From ancient times through the Middle Ages, and into the 13th century, man, animal, wind and water power was the driving force behind hoisting devices. http://www.columbia-elevator.com/info/index.html http://www.otis.com/aboutotis/elevatorsinfo/0,1361,CLI1,00.html
By 1850 steam and hydraulic elevators had been introduced
in 1852 the invention of the world's first safety elevator by Elisha Graves Otis. parachute
The first passenger elevator was installed by Otis in New York in 1857. After Otis' death in 1861, his sons, Charles and Norton, built on his heritage, creating Otis Brothers & Co. in 1867. By 1873 over 2,000 Otis elevators were in use in office buildings, hotels and department stores across America, and five years later the first Otis hydraulic passenger elevator was installed.
The Era of the Skyscraper followed.... and in 1889 Otis revealed the first successful direct- connected geared electric elevator machines. In 1898 overseas business had added to the company's growth, and Otis Brothers merged with 14 other elevator entities to form the Otis Elevator Company.
Throughout all these years, Otis innovations in automatic controls have included: the Signal Control System Peak Period Control 1948: the Otis Autotronic System (first elevators without operators) Multiple Zoning.
Remote elevator monitoring The control unit has a webserver included Elevators are networked
The first mass-produced embedded system guidance computer for the Minuteman missile, released in 1961. It was built from discrete transistor logic and had a hard disk for main memory. When the Minuteman II went into production in 1966, the D-17 was replaced with a new computer that was the first high-volume use of integrated circuits. This program alone reduced prices on quad NAND gate ICs from $1000/each to $3/each, permitting their use in commercial products. The crucial design features of the Minuteman computer were that its guidance algorithm could be reprogrammed later in the program, to make the missile more accurate, and the computer could also test the missile, saving cable and connector weight.
The first recognizably modern embedded system developed by Charles Stark Draper at the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory. Each flight to the moon had two. They ran the inertial guidance systems of both the command module and LEM. At the project's inception, the Apollo guidance computer was considered the riskiest item in the Apollo project. The use of the then new monolithic integrated circuits, to reduce the size and weight, increased this risk.
For calculators and other small systems. required external memory chips and other external support logic. More powerful microprocessors, such as the Intel 8080 were developed for military projects, but also sold for other uses.
8-bit microprocessors were the norm, but usually needed external memory chips, and logic for decoding and input/output. prices rapidly fell and more applications adopted small embedded systems in place of (then more common) custom logic designs. Some of the more visible applications were in instrumentation and expensive devices
external system components had been integrated into the same chip as the processor. The result was a dramatic reduction in the size and cost of embedded systems. Such integrated circuits were called microcontrollers rather than microprocessors, and widespread use of embedded systems became feasible. As the cost of a microcontroller fell below $1, it became feasible to replace expensive analog components such as potentiometers and variable capacitors with digital electronics controlled by a small microcontroller. By the end of the 80s, embedded systems were the norm rather than the exception for almost all electronics devices, a trend which has continued since.
Electronic control units in chassis systems Power train electronics Body electronics/security systems Driver Information and in-car entertainment Safety & vehicle dynamics Information and computing systems Automatic & remote diagnosis
It includes commercial aircraft, military aircraft, satellite & radar systems. Command & Control & Communications & Intelligence Air-traffic control Telemetry Avionics & test equipment Vehicle simulation Automatic test systems Missile guidance systems Vehicle control systems
Manufacturing and process control motion controllers & operator interfaces Intelligent Homes Robotics, HVAC: heating, ventilation and airco Energy distribution. general Transport infrastructure (route, rail) Building automation Construction, mining, oil & gas Agricultural machinery Financial systems & Postal systems
Supervisor/Control Process monitoring Factory-data collection Manufacturing test Quality control Factory-floor control Robotics control Nuclear power plants control & simulation
Vehicle control systems (manned or unmanned) Vehicle management systems (intelligent automobiles) Vehicle guidance - positioning - localisation (GPS) Route Traffic control Baggage handling systems Pipeline inspection systems ABS, fuel injection, active suspension
It includes infrastructure, services and end devices. Switching systems, PBXs Operational support systems, Network planning, Customer services Testing, Monitoring Data transmission & protocol conversions Network controllers Modems, Fax servers, Fire walls Interactive voice response systems
It includes patient monitoring equipment medical therapy equipment imaging systems (x-ray, scanners, therapy systems) diagnostic equipment imaging equipment surgical systems laboratory tests control & acquisition seismic data acquisition automatic liquid (&..) analysing systems life supporting equipment equipment for the handicapped oscilloscopes, logic analysers, spectrum analysers, network analysers
An extreme variety of application areas. Each application area has its habits. An increasing amount of money is involved. Only few engineers worldwide involved (maximum 200K ?) having influence on our daily lives of all of us.
Hardware is important and will produce the money However – the intelligence in the software is the sales driver: smart – smarter – smartest…. In industry most people are hardware educated Martins statement: embedded systems = the world of electronic hobbyists Is it art, technology or science?