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INTRODUCTION TO THE EMS SYSTEM

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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO THE EMS SYSTEM"— Presentation transcript:

1 INTRODUCTION TO THE EMS SYSTEM
LESSON 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE EMS SYSTEM

2 Introduction Emergency Medical Responders (EMRs) are an essential part of Emergency Medical System (EMS) system First trained persons to reach ill or injured patient Individual summoned to provide care in an emergency Professional duty to respond and provide emergency care Usually have access to supplies and equipment for providing initial care

3 Examples of Occupations of EMRs
Law enforcement personnel Firefighters Industrial safety officers Prison guards Lifeguards Daycare attendants Athletic trainers Ski patrol members Civil defense personnel Disaster team members

4 Medical Emergencies Situation where person suddenly needs medical care
Often person is injured or experiences sudden illness May be life threatening

5 United States Medical Emergency Statistics
Heart disease results in about 616,000 deaths a year More than 1,250,000 heart attacks occur each year, resulting in over 132,000 deaths About 795,000 people a year have a stroke, resulting in about 136,000 deaths About 128,200 people a year die from unintentional injuries About 39 million visits a year are made to emergency departments because of injuries

6 Sudden Illness Medical conditions that occur suddenly
Person with non-emergency chronic illness may suddenly experience an emergency

7 Common Causes of Injuries Treated in Emergency Departments (Annual)
Falls – 8,551,037 Struck by or against object – 4,492,287 Overexertion – 3,278,300 Motor vehicle occupants – 2,581,605 Cut or pierced by object – 2,072,604 Bites and stings (other than dog bites) – 993,923 Poisoning (including drug overdose) – 732,316

8 Unintentional Injuries Causing Deaths
Poisoning (including drug overdose) accounts for most accidental injury deaths Followed by motor vehicle crashes, falls, choking, drowning, fire and smoke, and other injuries in the home, public places, and work Injuries may strike at any time EMRs provide care until patient receives advanced help

9 Delivery of Prehospital Emergency Medical Care
Fire department Hospital-based or volunteer system Private ambulance and Emergency Medical Services (EMS)

10 Emergency Medical Services System
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Act of 1973 established nationwide system Sophisticated network of services Single call for help initiates responses to rush care to patient Accessing EMS Activated when someone calls or another local number Most communities have a centralized system 9-1-1 calls reach dispatcher who then sends resources to scene

11 9-1-1 Systems Callers identify name, location and phone number
Enhanced systems automatically provide dispatcher with caller’s phone number/location for landlines Caller may need to specify exact location With cellular calls, caller’s location is unknown

12 Steps of EMS Response to Emergencies
Medical emergency occurs Emergency recognized/EMS is activated Citizen responder may give first aid/CPR on scene if trained EMRs arrive and provide care EMTs/Paramedics arrive and assume care EMTs continue care measures begun by EMRs Following stabilization and care, patient transported to hospital emergency department or specialty facility Patient transferred to in-hospital emergency care team

13 Response of EMRs Sent to scene by dispatcher after a citizen has activated EMS If on scene, initiate call to dispatcher to activate EMS Ensure EMS has been activated in all situations

14 Types of Facilities Receiving Patients
Hospital emergency departments Specialty facilities: Trauma centers Burn centers Pediatric centers Perinatal centers Cancer/Oncology centers

15 Preparation of Equipment and Personnel
Equipment used must be clean, complete and readily available for use Frequent checks of equipment and supplies: All equipment safe and in good working order Dated supplies checked and replaced before expiration Oxygen cylinders kept full Automated External Defibrillators (AED) charged and in working order Dressings and bandages replaced as soon as they are used

16 Preplanning Preparing a plan in anticipation of different emergencies
Many industrial plants have plans for response that identify: Key personnel Locations of supplies Mechanism for notifying EMS Evacuation routes Staging areas Fire departments/EMS systems preplan responses to areas of potential hazards

17 Notification of Medical Emergencies
Police department, fire department or other EMS providers receive the call Lifeguards, ski patrol members or athletic trainers may already be at scene

18 Responding to the Call Gather medical equipment and go to scene
Respond in the appropriate vehicle Fire, police and rescue personnel have vehicles equipped with necessary warning equipment If private vehicle, obey all traffic laws and signs

19 10 Components of EMS Systems
Regulation and policy Resource management Human resources and training Transportation Facilities

20 10 Components of EMS Systems (continued)
Communications Public information and education Medical oversight Trauma systems Evaluation

21 EMS Professionals Dispatcher EMR EMT Paramedic Medical Director

22 Dispatcher Called an Emergency Medical Dispatcher (EMD) or dispatch
Receives most calls Located in law enforcement agency, fire station or other site Trained to obtain information and determine what personnel and equipment are needed Sends appropriate EMS unit(s) to the scene

23 Emergency Medical Responder (EMR)
Previously called a first responder Usually first person to arrive at emergency Takes over care of patient from those giving first aid Gathers information concerning the patient Controls scene Prepares for arrival of ambulance Provides care until more advanced professionals arrive

24 EMTs and Paramedics Arrive in ambulance equipped for basic or advanced life support Take over care and transport patient for definitive medical care EMTs with different levels of training perform different medical treatments Paramedics have highest level of training

25 Medical Director Physician within EMS system oversees EMRs and EMTs
Establishes protocols for medical care Available for consultation by radio or telephone

26 Categories of Emergency Medical Responders’ Responsibilities
General responsibilities Patient care responsibilities Responsibilities at the scene Personal responsibilities and characteristics

27 General Responsibilities
Maintain readiness of emergency equipment Respond in safe, rapid manner Maintain personal safety If emergency requires special personnel or equipment, contact EMS Gain access to patient Give care to the patient Document emergency and actions to meet local recordkeeping requirements Maintain good community relations

28 Patient Care Responsibilities
Give care needed for life-threatening problems Activate EMS system Further assess patient to detect medical problems and life threats Provide care, remain with patient Assist other EMS personnel as needed Provide emotional support to patient, family members or others at scene Maintain the patient’s privacy and confidentiality

29 Responsibilities at the Scene
Identify safety issues, determine number of patients, determine resources needed It may be necessary to access patient Maintain safety of self, patient and others at scene Assist personnel as required or requested

30 Responsibilities at the Scene (continued)
Cooperate with other public safety workers Other responsibilities may include: Assist in directing traffic Summon other appropriate help Control, direct or ask bystanders for help Other responsibilities as dictated by your job or specific EMS system

31 Personal Responsibilities and Characteristics
Maintain a caring and professional attitude Respect all patients, family Maintain composure Maintain a professional appearance Maintain personal fitness and health

32 Medical Oversight Responsibility of physician overseeing prehospital emergency care Medical director leads response team and decides how care is delivered Includes direct and indirect medical control

33 Direct Medical Control
Medical director involved by instructing prehospital care providers Medical director stays in contact with care providers Medical director can authorize specific patient treatment outside of standard protocols

34 Indirect Medical Control
Refers to offline direction provided by the medical director Medical director responsible for developing protocols Includes EMS system design, standards of training and quality assurance programs

35 Legal Responsibility of Medical Director
In many states, EMRs function under guidance and control of medical director EMRs generally considered agents of the medical director

36 EMR Education and Training
Training in accordance with state’s EMS office, if applicable Preparation begins with training and continues Keep your skills and knowledge up to date Infrequently used skills should be practiced Attend continuing education programs and refresher training Read professional publications Maintain a current knowledge of issues affecting EMS

37 Quality Improvement Process to monitor and evaluate quality of prehospital patient care Goal is to make improvements wherever possible and correct any problems  never to blame or punish Formal quality improvement programs vary among states and localities EMRs may participate in quality improvement programs by helping collect data or other activities

38 Quality Improvement (continued)
Help minimize the chance of errors occurring: Be thoughtful as you provide care Do not make assumptions about patient’s condition Use a pocket reference guide or other materials to remember information Never hesitate to ask others in the EMS system for help Debrief every call and your actions, thinking about whether you might do anything differently next time

39 Research in EMS EMS system advances based on scientific research and quality improvement research EMR skills based on the most current research EMRs may participate in a research study Your participation helps ensure patients receive best possible care

40 Public Health Government programs to improve the health of citizens
Focus is to promote good health and prevent disease EMS has a critical role in health promotion and the prevention of injury and illness Functions include education and communication

41 Public Health (continued)
Examples of health promotion, illness and injury prevention: Primary prevention: preventing disease by encouraging recommended vaccinations and educating about good health practices Secondary prevention: reducing the complications or progression of disease Disease surveillance: documenting information related to epidemics of disease Injury prevention

42 Public Health – Injury Prevention
Using safety equipment Educating others about the importance of: Using car seats for infants and young children Using seat belts and shoulder straps in vehicles Wearing a helmet on bicycles and in sports activities Not driving under the influence of alcohol or other drugs Using safety practices to prevent falls, fires and burns, drowning, and poisoning


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