Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 2: Nonexperimental Research Approaches This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2: Nonexperimental Research Approaches This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2: Nonexperimental Research Approaches This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program

2 Introduction Ways of categorizing research approaches –Experimental versus descriptive Experimental identifies cause and effect Descriptive describes some phenomenon –Quantitative versus qualitative Quantitative collects numerical data Qualitative collects non-numerical data like pictures, clothing worn, interview statements

3 Nonexperimental Quantitative Research Primary characteristicgives a description or picture of a phenomenon Types –Correlational –Ex post facto –Longitudinal and cross-sectional –Survey –Meta Analysis

4 Correlational Study Measures degree of relationship between two variables Used for prediction Limitation –cannot identify causality –third variable problem Correlation between two variables due to some third variable

5 Ex Post Facto Study Characteristic-variables of interest are not subject to direct manipulation –uses individual difference variables variables on which individuals naturally differ Design-compare behavior of people who differ on the variable of interest Weaknessis correlational type of study –Has third variable problem

6 Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Study Longitudinalfollow participants over time and measure behavior at selected time intervals Cross-SectionalAssess groups of participants that differ on some characteristic often at the same point in time –Problem----age-cohort effect Cohort-sequential designsuggested as an alternative to the cross-sectional design –Uses overlapping age groups to eliminate the age-cohort effect

7 Naturalistic Observation Collect data on naturally occurring behavior Primary characteristics –Unobtrusiveness –Natural setting Weaknessdifficult to identify causal relationships

8 Meta Analysis Used to integrate and describe large number of studies Types of Meta-Analytic techniques –Determine if overall significance exists –Determine size of the treatment effect

9 Survey Used to identify a specific state of affairs Methods of data collection –Face-to-face or personal interview –Telephone interview –Mail out questionnaires –Electronic survey survey Web based surveys –Pop-up survey is recent addition

10 –Advantages of electronic surveys Cost Instant access Wide audience Download to spreadsheet Flexible in layoutespecially web-based survey –Disadvantages of electronic surveys Privacy and anonymity –Which type to use Web-based if goal is to sample a wide audience if goal is to target a specific audience if rapid response is needed

11 Question construction –Type of question Open and close-ended questions –Question wording avoid ambiguous and double-barreled questions –Ordering of the questionspositive ones first –Question lengthbest if it is short Response bias –Social desirability bias –Response set Obtaining participants –Haphazard sample –Random sample

12 Qualitative Research Definition –Interpretative –Multimethod –Conducted in field or natural setting Issue in qualitative researchthe accuracy of the data collected

13 Phenomenology Definitiondescription of conscious experience of phenomenon Primary method of data collection--in-depth interviews Analysis of interview data –Extract phrases and statement that pertain to phenomenon –Interpret and give meaning to phrases and statements –Write narrative describing the phenomenon

14 Ethnography Definitiondescription and interpretation of culture of group of people Cultures can be micro or macro Primary data collection method--participant observation –Requires entry and acceptance by group –Must guard against reactive effect –Collect information by observing and listening Data analysis –Identify themes and patterns of behavior –Write narrative report

15 Case Study Definitionintensive description and analysis of a person, organization or event Types of case studies –Intrinsic case study –Instrumental case study –Collective case study


Download ppt "Chapter 2: Nonexperimental Research Approaches This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google