Presentation on theme: "Multitasking Across Generations Lyzette Blanco & Dr. Larry Rosen California State University, Dominguez Hills."— Presentation transcript:
Multitasking Across Generations Lyzette Blanco & Dr. Larry Rosen California State University, Dominguez Hills
Generations Net Generation (ages 11-28) Born after 1980 Generation X (ages 29-43) Born between 1965 and 1979 Baby Boomers (ages 44-62) Born between1946 and1964
Introduction Kaiser Family Foundation National Study (2006) of children and teens 8 to 18-years-old Children/Teens spend 6 hours and 21 minutes per day or 44 hours a week using digital media. When multitasking is taken into consideration the time increases to 8 hours 33 minutes a day or 60 hours per week using digital media.
Multitasking Websters Dictionary: The concurrent performance of several jobs by a computer.
STUDY 1 DEMOGRAPHICS GROUP SAMPLE SIZE MALES FEMALES AsianBlackWhite Latino/ a Net Generation (1980 +) Under 29 67842%-58%22%17%27%35% Generation X (1965-1979) 29-43 32943%-57%17%22%33%28% Baby Boomers (1946-1964) 44-62 31239%-61%7%21%52%21%
DAILY TECHNOLOGY AND MEDIA USAGE TECHNOLOGY HOURS/DAY NET GENERATION GENERATION XBABY BOOMERS Online2:311:581:14 On Computer2:082:321:41 E-Mail1:261:371:14 IM/Chat1:450:360:14 Telephone2:021:471:38 Texting2:201:070:28 Video Games1:080:310:13 Music3:332:351:44 Television2:372:122:25 TOTAL DAILY TECHNOLOGY USE 20:3814:557:51
TOTAL NUMBER OF TASKS DONE DURING FREE TIME
Multitasking With Free Time Top 5 Activities for Each Generation NET GENERATIONGENERATION XBABY BOOMERS Music (79%)Eating (78%)Eating (80%) Online (75%)Music (72%) TV (67%) Eating (74%)Online (68%)Music (64%) Texting (60%)TV (62%)Telephone (52%) E-Mail (60%)E-Mail (59%) Online (50%)
STUDY 1 RESULTS SUMMARY There is a difference in how much members of the three generations multitask during free time. During free time generation members multitask using different media devices. The tasks chosen require minimal amounts of working memory (e.g., eating, listening to music, etc.)
STUDY 2: PURPOSE To assess how much time members of each generation use a variety of technology and media. To assess how individuals within each generation multitask under three conditions: During Free Time While Studying for a Final Exam the Next Day While Preparing an Important Business Report that is Due the Next Day To assess whether the multiple tasks that are performed by the generations are similar or different in these three conditions.
Study 2 Demographics GROUP SAMPLE SIZE MALES FEMALES AsianBlackWhiteLatino/a Net Generation (1980 +) Under 29 53444% - 56%11%17%30%41% Generation X (1965-1979) 29 to 43 33944% - 56%7%21%34%38% Baby Boomers (1946-1964) 44 to 62 32841% - 59%9%23%36%32%
Daily Technology Use Among Generations TECHNOLOGY HOURS/DAY NET GENERATION GENERATION X BABY BOOMERS F-Score Online2:372:041:2041.62*** On Computer2:372:251:4412.76*** E-Mail1:411:561:284.84*** IM/Chat1:510:390:1874.14*** Telephone1:561:531:334.17* Texting2:491:230:2994.80*** Video Games1:010:330:1333.53*** Music3:562:281:4278.51*** Television2:322:202:382.01 TOTAL DAILY TECHNOLOGY USE 21:0115:4111:26 85.28***
MULTITASKING UNDER THREE CONDITIONS
TOP 5 TASKS MULTITASKING WITH FREE TIME NET GENERATIONGENERATION XBABY BOOMERS Music (79%) Eating (78%) Eating (80%) Online (75%) Music (72%)TV (67%) Eating (74%)Online (68%) Music (64%) Texting (60%)TV (62%)Telephone (52%) E-Mail (60%)E-Mail (59%) Online (50%) MANOVA RESULTS: Generation F(2, 1195) = 20.89, p<.001 Task x Generation F(22, 13145) = 12.97, p<.001
MULTITAKSING WHILE STUDYING FOR A FINAL EXAM NET GENERATION (N=392) GENERATION X (N=80) BABY BOOMERS (N=28) Music (57%) Eating (78%)Music (43%) Eating (52%) Music (36%) Computer (32%) Texting (38%) Computer(29%)Eating(29%) Computer (35%) Texting (16%)Online(18%) Online (30%)E-Mail (15%)E-Mail (18%) MANOVA RESULTS: Generation F(2, 494) = 7.57, p<.001 Task x Generation F(22, 5434) = 1.54, p=.054
MULTITASKING BY AN EMPLOYEE WRITING AN IMPORTANT REPORT NET GENERATION (N=345) GENERATION X (N=284) BABY BOOMERS (N=254) Music (52%)Music (42%)Music (34%) Eating (40%)Eating (33%)Eating (26%) Online (35%)Online (25%)Computer (21%) Texting (32%) Computer (25%) E-Mail (21%) Computer (28%) E-Mail (23%)Telephone (19%) MANOVA RESULTS: Generation F(2, 877) = 9.85, p<.001 Task x Generation F(22,9647) = 5.23, p<.001 [Pillais Trace]
SUMMARY & IMPLICATIONS Clearly, tasks that require more working memory allow less multitasking. This supports research by Konig et al. (2005) and Buhner et al. (2006) who found that working memory is the best predictor of multitasking performance Even with tasks that require more working memory, however, all groups multitask, just with a reduced number of tasks.
SUMMARY & IMPLICATIONS Multitasking with free time was directly related to generation with the Net Generation multitasking more than Gen X who in turn multitasked more than Baby Boomers. This replicates and validates work done by the Kaiser Family Foundation and Jeong & Fishbein (2007) that multitasking is directly related to age.
MORE IMPLICATIONS Each generation had similar and different tasks chosen for multitasking which are most likely related to their differential use of media (e.g., Net Generation kids use text messaging more than any other generation so that is one of their top 5 choices for multitasking). This validates earlier research (Carrier et al.; 2008) who found generational differences in ease or difficulty of multitasking
A DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUE According to research by Luciana et al. (2005), the maturation of the prefrontal cortex -- the part of the brain that controls executive control including multitasking – is not complete until 18 years of age.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX AND MULTITASKING A separate analysis of 62 subjects under 18 showed that they claimed to do an average of 6.47 tasks during free time compared to 6.23 for those Net Generation teens and young adults (18-29). Although this difference is not significant, it is of interest that the youngest subjects multitask the most in spite of an under- developed prefrontal cortex.
LIMITATIONS These studies did not measure multitasking performance, only self-reported multitasking under different conditions. Another study should be done to measure multitasking performance. A pilot study, replicating the dichotic listening studies by Cherry (1953) showed small, but consistent evidence of multitasking performance among 18-25 year olds and is being replicated and expanded to include subjects younger than 18.
Thanks to the following people who have been involved in this research: Dr. L. Mark Carrier, Associate Professor of Psychology Nancy Cheever, M.A., Assistant Professor of Communications Sandra Benitez, B.A. Heather Ruoti, B.A. Abraham Guttierez, B.A.