recorder is designed to work with free-to-air TV, the customer must pay for the on-line TV guide to make the unit most effective. The TV guide is metadata. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) is planning a new Internet based service called DIG planned to start pilot broadcasts early this year: "... Some planned services are available on request for each individual listener at all times, but the casual listener who 'tunes in' – in fact, the listener will get on the internet, open a browser, type in abc.net.au, and continue to the DIG site – is most likely to listen to a 24-hour stream of unannounced music while using the computer. The listener who wants to know the name of the tune being played at any given time can read the name of the tune and the performers on screen after a single mouse click. The music- and other arts-orientated station won't be live, and won't carry news and current events. These are already available from other parts of ABC Online..." From: New radio for you to dig, originally published in The Weekend Australian, December 8 - 9, 2001. While the ABC doesn't appear to be planning to charge for DIG, it would be feasible to create different free, fee-for-service and advertising supported services using the same technology. Some programs could be free, with charging could be for specially tailored programs featuring particular styles of music, exploiting the metadata. The same streamed program could be provided with advertisements (with not charge to the listener) or without advertisements for a fee. News bullies and video could be blended, tailored to the user's requirements.

33 Operational rollout Consumers can play a more active role
Not clear if there will be sufficient standardization of platforms: computers and telephones still have different numeric keypads Telephone: 1,2,3,4,5,6... Computer: 7,8,9,4,5,6... Use of Internet-like digital broadcasting technology challenges many of the assumptions of rollout for broadcasting. The consumers can play a more active role in the operation and there can be a loss of control by the broadcaster. On the positive side many of the costs of the broadcaster can be passed on to the consumer. There is a very high cost to rollout of hardware and field upgrades of equipment. The incorporation of Java into MHP may make it feasible to add new capabilities to set-top-boxes via the network. However, it is not clear if there will be sufficient standardization of platforms. It should be possible to run the same Java applications on set-top box and a mobile telephone, but will there sufficient standardization to make this possible? It should be remembered that after decades of use computers and telephones still have different numeric keypads (telephones: 1,2,3,4,5,6... Computers: 7,8,9,4,5,6...).

34 Video-on-demand Will cease to be a major issue.
Internet users assume that any document is available on demand. As effective digital networks become available, video-on-demand will cease to be a major issue. Internet users assume that any document is available on demand. The idea that some content is only available a set scheduled times will become an anachronism. Where broadcasting is still used, simulated video-on-demand can be provided with local digital storage in the set-top-box or the consumer's local network.

35 Storage low cost superserver at ANU
Technology developed for low cost supercomputers can be applied to provide network storage and also additional processing to transform the stored content. low cost superserver at ANU

36 More Information Text and references: About the Author: Thanks to: Luke Naismith, Deputy Manager, Strategy and Analysis, National Office for the Information Economy; Bob Edwards, Chief IT Officer, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, The Australian National University; and Marghanita da Cruz, Ramin Communications; for their comments. Comments and corrections to: Copyright © Tom Worthington. 2001


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