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Identity Formation and Possible Selves: Becoming a Self-Regulated Learner in Mathematics Alan Zollman Northern Illinois University October 27, 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Identity Formation and Possible Selves: Becoming a Self-Regulated Learner in Mathematics Alan Zollman Northern Illinois University October 27, 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Identity Formation and Possible Selves: Becoming a Self-Regulated Learner in Mathematics Alan Zollman Northern Illinois University October 27, 2009

2 "I'm beginning to understand myself. But it would have been great to be able to understand myself when I was 20 rather than when I was 82." ~ Dave Brubeck, American jazz pianist

3 Question 1: As a lieutenant you need to get a 40-foot telephone pole raised. You have 5 privates and 1 sergeant. Specifically, how do you get the pole raised properly? Question 1: As a lieutenant you need to get a 40-foot telephone pole raised. You have 5 privates and 1 sergeant. Specifically, how do you get the pole raised properly?

4 Question 2: When you were in the first grade, what did you plan to be? Question 2: When you were in the first grade, what did you plan to be?

5 Question 2: When you were in the first grade, what did you plan to be? WHY? Question 2: When you were in the first grade, what did you plan to be? WHY?

6 Question 3: If you grow up, where do you plan to be? Question 3: If you grow up, where do you plan to be?

7 Question 3: If you grow up, where do you plan to be? WHY? Question 3: If you grow up, where do you plan to be? WHY?

8 Why, in one class, do we have some students mathematically achieve, and other students in the same class with similar aptitude and background do not? What is that one attribute we cannot put a finger on that is the difference between these students? Why, in one class, do we have some students mathematically achieve, and other students in the same class with similar aptitude and background do not? What is that one attribute we cannot put a finger on that is the difference between these students?

9 Why, in one class, do we have some students mathematically achieve, and other students in the same class with similar aptitude and background do not? What is that one attribute we cannot put a finger on that is the difference between these students? I say the major influence is self identity. Why, in one class, do we have some students mathematically achieve, and other students in the same class with similar aptitude and background do not? What is that one attribute we cannot put a finger on that is the difference between these students? I say the major influence is self identity.

10 Students Development 1)Physical Development Students Development 1)Physical Development

11 Students Development 1)Physical Development 2)Social Development Students Development 1)Physical Development 2)Social Development

12 Students Development 1)Physical Development 2)Social Development 3)Cognitive Development Students Development 1)Physical Development 2)Social Development 3)Cognitive Development

13 Students Development 1)Physical Development 2)Social Development 3)Cognitive Development 4)Identity Development Students Development 1)Physical Development 2)Social Development 3)Cognitive Development 4)Identity Development

14 Identity Formation Identity formation is the fundamental development task of psychological maturity Identity Formation Identity formation is the fundamental development task of psychological maturity

15 Identity Formation Identity formation is the fundamental development task of psychological maturity Identity formation is a striving to achieve a unified, integrated sense of self. Identity Formation Identity formation is the fundamental development task of psychological maturity Identity formation is a striving to achieve a unified, integrated sense of self.

16 Identity Formation Identity formation is the fundamental development task of psychological maturity Identity formation is a striving to achieve a unified, integrated sense of self. This requires the incorporation of past and present identifications with significant others, recognition of ones aptitudes and skills, and occupational goals and aspirations. Identity Formation Identity formation is the fundamental development task of psychological maturity Identity formation is a striving to achieve a unified, integrated sense of self. This requires the incorporation of past and present identifications with significant others, recognition of ones aptitudes and skills, and occupational goals and aspirations.

17 Identity is how we respond to the environmental, cognitive, and social affects in our lives. Identity is how we respond to the environmental, cognitive, and social affects in our lives. Identity Formation

18 Identity is how we respond to the environmental, cognitive, and social affects in our lives. All affective domain topicsmotivation, persistence, self-esteem, self-confidence, attitude, even behavior are outcomes of our personal identity. Identity is how we respond to the environmental, cognitive, and social affects in our lives. All affective domain topicsmotivation, persistence, self-esteem, self-confidence, attitude, even behavior are outcomes of our personal identity. Identity Formation

19 Identity is how we respond to the environmental, cognitive, and social affects in our lives. All affective domain topicsmotivation, persistence, self-esteem, self-confidence, attitude, even behavior are outcomes of our personal identity. Forming ones identity is as important as developing ones social skills or cognitive abilities. Identity is how we respond to the environmental, cognitive, and social affects in our lives. All affective domain topicsmotivation, persistence, self-esteem, self-confidence, attitude, even behavior are outcomes of our personal identity. Forming ones identity is as important as developing ones social skills or cognitive abilities. Identity Formation

20 Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy;

21 Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; –"Is my world predictable and supportive? Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; –"Is my world predictable and supportive?

22 Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers;

23 Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; –"Can I do things myself or must I always rely on others? Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; –"Can I do things myself or must I always rely on others?

24 Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood; Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood;

25 Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood; –"Am I good or am I bad? Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood; –"Am I good or am I bad?

26 Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood; 4)industry versus inferiority, in middle childhood; Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood; 4)industry versus inferiority, in middle childhood;

27 Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood; 4)industry versus inferiority, in middle childhood; –"Am I successful or worthless? Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood; 4)industry versus inferiority, in middle childhood; –"Am I successful or worthless?

28 Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood; 4)industry versus inferiority, in middle childhood; 5)identity versus role diffusion, in adolescence; Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood; 4)industry versus inferiority, in middle childhood; 5)identity versus role diffusion, in adolescence;

29 Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood; 4)industry versus inferiority, in middle childhood; 5)identity versus role diffusion, in adolescence; –"Who am I and where am I going? Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood; 4)industry versus inferiority, in middle childhood; 5)identity versus role diffusion, in adolescence; –"Who am I and where am I going?

30 Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood; 4)industry versus inferiority, in middle childhood; 5)identity versus role diffusion, in adolescence; 6)intimacy versus isolation, in young adulthood; Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood; 4)industry versus inferiority, in middle childhood; 5)identity versus role diffusion, in adolescence; 6)intimacy versus isolation, in young adulthood;

31 Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood; 4)industry versus inferiority, in middle childhood; 5)identity versus role diffusion, in adolescence; 6)intimacy versus isolation, in young adulthood; –"Am I loved and wanted?" or "Shall I share my life with someone or live alone? Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood; 4)industry versus inferiority, in middle childhood; 5)identity versus role diffusion, in adolescence; 6)intimacy versus isolation, in young adulthood; –"Am I loved and wanted?" or "Shall I share my life with someone or live alone?

32 Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood; 4)industry versus inferiority, in middle childhood; 5)identity versus role diffusion, in adolescence; 6)intimacy versus isolation, in young adulthood; 7)generativity versus stagnation, in middle adult life; Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood; 4)industry versus inferiority, in middle childhood; 5)identity versus role diffusion, in adolescence; 6)intimacy versus isolation, in young adulthood; 7)generativity versus stagnation, in middle adult life;

33 Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood; 4)industry versus inferiority, in middle childhood; 5)identity versus role diffusion, in adolescence; 6)intimacy versus isolation, in young adulthood; 7)generativity versus stagnation, in middle adult life; –"Will I produce something of real value? Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood; 4)industry versus inferiority, in middle childhood; 5)identity versus role diffusion, in adolescence; 6)intimacy versus isolation, in young adulthood; 7)generativity versus stagnation, in middle adult life; –"Will I produce something of real value?

34 Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood; 4)industry versus inferiority, in middle childhood; 5)identity versus role diffusion, in adolescence; 6)intimacy versus isolation, in young adulthood; 7)generativity versus stagnation, in middle adult life; 8)integrity versus despair, in old age (Erikson, 1950). Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood; 4)industry versus inferiority, in middle childhood; 5)identity versus role diffusion, in adolescence; 6)intimacy versus isolation, in young adulthood; 7)generativity versus stagnation, in middle adult life; 8)integrity versus despair, in old age (Erikson, 1950).

35 Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood; 4)industry versus inferiority, in middle childhood; 5)identity versus role diffusion, in adolescence; 6)intimacy versus isolation, in young adulthood; 7)generativity versus stagnation, in middle adult life; 8)integrity versus despair, in old age (Erikson, 1950). –"Have I lived a full life? Eight Psychosocial Stages 1)trust versus mistrust, in infancy; 2)autonomy versus shame and doubt, in toddlers; 3)initiative versus guilt, in early childhood; 4)industry versus inferiority, in middle childhood; 5)identity versus role diffusion, in adolescence; 6)intimacy versus isolation, in young adulthood; 7)generativity versus stagnation, in middle adult life; 8)integrity versus despair, in old age (Erikson, 1950). –"Have I lived a full life?

36 Identity Crisis Identity crisis occurs when the adolescent attempts to integrate childhood identification with ideas about what one wants to be and become as an adult. Identity Crisis Identity crisis occurs when the adolescent attempts to integrate childhood identification with ideas about what one wants to be and become as an adult.

37 Identity Crisis Identity crisis occurs when the adolescent attempts to integrate childhood identification with ideas about what one wants to be and become as an adult. Adolescents initiate identity work as they begin to think about their competencies and attributes, academic and occupational goals, and personal beliefs. Identity Crisis Identity crisis occurs when the adolescent attempts to integrate childhood identification with ideas about what one wants to be and become as an adult. Adolescents initiate identity work as they begin to think about their competencies and attributes, academic and occupational goals, and personal beliefs.

38 Identity Crisis Identity crisis occurs when the adolescent attempts to integrate childhood identification with ideas about what one wants to be and become as an adult. Adolescents initiate identity work as they begin to think about their competencies and attributes, academic and occupational goals, and personal beliefs. School and peers are important social contexts where much identity work occurs. Identity Crisis Identity crisis occurs when the adolescent attempts to integrate childhood identification with ideas about what one wants to be and become as an adult. Adolescents initiate identity work as they begin to think about their competencies and attributes, academic and occupational goals, and personal beliefs. School and peers are important social contexts where much identity work occurs.

39 Possible selves are influenced by social, cultural and historical contexts that surround the individual and function to generate feelings of a)competence (when a goal is attained), b)self-efficacy (beliefs about ones personal competence in mathematics), and b)personal control (what one can do to achieve a hoped-for self). Possible selves are influenced by social, cultural and historical contexts that surround the individual and function to generate feelings of a)competence (when a goal is attained), b)self-efficacy (beliefs about ones personal competence in mathematics), and b)personal control (what one can do to achieve a hoped-for self).

40 Possible Selves Theory is a theoretical foundation to promote teachers understanding of identity formationtheir students and their own. Possible selves are ones ideas about what one can become in the future. These perceptions of ones future self can be highly motivating to students. When students have clear ideas about what they want to become, they are more willing to put forth the effort needed to attain their goals. Possible Selves Theory is a theoretical foundation to promote teachers understanding of identity formationtheir students and their own. Possible selves are ones ideas about what one can become in the future. These perceptions of ones future self can be highly motivating to students. When students have clear ideas about what they want to become, they are more willing to put forth the effort needed to attain their goals.

41 Hoped-for possible selves, in particular, are strong predictors of mathematics achievement. A hoped-for self that is concrete, realistic, detailed, and invokes necessary strategies for achieving the goal that will guide student behavior and produce the intended results over time (Oyserman & Markus, 1990). Hoped-for possible selves, in particular, are strong predictors of mathematics achievement. A hoped-for self that is concrete, realistic, detailed, and invokes necessary strategies for achieving the goal that will guide student behavior and produce the intended results over time (Oyserman & Markus, 1990).

42 When students feel committed to, and invested in, working towards the attainment of hoped-for selves, and when they connect current behaviors to the accomplishment of future goals, their possible selves serve a self-regulatory role. Students with a self-regulatory focus are better able to make changes in behavior which can lead to goal achievement. When students feel committed to, and invested in, working towards the attainment of hoped-for selves, and when they connect current behaviors to the accomplishment of future goals, their possible selves serve a self-regulatory role. Students with a self-regulatory focus are better able to make changes in behavior which can lead to goal achievement.

43 It is important for students to become self-regulated learners who can - set learning goals - create action plans - then monitor their progress towards their goals - by assessing their efforts and making adaptations as necessary It is important for students to become self-regulated learners who can - set learning goals - create action plans - then monitor their progress towards their goals - by assessing their efforts and making adaptations as necessary

44 Instructor Initiates to Promote Identity Development

45 Show your genuine warmth (not fuzziness) for students Cultivate teacher-student professional relationships Model yourself as a life-long, inquisitive learner in front of your students Infuse passion for mathematics in your lessons Respect students as partners in the learning relationship Show your genuine warmth (not fuzziness) for students Cultivate teacher-student professional relationships Model yourself as a life-long, inquisitive learner in front of your students Infuse passion for mathematics in your lessons Respect students as partners in the learning relationship

46 Curriculum Initiates of Identity Development

47 Set up authentic problem-solving situations that students (not just teachers) value Build lessons with drama for inquiring minds who want to know -- the aha! vs. the oh no! problems Plan for students to discover patterns and relationships between and among the topics of mathematics Set up authentic problem-solving situations that students (not just teachers) value Build lessons with drama for inquiring minds who want to know -- the aha! vs. the oh no! problems Plan for students to discover patterns and relationships between and among the topics of mathematics

48 Peer Initiates to Promote Identity Development

49 Design cooperative learning activities where each student has a role; rotate roles Conduct role playing situations, where students view themselves and each other as mathematicians, engineers, investigators and scientists as they work on problems Design cooperative learning activities where each student has a role; rotate roles Conduct role playing situations, where students view themselves and each other as mathematicians, engineers, investigators and scientists as they work on problems

50 Individual Initiates to Promote Identity Development

51 Charge students to set goals, so they know where they want to be and what they have to do to get there; students feel they can take control of their own learning Ask students to regularly self-reflect on what and how they are learning mathematics Teach students to continually self-assess progress of learning Provide choices for students to demonstrate growth in self-determination, self-efficacy, self-regulation Charge students to set goals, so they know where they want to be and what they have to do to get there; students feel they can take control of their own learning Ask students to regularly self-reflect on what and how they are learning mathematics Teach students to continually self-assess progress of learning Provide choices for students to demonstrate growth in self-determination, self-efficacy, self-regulation

52 A Look Inside the Classroom The classroom is a collaborative community of learners.

53 A Look Inside the Classroom The classroom is a collaborative community of learners. The cooperative learning group is engaged in an authentic problem, thinking aloud about what they know, and trying to connect previous ideas to the current topic. The classroom is a collaborative community of learners. The cooperative learning group is engaged in an authentic problem, thinking aloud about what they know, and trying to connect previous ideas to the current topic.

54 A Look Inside the Classroom The classroom is a collaborative community of learners. The cooperative learning group is engaged in an authentic problem, thinking aloud about what they know, and trying to connect previous ideas to the current topic. There is warmth to the interactions between the teacher and students and mutual respect. The classroom is a collaborative community of learners. The cooperative learning group is engaged in an authentic problem, thinking aloud about what they know, and trying to connect previous ideas to the current topic. There is warmth to the interactions between the teacher and students and mutual respect.

55 A Look Inside the Classroom The classroom is a collaborative community of learners. The cooperative learning group is engaged in an authentic problem, thinking aloud about what they know, and trying to connect previous ideas to the current topic. There is warmth to the interactions between the teacher and students and mutual respect. The teacher trusts students, and they trust the teacher. The classroom is a collaborative community of learners. The cooperative learning group is engaged in an authentic problem, thinking aloud about what they know, and trying to connect previous ideas to the current topic. There is warmth to the interactions between the teacher and students and mutual respect. The teacher trusts students, and they trust the teacher.

56 A Look Inside the Classroom The classroom is a collaborative community of learners. The cooperative learning group is engaged in an authentic problem, thinking aloud about what they know, and trying to connect previous ideas to the current topic. There is warmth to the interactions between the teacher and students and mutual respect. The teacher trusts students, and they trust the teacher. The teacher grants them autonomy – the ability to make choices that determine what and how they will approach the math problem – and the teacher reinforces their developing sense of competence. The classroom is a collaborative community of learners. The cooperative learning group is engaged in an authentic problem, thinking aloud about what they know, and trying to connect previous ideas to the current topic. There is warmth to the interactions between the teacher and students and mutual respect. The teacher trusts students, and they trust the teacher. The teacher grants them autonomy – the ability to make choices that determine what and how they will approach the math problem – and the teacher reinforces their developing sense of competence.

57 A Look Inside the Classroom The classroom is a collaborative community of learners. The cooperative learning group is engaged in an authentic problem, thinking aloud about what they know, and trying to connect previous ideas to the current topic. There is warmth to the interactions between the teacher and students and mutual respect. The teacher trusts students, and they trust the teacher. The teacher grants them autonomy – the ability to make choices that determine what and how they will approach the math problem – and the teacher reinforces their developing sense of competence. The teacher expects persistence, respect, team membership and integrity. The classroom is a collaborative community of learners. The cooperative learning group is engaged in an authentic problem, thinking aloud about what they know, and trying to connect previous ideas to the current topic. There is warmth to the interactions between the teacher and students and mutual respect. The teacher trusts students, and they trust the teacher. The teacher grants them autonomy – the ability to make choices that determine what and how they will approach the math problem – and the teacher reinforces their developing sense of competence. The teacher expects persistence, respect, team membership and integrity.

58 A Look Inside the Classroom The classroom is a collaborative community of learners. The cooperative learning group is engaged in an authentic problem, thinking aloud about what they know, and trying to connect previous ideas to the current topic. There is warmth to the interactions between the teacher and students and mutual respect. The teacher trusts students, and they trust the teacher. The teacher grants them autonomy – the ability to make choices that determine what and how they will approach the math problem – and the teacher reinforces their developing sense of competence. The teacher expects persistence, respect, team membership and integrity. The students understand their roles and responsibilities to the teacher, to themselves and to their peers. The classroom is a collaborative community of learners. The cooperative learning group is engaged in an authentic problem, thinking aloud about what they know, and trying to connect previous ideas to the current topic. There is warmth to the interactions between the teacher and students and mutual respect. The teacher trusts students, and they trust the teacher. The teacher grants them autonomy – the ability to make choices that determine what and how they will approach the math problem – and the teacher reinforces their developing sense of competence. The teacher expects persistence, respect, team membership and integrity. The students understand their roles and responsibilities to the teacher, to themselves and to their peers.

59 Question 1: As a lieutenant you need to get a 40-foot telephone pole raised. You have 5 privates and 1 sergeant. Specifically, how do you get the pole raised properly? Question 1: As a lieutenant you need to get a 40-foot telephone pole raised. You have 5 privates and 1 sergeant. Specifically, how do you get the pole raised properly?

60 Question 1: The correct response is (supposedly): Order the sergeant and the privates to get the job done, leave, and return later. Question 1: The correct response is (supposedly): Order the sergeant and the privates to get the job done, leave, and return later.

61 Question 1: The correct response is (supposedly): Order the sergeant and the privates to get the job done, leave, and return later. This solution displays an understanding and communication of the officers expectations of: trust, autonomy, initiative, persistence, role identification, team membership, respect and integrity. Question 1: The correct response is (supposedly): Order the sergeant and the privates to get the job done, leave, and return later. This solution displays an understanding and communication of the officers expectations of: trust, autonomy, initiative, persistence, role identification, team membership, respect and integrity.

62 Question 1: The correct response is (supposedly): Order the sergeant and the privates to get the job done, leave, and return later. This solution displays an understanding and communication of the officers expectations of: trust, autonomy, initiative, persistence, role identification, team membership, respect and integrity. It allows the privates and sergeant to become self- regulated problem solvers. Question 1: The correct response is (supposedly): Order the sergeant and the privates to get the job done, leave, and return later. This solution displays an understanding and communication of the officers expectations of: trust, autonomy, initiative, persistence, role identification, team membership, respect and integrity. It allows the privates and sergeant to become self- regulated problem solvers.

63 Question 3: The correct response is: Question 3: The correct response is:

64 Question 4: The correct response is: Be sitting in your chair at NIU! Question 4: The correct response is: Be sitting in your chair at NIU!

65 Dr. Alan Zollman Dept. of Mathematical Sciences Northern Illinois University DeKalb, IL / Dr. Alan Zollman Dept. of Mathematical Sciences Northern Illinois University DeKalb, IL /


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