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© 2011 National Safety Council 1-1 INTRODUCTION TO THE EMS SYSTEM LESSON 1
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-2 Introduction Emergency Medical Responders (EMRs) are an essential part of Emergency Medical System (EMS) system First trained persons to reach ill or injured patient Individual summoned to provide care in an emergency Professional duty to respond and provide emergency care Usually have access to supplies and equipment for providing initial care
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-3 Examples of Occupations of EMRs Law enforcement personnel Firefighters Industrial safety officers Prison guards Lifeguards Daycare attendants Athletic trainers Ski patrol members Civil defense personnel Disaster team members
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-4 Medical Emergencies Situation where person suddenly needs medical care Often person is injured or experiences sudden illness May be life threatening
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-5 United States Medical Emergency Statistics Heart disease results in about 616,000 deaths a year More than 1,250,000 heart attacks occur each year, resulting in over 132,000 deaths About 795,000 people a year have a stroke, resulting in about 136,000 deaths About 128,200 people a year die from unintentional injuries About 39 million visits a year are made to emergency departments because of injuries
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-6 Sudden Illness Medical conditions that occur suddenly Person with non-emergency chronic illness may suddenly experience an emergency
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-7 Common Causes of Injuries Treated in Emergency Departments (Annual) Falls – 8,551,037 Struck by or against object – 4,492,287 Overexertion – 3,278,300 Motor vehicle occupants – 2,581,605 Cut or pierced by object – 2,072,604 Bites and stings (other than dog bites) – 993,923 Poisoning (including drug overdose) – 732,316
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-8 Unintentional Injuries Causing Deaths Poisoning (including drug overdose) accounts for most accidental injury deaths Followed by motor vehicle crashes, falls, choking, drowning, fire and smoke, and other injuries in the home, public places, and work Injuries may strike at any time EMRs provide care until patient receives advanced help
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-9 Delivery of Prehospital Emergency Medical Care Fire department Hospital-based or volunteer system Private ambulance and Emergency Medical Services (EMS)
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-10 Emergency Medical Services System Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Act of 1973 established nationwide system Sophisticated network of services Single call for help initiates responses to rush care to patient Accessing EMS Activated when someone calls or another local number Most communities have a centralized system calls reach dispatcher who then sends resources to scene
© 2011 National Safety Council Systems Callers identify name, location and phone number Enhanced systems automatically provide dispatcher with callers phone number/location for landlines Caller may need to specify exact location With cellular calls, callers location is unknown
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-12 Steps of EMS Response to Emergencies 1.Medical emergency occurs 2.Emergency recognized/EMS is activated 3.Citizen responder may give first aid/CPR on scene if trained 4.EMRs arrive and provide care 5.EMTs/Paramedics arrive and assume care 6.EMTs continue care measures begun by EMRs 7.Following stabilization and care, patient transported to hospital emergency department or specialty facility 8.Patient transferred to in-hospital emergency care team
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-13 Response of EMRs Sent to scene by dispatcher after a citizen has activated EMS If on scene, initiate call to dispatcher to activate EMS Ensure EMS has been activated in all situations
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-14 Types of Facilities Receiving Patients Hospital emergency departments Specialty facilities: -Trauma centers -Burn centers -Pediatric centers -Perinatal centers -Cancer/Oncology centers
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-15 Preparation of Equipment and Personnel Equipment used must be clean, complete and readily available for use Frequent checks of equipment and supplies: -All equipment safe and in good working order -Dated supplies checked and replaced before expiration -Oxygen cylinders kept full -Automated External Defibrillators (AED) charged and in working order -Dressings and bandages replaced as soon as they are used
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-16 Preplanning Preparing a plan in anticipation of different emergencies Many industrial plants have plans for response that identify: -Key personnel -Locations of supplies -Mechanism for notifying EMS -Evacuation routes -Staging areas Fire departments/EMS systems preplan responses to areas of potential hazards
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-17 Notification of Medical Emergencies Police department, fire department or other EMS providers receive the call Lifeguards, ski patrol members or athletic trainers may already be at scene
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-18 Responding to the Call Gather medical equipment and go to scene Respond in the appropriate vehicle Fire, police and rescue personnel have vehicles equipped with necessary warning equipment If private vehicle, obey all traffic laws and signs
© 2011 National Safety Council Components of EMS Systems 1.Regulation and policy 2.Resource management 3.Human resources and training 4.Transportation 5.Facilities
© 2011 National Safety Council Communications 7.Public information and education 8.Medical oversight 9.Trauma systems 10.Evaluation 10 Components of EMS Systems (continued)
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-21 Dispatcher EMR EMT Paramedic Medical Director EMS Professionals
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-22 Dispatcher Called an Emergency Medical Dispatcher (EMD) or dispatch Receives most calls Located in law enforcement agency, fire station or other site Trained to obtain information and determine what personnel and equipment are needed Sends appropriate EMS unit(s) to the scene
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-23 Emergency Medical Responder (EMR) Previously called a first responder Usually first person to arrive at emergency Takes over care of patient from those giving first aid Gathers information concerning the patient Controls scene Prepares for arrival of ambulance Provides care until more advanced professionals arrive
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-24 EMTs and Paramedics Arrive in ambulance equipped for basic or advanced life support Take over care and transport patient for definitive medical care EMTs with different levels of training perform different medical treatments Paramedics have highest level of training
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-25 Medical Director Physician within EMS system oversees EMRs and EMTs Establishes protocols for medical care Available for consultation by radio or telephone
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-26 Categories of Emergency Medical Responders Responsibilities General responsibilities Patient care responsibilities Responsibilities at the scene Personal responsibilities and characteristics
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-27 General Responsibilities 1.Maintain readiness of emergency equipment 2.Respond in safe, rapid manner 3.Maintain personal safety 4.If emergency requires special personnel or equipment, contact EMS 5.Gain access to patient 6.Give care to the patient 7.Document emergency and actions to meet local recordkeeping requirements 8.Maintain good community relations
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-28 Patient Care Responsibilities 1.Give care needed for life-threatening problems 2.Activate EMS system 3.Further assess patient to detect medical problems and life threats 4.Provide care, remain with patient 5.Assist other EMS personnel as needed 6.Provide emotional support to patient, family members or others at scene 7.Maintain the patients privacy and confidentiality
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-29 Responsibilities at the Scene 1.Identify safety issues, determine number of patients, determine resources needed 2.It may be necessary to access patient 3.Maintain safety of self, patient and others at scene 4.Assist personnel as required or requested
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-30 Responsibilities at the Scene (continued) 5.Cooperate with other public safety workers 6.Other responsibilities may include: -Assist in directing traffic -Summon other appropriate help -Control, direct or ask bystanders for help -Other responsibilities as dictated by your job or specific EMS system
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-31 Personal Responsibilities and Characteristics Maintain a caring and professional attitude Respect all patients, family Maintain composure Maintain a professional appearance Maintain personal fitness and health
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-32 Medical Oversight Responsibility of physician overseeing prehospital emergency care Medical director leads response team and decides how care is delivered Includes direct and indirect medical control
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-33 Direct Medical Control Medical director involved by instructing prehospital care providers Medical director stays in contact with care providers Medical director can authorize specific patient treatment outside of standard protocols
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-34 Indirect Medical Control Refers to offline direction provided by the medical director Medical director responsible for developing protocols Includes EMS system design, standards of training and quality assurance programs
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-35 Legal Responsibility of Medical Director In many states, EMRs function under guidance and control of medical director EMRs generally considered agents of the medical director
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-36 EMR Education and Training Training in accordance with states EMS office, if applicable Preparation begins with training and continues Keep your skills and knowledge up to date Infrequently used skills should be practiced Attend continuing education programs and refresher training Read professional publications Maintain a current knowledge of issues affecting EMS
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-37 Quality Improvement Process to monitor and evaluate quality of prehospital patient care Goal is to make improvements wherever possible and correct any problems never to blame or punish Formal quality improvement programs vary among states and localities EMRs may participate in quality improvement programs by helping collect data or other activities
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-38 Quality Improvement (continued) Help minimize the chance of errors occurring: Be thoughtful as you provide care Do not make assumptions about patients condition Use a pocket reference guide or other materials to remember information Never hesitate to ask others in the EMS system for help Debrief every call and your actions, thinking about whether you might do anything differently next time
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-39 Research in EMS EMS system advances based on scientific research and quality improvement research EMR skills based on the most current research EMRs may participate in a research study Your participation helps ensure patients receive best possible care
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-40 Public Health Government programs to improve the health of citizens Focus is to promote good health and prevent disease EMS has a critical role in health promotion and the prevention of injury and illness Functions include education and communication
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-41 Public Health (continued) Examples of health promotion, illness and injury prevention: Primary prevention: preventing disease by encouraging recommended vaccinations and educating about good health practices Secondary prevention: reducing the complications or progression of disease Disease surveillance: documenting information related to epidemics of disease Injury prevention
© 2011 National Safety Council 1-42 Public Health – Injury Prevention Using safety equipment Educating others about the importance of: -Using car seats for infants and young children -Using seat belts and shoulder straps in vehicles -Wearing a helmet on bicycles and in sports activities -Not driving under the influence of alcohol or other drugs -Using safety practices to prevent falls, fires and burns, drowning, and poisoning
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