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The next challenge Efficient and Effective Mixed- and multi- mode research Tim Macer, meaning limited, London, UK Presented at the Dutch Market Research.

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Presentation on theme: "The next challenge Efficient and Effective Mixed- and multi- mode research Tim Macer, meaning limited, London, UK Presented at the Dutch Market Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 The next challenge Efficient and Effective Mixed- and multi- mode research Tim Macer, meaning limited, London, UK Presented at the Dutch Market Research Association Annual Conference, Rotterdam, Netherlands 6 & 7 November 2003

2 Agenda 1. The Rise of Multiple modes 2. The Issues 3. Technical framework 4. Survival guide

3 1. The Rise of Multiple Modes

4 OMR scanning Face-to-face Telephone CATI TCASI (IVR) MCAPI CAPI CASI OCR scanning WAP Evolution of todays survey modes Technology independent Technology based Disk by mail Time line CAWI

5 The rise of multiple modes In USA, Web surveys are the undisputed replacement for paper-based mail surveys* Response rates falling One size fits all model does not work in international research Case studies showing that mixing modes can Achieve a better response Remain scientifically valid *Source: RS Owen in Quirks magazine, Feb 2002, p.24-26

6 What do we mean by multi-mode? Multi-mode Surveys utilizing more than one research channel to reach different sub-samples, but confining each sub-sample to one channel Mixed mode Serial Surveys that involve successive interviewing stages, each utilizing a different mode Parallel Surveys that allows participants to choose the mode and even to switch modes LEVEL OF DIFFICULTY

7 Mixing Modes: some examples Multi-country studies Web in USA CATI in EU countries CAPI or paper in India Let respondent choose Contact by phone Continue by phone or web In parallel In serial

8 The multi-mode bandwagon Modes supported Product choice (42 packages) Source: Research Guide to Software 2003

9 Multi-mode: the challenge Survey organizations, whether they are in universities like mine, in private- sector organizations or in government organizations, are going to have to change dramatically in some ways in order to do effective surveys as we bring these new technologies online and still use our other technologies where they work. Don Dillman, Washington State University

10 2. The issues What are the problems? How can these be resolved?

11 The three types of modal issues Calibration The risk of differential measurement error due to modal effect on the respondent Coverage Sampling issuesrisk of differential non-response from sub-samples for each mode Complexity Duplication of operational and programming effort in addressing more than one mode Increased cost, delays and errors from this duplication

12 Calibration issues Don Dillman Total Design Method in 1978 to achieve consistency between phone and mail surveys Revised in 1999 to take into account Internet surveys Examined response rate measurement differences in experimental trials Dillmans conclusions There are observable and systematic differences Disadvantages outweighed by overall improvement in sample coverage, response, time and cost Source: Dillman et al, paper at AAPOR Conference, Montreal, 2001

13 Source: Paper at ESOMAR Technovate, Cannes, 2003 Modal influence: calibration or coverage? Oosterveld and Willems Another experimental research design mixed CATI/Web surveys Aimed to separate modal effect from population effect

14 Source: Paper at ESOMAR Technovate, Cannes, 2003 Modal influence: calibration or coverage? Oosterveld and Willems Another experimental research design mixed CATI/Web surveys Research design separated modal effect from population effect Their conclusions The majority of differences reported in previous studies between Web and paper can be explained by population difference, not intrinsic modal effects Mixed mode studies can be designed to have no influence on the answers

15 Source: Quirks magazine, July/Aug 2002, p20 Mode switching to improve coverage Allison & OKonis Mixed Web/CATI survey of online financial services Initial approach by CATI or Web with option to switch 88% of CATI respondents agreed to a continue their interview on the web 54% of them went on to complete Different modes gave highly similar responses Their conclusions Switching modes does increase response rate But, provided that the switch is done immediately: tomorrow is too late

16 Modal influences observed Presentational influences Ganassali and Moscarola have measured increased responses when relevant visual clues presented in web interviews

17 Modal influences observed The moderating effect of the interviewer Noted by Poynter and Comely amongst others Can lead to under-reporting, especially of socially unacceptable responses After: Poynter & Comely, Beyond Online Panels, ESOMAR Technovate 2003 With interviewerOnline Using a mobile phone whilst driving: claimed level of usage Rarely Sometimes Often

18 Open-ended responses Oosterveld and Willems Observed longer and more detailed verbatim response on the web than phone Allison and OKonis Observed great similarity for for phone and web However, population was one with high internet penetration Noted some content differences e.g on technographic subjects which they attributed to population effect

19 Scale questions Humphrey Taylor (2000) Observed a tendency for respondents to answer scale questions differently on the web Dillman et al (2001) Characterised differences between CATI and CAWI on anchored scale questions (1=strongly agree etc) CATI respondents favors the extremes CAWI significantly more likely to use the entire scale Bäckström and Nilsson (2003) Observed the same tendency between self completion on paper and web More research required

20 Differences in dont knows Hogg More answers recorded as Dont know or No answer in Web surveys than same survey when interviewer-led in CATI Recommends omitting explicit DK/NA categories in version displayed on the Internet Source: Quirks magazine, July/Aug 2002, p90

21 Population effects Non-response (non-participation) Don Dillman and others observed greater tendency for males not to participate in CATI and females in Web surveys Population effects are also influential in… Open-ended responses Rating scales Possibly more (Oosterveld & Willems)

22 Operational complexity issues Different recruitment and screening Cant always approach by same mode Duplication of the survey instrument Complete duplication of effort may be required Problems managing multiple versions Data Handling Need data in one place in one format Problems mixing online and offline modes Mode switching Must be fast if response rate to be improved Mode-appropriate texts

23 3. Technical framework How should technology be supporting mixed mode research? What are the software developers doing to provide this support?

24 1.Common survey authoring tool across all modes 2.Independence of design and execution 3.Mode specific texts (not through foreign languages) 4.One common, central database for all modes 5.Auto-determine contact mode from sample 6.Efficient mode switching 7.Concealment of previous data when switching to self-com. 8.Reminders and auto-revert to previous mode 9.Single view management & reporting tools across all modes 10.Quotas that operate across all modes 11.Question constructs that recognise different modes 12.Recording of mode at datum not case level Framework for the ideal MM system

25 Suppliers contacted Askia Mercatorsnap MI ProMI Pro Research Studio NebuDub Interviewer Opinion OneCAVI Pulse TrainBellview FusionSphinx SPSS MRDimensions

26 Who supports what? AskiasnapMI ProNebuCAVI Pulse TrainSphinx SPSS MR CATIFull Part CATI light Full PartFull Part CAPIFull SoonFullPartFull CAWIFull PaperPartFull SoonFull

27 The issuesaccording to the developers

28 Innovation: Calibration issues Reduction of modal influence Opinion One CAVI Totally consistent appearance for Web, CASI & CAPI Novel method for unaided questions in self- completion modes Sphinx Experimental approach Measurement of modal differences Pulse Train collect paradata on mode for each question

29 Innovation: Complexity issues Modal independent design SPSS MR Modal players Askia, MI Pro, Pulse Train, Nebu, SPSS MR Modal templates applied to same survey instrument Central database All apart from snap Wizards for importing offline data in Askia

30 Innovation: Complexity issues Mode switching Handled well in Askia, Pulse Train, Nebu and Opinion One despatched automatically in Opinion One Nebu recognises static and dynamic swaps Call me button in Pulse Train linked to dialler Recall of interviews into CATI mode in Askia, Nebu, Pulse Train Switching in and out of paper in MI Pro

31 Missing features Ability to cross-tab data by mode at a datum level Support for systematic removal of answers from modes, i.e. Dont Know and Not Stated from self-completion Up-stream sample management Support to simplify parallel screening Developers need to focus more on the calibration and coverage issues!

32 4. Mixed mode survival guide

33 Metadata standards can help MR slow to embrace standards to allow easy data transfer from system to system Most focus on the interchange of collected data, not survey instruments Standards allows the metadata to be transferred along with the data Examples of metadata include: Question type Unique question name Question texts and answer texts/codes Permitted ranges of values Routing or filtering context

34 Triple-s First published 1994 Originated in the UK but now implemented by 30 vendors worldwide Exchange data and metadata via exports and imports in a generalized format Version 1.1 introduced XML support New version 1.2 adds filters, weighting and multi- language support No metadata support for survey filtering or routing logic

35 SPSS Dimensions Data Model A new open (though proprietary) metadata model for survey data Can be licensed independently of all SPSS MR products (dont have to use SPSS software) Comes with a developers library of tools for building applications that will read or write data via the SPSS Data Model Many other software companies now providing support for the SPSS Data Model Metadata for survey data not survey routing and logic

36 QEDML New multi-platform survey authoring tool Exports scripting languages for several packages, including Quancept, Surveycraft and In2form XML based open system, allows other language translators to be added

37 Tips for multi-mode survey design Design your survey to be as mode neutral as possible Pay attention to rating scales Consider exclusion of Dont know/Not stated answers on self-completion modes Ensure you can identify the mode when analysing your data, at each question Standardise on the software, or at least, the data format

38 In summary Modal differences do exist, but can be overcome with careful design Issues relate to: Calibration, Coverage and Complexity Common survey authoring and a common results database improve MM efficiency Software manufacturers are largely focusing resolving complexity issues Better standards, especially for survey instrument metadata, are needed

39 Bibliography Allison J & OKonis C (2002) If Given the Choice, Quirks Marketing Research Review, July/August issue, p 20. Bäckström, C & Nilsson, C (2002) Mixed mode: Handling method differences between paper and web questionnaires, Dillman D A (1978) Mail and Telephone Surveys: The Total Design Method, Wiley Dillman D A, Phelps G, Tortora R, Swift K, Kohrell J & Berck J (2001) Response Rate Measurement Differences in Mixed Mode Surveys Using Mail, Telephone, Interactive Voice Response and the Internet, AAPOR Annual Conference, Montreal Ganassali S & Moscarola J (2002) Protocoles denquête et efficacité des sondages par Internet, Journées E-Marketing AFM/AIM Conference, Nantes, France Macer, T (2003) Research Software Review, The Market Research Society, London. Oosterveld, P & Williams P (2003) Two Modalities, One Answer. ESOMAR Technovate Conference, Cannes. Owen R S (2002) A Matter of Trade-offs: Examining the advantages and disadvantages of online surveys, Quirk.s Marketing Research Review, February, pp Poynter R and Comely P (2003) Beyond Online Panels. ESOMAR Technovate Conference, Cannes Taylor H (2000) Does Internet Research Work? Comparing online survey results with telephone survey, International Journal of the Market Research Society, 42.1


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