Presentation on theme: "PROVISION OF ACCESS FOR PERSONS WITH DISABLILITY IN SELECTED HOSPITAL BUILDINGS IN GHANA Danso A.K. PhD Owusu-Ansah F.E. PhD Edusei A.K. PhD."— Presentation transcript:
PROVISION OF ACCESS FOR PERSONS WITH DISABLILITY IN SELECTED HOSPITAL BUILDINGS IN GHANA Danso A.K. PhD Owusu-Ansah F.E. PhD Edusei A.K. PhD
Introduction. Health care is a basis and fundamental right of every individual, particularly for PWDs (UN, 2006) as enshrined in the UNCRPD. Since the 1970s WHO has estimated the global prevalence rate of disability as 10.0% (WHO, 1981), but the current global situation, where including children, over a billion people (or about 15% of the worlds population) are estimated to be living with disability is rather alarming (WHO, 2011).
Ghana Disability Act 715 enjoins all physical structural developers to make provisions for easy access to the chronically ill and persons with disability. These provisions cover public buildings and places of employment, and require any person providing such premises to make provisions for reasonable and practicable access, parking and sanitary appliances to meet the needs of persons with disability.
The British Standard 8300 (2001), provides guidance on good practice in the design of domestic and non-domestic buildings and their approaches, so that they are convenient to be used by persons with disability. However, it appears that public buildings, including hospitals are constructed without making them fully accessible by persons with disability.
Study Objective This study therefore carried out to assess the provisions made for access for persons with disability in some selected hospitals in Ghana.
Methods A simple random sampling method was used for the selection of three regional hospitals; Central Region (Cape Coast, Volta Region (Ho), and Brong Ahafo Region (Sunyani) : Observations Questionnaires Physical measurements Photographs Interviews
Critical observations were made for the presence or absence of all facilities provided in the selected regional hospitals for the People with Disabilities Questionnaires were distributed to target groups concerned with the study. The targeted groups included the professionals who designed and supervised the construction of the public buildings and the President of Ghana Society of the Physically Disabled (GSPD).
Interviews were conducted with some design professionals and the stakeholders. For the purposes of illustration photographs were taken of relevant facilities
The relevant facilities in these places were inspected with particular reference to certain parts such as: Entrances Corridors and passageways Parking areas Bathrooms and washrooms Staircases Ramps Access routes Electrical installations
Results and Discussions Main Entrance Apart from the door width which is to standard, availability of other facilities which make access easy are below average. Predominant is the presence of ramps which is one of the most essential facilities every hospital should have at all entrances.
CAPE COASTHOSUNYANI ENTRANCES%% Availability of stairs/steps92029 Availability of ramps188029 Availability of signage9110014 Adequate door width100 RAMPS Availability of ramps188010 Adequate width100 Adequate length100 - Non-slippery surface finish100 STAIRCASE Appropriate number of steps per flight100 Adequate width100 Adequate goings100 Adequate risers100 0 Adequate height of handrails100 0 Non-slippery surface finish100 LIFT INSTALLATION Availability of lift900 Functionality of lift0-- Adequate size of lift100-- CORRIDORS AND PASSAGEWAYS Adequate width100 Availability of signage73100- Non-slippery floor finish100 - Change in slope00- DOORS Adequate width100 75 BATHROOMS /WASHROOMS Adequate height of WC100 0 Adequate height of sink100 0 Adequate height of mirror000 Adequate grab rail020- Adequate shower control height100-- Adequate urinal rim height000 Non-slippery floor100 - RECEPTION AREA Adequate height of desk100 0 Availability of space100 87.5 PUBLIC TELEPHONES Availability of booth10020100 Height of telephone receiver000 Availability of support grab0025 Availability of seat for the disabled0050 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Adequate height of socket outlet00100 Adequate height of switches000 CAR PARK Close proximity to entrance1000 Availability of shelter-100- appropriate finish material(Non-slippery)-100- PATHWAYS/ACCESS ROUTES Adequate width100 Non-slippery surfaces100 Table 3.1.2 Percent realization of Access facilities at the Cape Coast, Ho and Sunyani Regional Hospitals
Ramps Though ramps were not enough in the health facilities studied, the dimensions and gradients of the few studied were up to standard. Staircase Generally, the staircases with its features provided in the hospitals were up to standard except for the Sunyani Hospital where the height of handrails and risers of the stairs were inappropriate
Lift installation Absence of lifts in most of the hospitals will make movement very difficult if not impossible for the disabled especially wheel chair users. The only lift present in the Cape Coast Hospital was not functioning.
Corridors and Passageways By all standards, the corridors and passageways provided in the Hospitals are adequate to serve the interest of both the disabled and able patients.
Bathrooms and Washrooms The bathrooms/washrooms of the Sunyani Hospital is in no way friendly to the persons with disability. The sanitary appliances have unfriendly heights and sizes. However, the Ho and Cape Coast were friendlier with respect to the sanitary appliances.
Reception Area The reception areas of the hospitals are all disable friendly except for the Sunyani which has a relatively high desk at the reception making it disabled unfriendly.
Public telephone Apart from the Ho Hospital which has a very limited number of public telephones provided, all the other hospitals have public telephones adequately provided. Inspite of these provisions made, the telephone posts are not friendly to the disabled due to the height of the telephone receivers, absence of support grabs and seats for the disabled. The Sunyani Hospital is better equipped in the provision of telephone facilities for the disabled.
Electrical Installations The electrical sockets and switches provided in the hospitals will be inaccessible by some disabled patients due their heights from the ground level. The Sunyani Hospital has sockets which may be accessible but the light switches are also at an unfriendly height from the ground
Car Park The proximity of the car parks provided at the Sunyani and Cape Coast hospitals to the main entrances of the hospitals were reasonably good since they were within reach under five minutes of walking, except for the Ho Hospital which would require walking for over ten minutes to enter the hospital.
Pathways/Access Routes The pathways and access routes in these hospitals are adequate with respect to width. They are not slippery making it safe and easier for usage by all.
Conclusions The design and construction of the hospitals generally do not permit easy access for Persons with Disability in Ghana. This situation provides a serious barrier to the utilization of the hospitals by persons with disability, since they do not find it comfortable using them.
Recommendation Strict adherence to the existing regulations regarding construction of all building should therefore be enforced.
References British Standard 8300 (2001) Design of Buildings and Their Approaches to Meet the Needs of Disabled People-Code of Practice ISBN 0 580 38438 1. Ghana Disability Bill (2007) [http://www.irlgov.ie/bills28/bills/2001/6801/defa ult.htm] (Accessed on 6 th July, 2011)
References contd. UN (2006). United Nations. Enable Development. Development and human rights for all. Available from: http://un.org/disabilities/default.asp?id=150 (Accessed on 6 th July, 2011) http://un.org/disabilities/default.asp?id=150 Disability prevention and rehabilitation: report of the WHO expert committee on disability prevention and rehabilitation. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1981 (Technical Report Series 668) (http://whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_668.pdf, accessed 9 December 2009).
WHO (2011). WHO World Report on Disability, 2011. Available from: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/97892406852 15_eng.pdf (Accessed on: 7th July, 2011) http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/97892406852 15_eng.pdf