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The Bridge Effect The Bridge Effect

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Presentation on theme: "The Bridge Effect The Bridge Effect"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Bridge Effect The Bridge Effect
Understanding the Effects of the Physical Linking of Small Islands to Mainlands Godfrey Baldacchino Canada Research Chair (Island Studies) University of Prince Edward Island, Canada

2 Bridges: Progress – Communication - Integration

3 Bridge to Valentia –by Donald Murray
There are some who have swapped their birthright for a stretch of tar. A bridge that will allow their cars to link with roads that lace mainlanders together permitting islands to become like a landlocked place. Surrendering their separateness to loop with these larger shores becoming both part and prisoners of the whole. Bridge to Valentia –by Donald Murray

4 When is an island not an island?
When the European Union decides it is not. An island is not an island if it has fewer than 50 permanent residents, is attached to the mainland by a rigid structure, is less than 1km from the mainland, or is home to the capital of an EU state. The Guardian (UK), 21 January 2003, page 5

5 Prince Edward Island OR Peninsular?

6 Confederation Bridge: Federal Promise Fulfilled or Rupture with Identity?

7 An Inexorable March? PEI gets connected to the world:
1813-Postal Service 1852-Telegraph Cable 1876-Public Ferry Service 1910-Telephone Cable 1941-Regular Air Carrier 1990-Cell Phone Service 1993-Internet Access 1997- Fixed Link Access?

8 Aldabra Atoll – World Heritage Site
Aldabra Atoll – No Permanent Human Population – Restricted Access Aldabra Atoll – World Heritage Site

9 Ohio Key, Florida – Yacht Haven
Ohio Key FL – Yacht Haven – No Permanent Population – Restricted Access Ohio Key, Florida – Yacht Haven

10 Pepparholmen Island – Oresund Bridge
Pepparholmen Island – Restricted Access Pepparholmen Island – Oresund Bridge

11 Canso Bridge, Causeway… & Loss of Clout?

12 Who Benefits, Who Loses? Short-term versus Long-Term
Traders, Tourists, Consumers, Seasonal Residents, Mass Tourism Operators, Fixed Link Maintenance Firms & Crews - Gain Endemic Species, Local Practices, Local Producers, Ferry Operators & Workers, Local Shopkeepers, Local Home Buyers – Lose Short-term versus Long-Term

13 Bridges Save Communities?
Irish Islands – after Royle & Scott 1996

14 Fixed Links: Bring More Tourists from Closer Locations, Less Visitor Nights? (Distance Decay)
Tourist Visitors to Atlantic Canada: NS=Yellow; NB=Pink; PEI=Blue

15 Conclusion .. of sorts All islands are ‘linked’.
Isolating Bridge Effect is best with an experimental versus control group strategy IF Island is too small; and IF Mainland Flow to Island is too big: Gentrification is likely with fixed link. Change will depend on access costs, opportunity costs (money & time) and cultural gap/lag.

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