17Electric Power Early Attempts Edison’s Light bulb As the Industrial Age progressed in the late 1800s, one technology changed industry and daily life more than any other-electricity.Scientists interested in electricity for centuriesBen Franklin, 1700sMichael Faraday discovered magnetism, electricity connection 1831Dynamo powered electric motorSwan developed primitive lightbulb, 1860Early AttemptsFirst usable, practical lightbulb invented 1879Edison’s lightbulb came through trial and error and many hours of work in labOther inventions:GeneratorsMotorsLight socketsElectric power plantEdison’s Light bulb
19Effects on Industry and Daily Life Electric power transformed industry in Europe and the United StatesImproved industry in 3 significant waysFactories no longer had to rely on steam enginesFactories did not have to depend on waterways to power steam enginesFactories became less dependent on sunlight, increased productionImproved daily lifeCheaper, more convenient light source than gas, oilOther electrical devices soon created
20How did electricity change industry and daily life? AnalyzeHow did electricity change industry and daily life?
21How did electricity change industry and daily life? AnalyzeHow did electricity change industry and daily life?Answer(s): Factories no longer needed steam engines or water sources to power them; production increased; people could light their homes and businesses more safely and effectively with electric lighting.
22Advances in Transportation Boats on canals, rivers best for long-distance travel, in early 1800sWith development of efficient steam engines, trains replace boatsTrains could carry heavy loads, traveled faster than watercraftWorld’s first rail line, Britain 18303,000 miles of railroads, Eastern U.S. 1840Steam Powered TrainsBessemer process, forcing air through molten metal to burn out impurities, strengthen steelFactories increased production of locomotives, tracksStronger steel used to build bridges30,000 mile network of railroads linking major American cities, 1860New railroads helped grow cities in American WestImprovements in Steel
24Advances in Transportation Rail technology around the worldIndia’s first train, 1851First African railroad, Egypt 1852Trans-Siberian Railroad in Russia, world’s longest, 1891Travel and tradeExpansion of railroads increased marketsTrains moved huge loads efficiently, transportation costs declinedNew products became availableFood productsPerishable foods could get to market before spoilingFrozen beef shipped by rail from west to eastShoppers had more food choices
25Advances in Transportation SteamshipsSteamships changed ocean travelNot dependent on wind, could travel through any weatherU.S. steamship service began, west around South America to east, 1849Long distance movement of goods economically viable by 1870Passenger travel began shortly thereafterFirst attempts, Europe 1769Daimler and Benz developed practical automobilesEarly U.S. autos too expensiveHenry Ford built first affordable cars, mass production, 1908More roads than rail lines, 1915The AutomobileWilbur and Orville Wright flew first sustained powered flight, 1903Developed airplane over four yearsGlider-powered with internal combustion enginePaved the way for commercial, military airplanesThe Airplane
26Identifying Cause and Effect What effect did advances in transportation have on daily life?
27Identifying Cause and Effect What effect did advances in transportation have on daily life?Answer(s): better and faster means of transportation; made it possible to get more goods to market at lower costs, increasing consumers' choices
28“What hath God wrought?” Advances in CommunicationEarly 1800s CommunicationMuch slower than todayBoat, messenger on foot, horseback or carriageEntrepreneurs, inventors searched for faster waysThe TelegraphTelegraph invented, 1837Samuel Morse also invented a “language” for those messagesMessages transmitted as electrical pulses“What hath God wrought?”First telegraph message from Morse, 1844Telegraph wires between Washington D.C., BaltimoreNew era in communicationGrowth of TelegraphMuch of country linked by 1861Telegraph cable to Europe, 1866; to India, 1870Globalized personal and business communication
29Advances in Communication The TelephoneAlexander Graham Bell tried to create way to send multiple telegraph messages at same timeInvented telephone 1876“Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you.”Bell sent message to assistant from one room to anotherWatson heard message through receiverDemand for telephonesIncreased during 1880sThousands of miles of phone lines laid across U.S.Almost 1.5 million phones installed by 1900
30Advances in Communication The Radio and PhonographTelephone technology limited by length of wiresNew wireless technologyGuglielmo Marconi built wireless telegraph, 1895Radio first used as communication device for shipsLater used for entertainment and newsSound recording technologyThomas Edison invented phonographMusic became available to everyone
31How did the telegraph differ from the telephone? ContrastHow did the telegraph differ from the telephone?
32How did the telegraph differ from the telephone? ContrastHow did the telegraph differ from the telephone?Answer(s): telegraph transmitted coded messages; telephone transmitted voice