# Orienteering in the terrain

## Presentation on theme: "Orienteering in the terrain"— Presentation transcript:

Orienteering in the terrain
Basic Map Info - 2 Orienteering in the terrain

An orienteering map is different from a topographic map:
Mountaineers use a topographic map. The scale is usually 1 / or 1 / A topographic map shows: * only very distinct roads and vehicle tracks * only distinct rivers * forests - green * open areas - white

An orienteering map is more detailed:
The scale is usually 1/ * vegetation is more detailed: each colour has a meaning showing difference in vegetation * very small streams, even dried up water courses are shown * even small paths, tracks are shown

What can you see on a course map for orienteering?
1 - The scale 2 - The elevation (difference in height) between two contours --> “contour interval” 3 - The category this course belongs to 4 - The length of the course (as the crow flies) 5 - Control point definitions 6 - The course itself, shown by: * the start (triangle) * the finish (two concentric circles) * the control points (single circle)

1 cm on the map = 100 meters on the terrain 1 / 5 000:
THE SCALE The scale of the map is useful in estimating the distance from where you are now, and where you want to go. 1 / : 1 cm on the map = 100 meters on the terrain 1 / 5 000: 1 cm on the map = 50 meters on the terrain You need to know how to count your paces!

Pace counting Homework: Measure your pace for 100 meters
* count 2 paces for 1 * count: - uphill - downhill - straight bit * count: - walking - jogging - running

Contour interval The contour interval shows the vertical difference in height (the elevation) between two contours. Contour interval = 5 m 5 m = One and a half stories in a block of flats The distance between two contours on the map will show the effort for climbing; Less effort Steep climb

Contour interval Homework: if the contour interval is 5 m
Assuming the first contour lies at the lowest point (car park surface), how many contours for A? B? C? Which one has the most climb? Note: “most climb” may not mean “longest distance”! B C A

COLORS Yellow White Green show density of vegetation
Black shows “man-made features” or “stone features” rocks, stony ground, buildings, roads, paths, fences, special man-made objects... Blue shows water lakes, rivers, streams, dried up water course, well, fountain, swamp... Brown shows earth contours, knolls, pits, earth banks, special earth features...

Black Paved area Unpaved path Rockface (teeth point downwards)

roads fences stone wall power lines

Difference in width...

Unpaved paths and tracks...
Less distinct path, wide enough for only one person More distinct path, wide enough for 2 people to walk together Vehicle track wide enough for a vehicle to pass

asphalt road unpaved vehicle track distinct footpath less distinct footpath fence (passable) fence (impassable - forbidden to pass) ruined fence stone wall small power line or telephone line high voltage power line

Match the terrain with the map

İNSAN YAPIMI DOĞRUSAL ÖZELLİKLER

More black: Stone features

Blue

Water courses of different size

Density of Vegetation

Cultivated open land Rough open land Semi-open land with scattered trees Forest: easy running

Forest: easy running Vegetation: difficult to run Vegetation: very difficult to run

Undergrowth or small shrubs may slow down your pace
Dense forest runnable in one direction

Control descriptions used for orienteering in the terrain...

Control descriptions used for orienteering in the terrain...
Open land Semi-open land Forest boundary Clearing Bush, clump of dense vegetation Control descriptions used for orienteering in the terrain...

Distinct tree Tree stump, fallen tree

Depression Small depression Hole

re-entrant

ridge spur re-entrant

hill knoll (very small hill) ditch

rockface

boulder boulder field boulder cluster stony ground very large bare rock

boulder earth bank boulder field boulder cluster stony ground very large bare rock

Ahlatlıbel - Our first orienteering course in the terrain

for control descriptions www.fortnet.org/icd
IOF Control Descriptions