Presentation on theme: "The Growth of Industry Section: 1. Late 1700s saw establishment of textile mills in New England (Northeast US). By mid-1800s, factories spread to other."— Presentation transcript:
The Growth of Industry Section: 1
Late 1700s saw establishment of textile mills in New England (Northeast US). By mid-1800s, factories spread to other industries and regions. Several factors lead to high growth…
America has large supplies of forests, water, minerals, including coal, iron, copper, silver, and iron.
Early 1800s saw steamboats and canals improve transportation. Following Civil War, RR production boomed, making transportation of goods easier.
From 1860 to 1900, US population grew from 31.5 million to 76 million. This led to growing demand for goods, spurring industry and supply.
, 14 million people immigrated to US. Many knew specialized trades, such as metalworking.
New machines helped improve on processes. Inventors applied for patents: government document giving an inventor exclusive rights to make or sell his/her product.
Financial resources that have cash value. Factories, equipment, land, and machinery owned by business to produce goods and services. Human Capital
Capital (money) was provided to businesses by banks (hoping to share in the profits). Businesses used capital (borrowed money) to purchase equipment, factories, labor.
1. Plentiful Natural Resources 2. Improved Transportation (RR) 3. Growing Population 4. High Immigration 5. New Inventions 6. Investment Capital
Petroleum: Oily flammable liquid (1855). Edwin Drake begins drilling in 1859 & strikes oil in August. Launches oil industry
Pattern of ups (boom) & downs (bust) in the economy.
Good times (up swing) people buy more and invest more heavily. Bad times (down swing) people spend and invest less. Down swings (recessions) lead to higher unemployment rates, less goods produced, businesses may close.
When was the last time the US had a recession?
Prior to mid-1800s, steel was expensive due to process that used large amounts of coal. Henry Bessemer & William Kelly (1850s) come up with new design using less coal.
Bessemer steel process: increased steel output by 500 times Plows, barbed wire, nails, & beams for buildings now made out of steel instead of iron. Main use still for RRs.
1870s invention of the generator Generator: machine producing electric current
1876 opens laboratory, employing many assistants. Received over 1,000 patents Invents safe light bulb Invents system to deliver electric to buildings
Taught deaf students in Boston. Invents device to transmit speech using electricity. Receives patent in March 1876 for telephone.
Immigrant from Dutch Guiana. Invents machine that fastens soles to bottom of shoes. Increases production by 1,400%.
Telephone industry grows rapidly, selling 50,000 telephones by 1880.
Numbers of inventions helped employ women. 1. Switchboard operators (1880s) 2. Typewriting (18702) 3. Sewing Machine patented by Isaac Singer (1851)
Sewing machine leads to ready-made clothes. Came in standard sizes People now bought clothes instead of making them.
RRs continued to have largest impact through mid- 1800s.
RR spanning the entire United States. Bill passed in 1862 to allow two companies to build, helping lure settlers to the West.
Central Pacific started in Sacramento, California, and build east. Union Pacific started in Omaha, Nebraska, and built west.
RRs needed large amounts of money to build. Government lent millions of $. Government also provided 20 square miles for every one mile of track. Excess land could be sold for profit.
Due to labor shortages (mining, ranching, etc.), Chinese labor was essential. At peak of production, 10,000 Chinese worked on RR.
RRs hired former soldiers from North and South, former slaves, and Irish immigrants (largest). Both companies occasionally hired Native Americans.
May 10 th, 1869, Central and Union lines connect in Promontory, Utah RR earned $300 million 1890 RR earned $734 million
Originally, communities had set their own times. Crossing several time zones caused problems RR comes up with standard time: dividing the US into four time zones. Went into effect on November 18 th, 1883 However, Congress doesnt adopt till 1918.
1. RR linked east and west economies. Lumber, livestock, and grain carried east. 2. Lifeline to settlers, bringing food, equipment. 3. RRs push Native Americans out. 4. RRs allowed urban centers to move in-land, rather than being connected to waterway.