Presentation on theme: "1.00 Examine the role of hardware and software."— Presentation transcript:
1 1.00 Examine the role of hardware and software. A. Computer Basics1.00 Examine the role of hardware and software.Unit Objectives:
2 What Is A Computer?An electronic device that receives data, processes data, stores data, and produces a result (output).A collection of electronic circuits, which can be on or off (open or closed).These two states of the circuit are represented by two digits, 0 and 1.Called the binary systemCombining bits (0 and 1), you can represent any character or number.
3 Benefits of Using Computers Error-free calculationsSpeedFlexibilityStorageConsistency and repetition
4 What Is A Computer System? Software: the intangible set of instructions that tells the computer what to do; know as programs or software programs.Two types: application and system software programsData: information entered into the computer to be processed, which consists of the following:Text, numbers, sounds, and imagesPeople: the users of the computers who enter the data and use the output.Hardware: the tangible, physical equipment that can be seen and touched such as:Computer CaseMonitorKeyboard and MouseDisk DriveSpeakers
5 Types of Computers Supercomputer: most powerful Used to do things like predict hurricanes and navigate satellitesMainframes and minicomputers: used by business and government to process large amounts of informationPersonal computers: smaller and less powerful than the other types of computers
6 Personal Computers Desktop computer: designed to be used on a desktop. Notebook/Tablet computer: designed to be used on a desktop but still small enough to be portable.Laptop computer: designed to be small enough and light enough to be used on your lap.
7 Additional Types of Computers PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants): a handheld device that is often used in conjunction with a desktop or other PC.May have a special keyboard, some usea pen or stylus for entering data- Data can be transferred to a desktop or laptop computerWeb TV: provides easy access to the Internet without having to have a traditional computer.Enables you to connect to the Internet and usually includes a keyboard or other device for entering and selecting data.
8 Data CommunicationsThe technology that enables computers to communicateThe transmission of text, numeric, voice or video data from one machine to another.Popular examples:Internet, electronic messages ( ), faxes, and electronic or online bankingFour components:Sender: the computer that is sending the message.Receiver: the computer receiving the message.Channel: the media that carries or transports the message. (telephone wire, coaxial cable, microwave signal, or fiber optic)Protocol: the rules that govern the orderly transfer of the data sent.
9 Data CommunicationsNetwork: when computers are connected to other computersThey can share information and sometimes hardware (printers)Local Area Networks (LAN): computers connected together in a relatively close location such as in the same building or department.The data and software for these computers are stored on a central computer called the file server.Wide Area Networks (WAN): when local area networks are expanded to include several local area networks within a city, state, region, territory, country, continent, or the world.
10 System ComponentsCentral Processing Unit (CPU): the microprocessor, the brains of the computer.Housed on a tiny silicon chipChip contains millions of switches and pathways that help your computer make important decisions.CPU knows which switches to turn on and which to turn off because it receives its instructions from computer programs (software).CPU has two primary sections:Arithmetic/logic unitControl unitArithmetic/logic unit (ALU): performs arithmetic computations and logical operations; by combining these two operations the ALU can execute complex tasks.Arithmetic operations include addition, subtractions, multiplication, and division.Logical operations involve comparisons.Control Unit: is the “boss” and coordinates all of the CPU’s activities.Uses programming instructions, it controls the flow of information through the processor by controlling what happens inside the processor.We communicate with the computer through programming languages.COBOL, C++, or VisualBasic.net, HTML, Java Script for example.
11 System ComponentsMemory: found on the motherboard; short term and long term.Random Access Memory (RAM): memory on the motherboard that is short term; where data, information, and program instructions are stored temporarily on a RAM chip or a set of RAM chips.When the computer is turned off or if there is loss of power, what ever is stored in RAM disappears.This memory know as the main memory and is considered volatile.The computer can read from and write to RAM.Read-Only Memory (ROM): memory on the motherboard that is long term; where the specific instructions that are needed for the computer to operate are stored.This memory is nonvolatile and your computer can only read from a ROM chip.The instructions remain on the chip regardless if the power is turned on or off.Most common is the BIOS ROM; where the computer uses instructions contained on this chip to boot or start the system when you turn on your computer.
12 System ComponentsBasic Controllers: on the motherboard, a device that controls the transfer of data from the computer to a peripheral device and vice versa.Examples: keyboards, mouse, monitors, and printers.Generally stored on one single chip.Serial and Parallel Ports: used to connect our peripheral devices to the computer; usually one serial and one parallel port on a computer.Serial devices transmit data one bit at a time.A modem may be connected to this port.Parallel devices transfer several bits at a time.A printer may be connected to this port.
13 System ComponentsUniversal Serial Bus (USB): a new standard that supports data transfer rates of up to 12 million bits per second.A single USB port can be used to connect up to 127 peripheral devicesExpected to replace serial and parallel ports in the near future.Expansion Slots: an opening on the motherboard where a circuit board or expansion board can be inserted.Examples: Additional Memory, video cards, modem cards, and sound cards.
14 How Does A Computer Process Data? PC system case – the metal and plastic case that houses the main system components of the computer.Central to all of this is the motherboard or system board that mounts into the case.Motherboard: is a circuit board (a thin plate or board that contains electronic components) that contains many integral components.
15 Data RepresentationASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange): the most popular and widely used standardized coding systemByte: eight bits or combinations of ones and zeros represent a character.MB-Megabyte or roughly 1 million bytesGB-Gigabyte or roughly one billion bytes
16 Input, Output, & Storage Devices Input device: hardware that allows you to communicate with your computer.Output device: hardware that allows your computer to communicate with the userStorage device: allows you to store or retrieve information
18 Computer Output Devices Monitor: screen that display information such as text, numbers, and pictures.softcopyPrinter: gives you information from the computer in printed form.HardcopySpeakers: allow you to hear voice, music, and other sounds from your computer.Modem: allows you to use your computer to communicate with other computers.
19 Three Types of Printers Dot MatrixGives a printed image in a pattern (matrix) of tiny ink dots.Less expensive and not as clearInkjet PrinterBetter quality of printed documentMachine uses an ink cartridge and a printing element to print a finer image on the paper.LaserBest quality of printed documentsLaser beam and an ink toner cartridge are used to produce the images.More expensiveQuick
20 Storage DevicesMagnetic storage devices use oxide-coated plastic storage media called mylar.As the disk rotates in the computer, an electromagnetic read/write head stores or retrieves data in circles called tracks.Tracks are numbered from the outside to the inside and as data is stored on the disk it is stored on one of these numbered track.Each track is labeled and the location is stored in a log on the disk known as a file allocation table (FAT).
21 Types of Storage Devices Hard Disk Drive: used to store data inside of the computer.Magnetic platter that holds a large amount of information in a form the computer can understand.Accessing data is fasterAmount of data that can be stored is much more than what can be stored on a floppy disk.Size of Hard drive is measured in megabytes or gigabytes.
22 Types of Storage Devices Floppy Disk: flat circles of iron oxide-coated plastic enclosed in a hard plastic case.Most are 3 ½ inches and have a capacity to hold 1.44 MB or more of data.Zip Disk: capable of storing tremendous amounts of information- They are only the size of a 3 inch disk but can hold as much as 1 gigabyte of data
23 Types of Storage Devices Magnetic Tape Drives: used for making backup copies of large volumes of data.Very slowCan be used to replace data that may have been lost on the hard drivelook similar to audio tapes.Holds more than FloppyOptical discs: use laser technology to read and write data on silver platters.CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read-Only Memory) can store up to 800MB of information/data.You can only read data from a CDYou can store data on a CD only if you have a CD Burner and writable CDs (CD-R or recordable CD-ROM)DVD (Digital Versatile Disk) is the size of a regular CD and can be played in a regular CD or in a DVD movie player.
24 Systems SoftwareA group of programs that coordinate and control the resources and operations of a computer system.Enables all components of the computer system to communicate.Operating System (OS): provide an interface between the user or application program and the computer hardware.Win 95/98/2000Mac System 6/7Utility programs: help you perform housekeeping chores; complete specialized tasks related to managing the computer’s resources, file management, and so on.GUI (graphical user interface): graphical symbols (icons) represent files, disks,programs, and other objects.
25 Application SoftwarePrograms that work with the OS software to help you use your computer to do specific types of work.Categories:BusinessCommunicationsGraphics and MultimediaEducation and ReferenceEntertainment and LeisureIntegrated Programs
26 Business Software Database Word Processing Lets you set up an electronic filing systemsEnter text and numbersFind, search, and printer info in different waysAddress book, Card CatalogWord Processingprogram that allows you to create, edit, and print text documentsReport, flyer, memoSpreadsheetNumbered Rows and Lettered ColumnsIntersection of them = cellGrade book, financial info
27 Software Communications Graphics Software Works with your modems or network hardware and allows your computer to communicate with other computers.Exchange computer files andGraphics SoftwareUses pictures or images to help communicate messages.Multimedia: combines text, graphics, animation, video, and audio.Clip art: graphical images to be added to documentsDesktop Publishing: uses both pictures and words to give you the ability to create documentsNewsletters and brochures
28 Software Entertainment & Leisure Education & Reference Fun Games and simulationsTests your skillsinteractiveEducation & ReferenceAvailable on many topicsHelpEasierQuickerExamples: AR, Encyclopedia, etc.
29 Integrated SoftwareCombine several software applications into one program.Include:Work ProcessingSpreadsheetDatabaseCommunicationExamples:MS WorksMS OFFICELotus SmartSuite
30 Proper Computer CareKeep food and drinks away from the computer and keyboard.Avoid dusty locations.Use a surge protector.Keep magnets Away.Do not block vents on the CPU.Avoid bright sunny locations.Do not move the computer while it is in use.Always exit programs properly.Use a virus check program on a regular basis.
31 Proper Diskette CareDo not remove from drives while drive in running or light is on.Avoid contact with magnets and electromagnetic fields.Keep disks stored in a clean, cool and dry place with a protective cover.Keep protective metal slider in place.Use a virus check program on a regular basis.Avoid hot and cold locations.Make a back-up copy of your programs and files.
32 Proper CD ROM CareKeep CDs stored in a clean, cool and dry place with a protective cover.Avoid touching the back side of the CD; to avoid scratches.Avoid hot and cold locations.Make a back-up copy of your programs and files.Insert into CD ROM Drive properly; label facing up.Only write on CD’s with a CD Marking Pen on a label or the correct side of the CD.
33 Proper Care of Printers Avoid cold, hot, and dusty locations.Always use the correct ink or toner replacement.Always have the proper printer cable connected to your computer.Never pull paper out of a printer in motion.Do not turn off the printer while printing.Read the instruction manual before operating a printer.Always use the proper type of paper in your printer.
34 How to Maintain your Computer System Start a notebook of information on your system.Serial numbersVendor support telephone numbersUser IDsDate and vendor for each equipment and software purchase.Trouble logPeriodically review disk directories and delete unneeded files.Make sure all plug-ins are secure at all times.Turn off the power and disconnect the equipment form the power source before you open the inside of you computer.Keep surrounding area dirt and dust free.Back up files and data regularly.Periodically defragment your hard disk.Protect your system from computer virusesLearn to use system diagnostic programs
35 ErgonomicsThe science of designing equipment for a comfortable and safe working environment.Proper Computer ErgonomicsSit up straight and lean forward slightly from the waist.Keep your feet flat on the floor.Your body should be about a hand’s length from the front of the keyboard and centered with the keyboard.Keep your fingers on the home row keys and curved.Keep your wrists up, not touching the keyboard or desk.Focus your eyes on the book, copy or screen.Place all materials you will type on the right side of the computer and supplies on the left side.Keep any items you are not using off your desk.Occasionally rest your eyes and take short breaks.Avoid lights that cause glare on the monitor.