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Hunkering Down: Do Diverse Milieus Encourage Insularity? Jack Jedwab Executive Director Association for Canadian Studies January 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Hunkering Down: Do Diverse Milieus Encourage Insularity? Jack Jedwab Executive Director Association for Canadian Studies January 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hunkering Down: Do Diverse Milieus Encourage Insularity? Jack Jedwab Executive Director Association for Canadian Studies January 2012

2 Does Diversity Result in Hunkering Down Harvard political scientist Robert Putnam author of the widely acclaimed Bowling Alone recently issues a study which concluded that ethnic diversity triggers anomie or social isolation, Putnam writes in the June 2007 issue of the journal of Scandinavian Political Studies. In colloquial language, people living in ethnically diverse settings appear to hunker down that is, to pull in like a turtle. In highly diverse cities and towns like Los Angeles, Houston and Yakima, Washington, the results of a survey he spearheaded found the residents were about half as likely to trust people of other races as in homogenous places like Fremont, Mich., or rural South Dakota, where, Putnam noted, diversity means inviting a few Norwegians to the annual Swedish picnic.

3 Does Ethnic Diversity Challenge Social Capital Putnam contends that in the short term at least immigration and ethnic diversity challenge social solidarity and inhibit social capital. He argues that in the medium to long term, on the other hand, successful immigrant societies create new forms of social solidarity and dampen the negative effects of diversity by constructing new, more encompassing identities. Thus he concludes that the central challenge for modern diversifying societies is to create a new, broader sense of we:

4 Reviewing the Contact Hypothesis Putnam points to two opposed perspectives on diversitys effects on social connections. First, the contact hypothesis, which argues that diversity fosters interethnic tolerance and social solidarity-as we have more contact with people who are unlike us, we overcome our initial hesitation and ignorance and come to trust them more. It has often been assumed that in-group trust and out-group trust are inversely related-that is the more you trust persons like you the less you trust those who are different-stated another way the more you bond with your own the less you bridge with others. Putnam contends that the relationship is not necessarily zero-sum-in other words people engaged in bonding with like persons are often more engaged in bridging than has been assumed to date.

5 Methodology Canada This poll was conducted online in all regions of Canada with a representative sample of 2,345 Canadians, between September 20th and October 3th, Final data was weighted by age, gender, language, level of education, regions and household composition (with or without children under the age of 18) in order to obtain a representative sample of the Canada population. A probabilistic sample of 2,345 respondents would yield a margin of error of 2%, 19 times out of 20. Survey respondents were selected randomly from the LegerWeb Internet panel, which has over 350,000 Canadian households. A stratification process was applied to invitation lists to ensure optimal representation of respondents. The panelists were recruited randomly from Leger Marketing telephone surveys. Several quality control measures ensure the representativeness and accuracy of Leger Marketings surveys with its panel members.

6 Methodology International United States ORC International conducted the survey on behalf of the Association for Canadian Studies among a sample of 1,019 adults comprising 503 men and 516 women 18 years of age and older. Interviewing fortates this survey was completed on September 15-18, United Kingdom ORC International conducted the survey on behalf of the Association for Canadian Studies in the U.K. with a sample of 1,000 adults 18 years of age and older. Interviewing for this survey was completed on September , France ORC International conducted the survey on behalf of the Association for Canadian Studie among a sample of 1,001 adults in France comprising 487 men and 514 women 18 years of age and older. Interviewing for this survey was completed on September 16-21, Completed interviews are weighted by five variables: age, sex, geographic region, race and education to ensure reliable and accurate representation The raw data are weighted by a custom designed program which automatically develops a weighting factor for each respondent. Each respondent is assigned a single weight derived from the relationship between the actual proportion of the population based on Census data with its specific combination of age, sex, geographic characteristics, race and education and the proportion in the sample. Tabular results show both weighted and unweighted bases. Respondents for this survey were selected from among those who have volunteered to participate in online surveys and polls. The data have been weighted to reflect the demographic composition of the 18+ population. Because the sample is based on those who initially self-selected for participation. ORC International has exercised its best efforts in the preparation of this information. In any event, ORC assumes no responsibility for any use which is made of this information or any decisions based upon it.

7 Breakdown of numbers of Canadian Respondents Weighted/Unweighted Maritimes 157/171 Quebec 584/558 Ontario 722/906 Manit/Sask 228/157 Alberta 211/245 British Columbia 443/307

8 Four Country Comparison Canada, United States, United Kingdom and France (nb. Only question on diverse workplace/school was allowed in survey conducted in France

9 My workplace/ school are ethnically diverse Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagree Strongly disagree Canada31.0%42.0%18.5%8.5% France17.4%49.9%24.7%8.1% US26.8%43.4%22.0%7.9% UK20.0%47.5%24.4%8.1% Canadians workplace/school most ethnically diverse compared to US, UK and France

10 Most of my friend s share the same ethnic or cultur al backg round Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagree Strongly disagree Canada25.0%43.0%23.0%9.0% US22.2%44.9%25.2%7.7% UK25.6%50.8%19.4%4.2% Diversity of Friends Canada and US about the same

11 - I prefer living in a neighb orhood where most people share my cultural backgr ound Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagree Strongly disagree Canada15.0%38.5%32.5%14.0% US14.1%44.1%35.2%6.6% UK17.8%47.4%28.9%5.9% Canadians more likely than Americans and Brits to prefer diverse neighbourhoods

12 Canada-Language and Provincial Comparisons

13 My workplace/school is ethnically diverse FrenchEnglishOther Between 18 and %72.9%81.9% Between 25 and %70.0%80.3% Between 35 and %73.9%89.5% Between 45 and %57.9%64.1% Between 55 and %62.7%83.1% Between 65 and %48.9%53.1% Diverse milieu much more common amongst francophones under than over 25

14 Most of my friends share the same ethnic or cultural background FrenchEnglishOther Total Between 18 and %60.0%61.9% Between 25 and %68.2%46.7% Between 35 and %64.0%57.2% Between 45 and %64.5%48.1% Between 55 and %64.6%69.3% Between 65 and %71.2%47.3% Canadas francophones more likely to have most friends with same ethnic and cultural background

15 I prefer living in a neighbourhood where most people share my cultural background FrenchEnglishOther Total Between 18 and %45.0%56.7 Between 25 and %47.8%47.3 Between 35 and %42.5%48.1 Between 45 and %47.1%44.8 Between 55 and %43.8%55.4 Between 65 and %44.9% Canadas Francophones most likely to prefer neighborhoods where people share their cultural background

16 French My workplace/school is ethnically diverse Most of my friends share the same cultural background Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagree Strongly disagree Strongly agree29.7%32.6%31.8%57.7% Somewhat agree 35.6%45.2%56.1%30.8% Somewhat disagree 24.8%15.6%9.3%5.1% Strongly disagree 8.9%4.4%2.8%3.8% I don't know1.0%2.2%.0%2.6% I prefer not to answer Canadas Francophones in diverse workplaces more likely to have diverse group of friends

17 Canadas Anglophones in diverse workplaces more likely to have diverse group of friends English My workplace/school is ethnically diverse Most of my friends share the same … Strongly agreeSomewhat agree Somewhat disagree Strongly disagree Strongly agree23.9%18.8%22.0%46.6% Somewhat agree35.6%52.0%47.8%24.7% Somewhat disagree 24.8%23.8%23.6%23.3% Strongly disagree 14.8%5.2%5.5% I don't know.6%.0%1.1%.0% I prefer not to answer.3%.2%

18 My workplace/school is ethnically diverse Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagree Strongly disagree Alberta23.3%45.7%8.6%4.9% British Columbia31.9%36.8%10.1%4.2% Manitoba24.4%32.6%14.0%7.0% Nova Scotia18.8%42.0%10.1%8.7% Ontario27.6%34.8%13.3%4.3% Quebec25.0%26.9%19.2%13.8% Saskatchewan15.5%38.0%15.5%11.3% Diverse mileu more common in British Columbia and Alberta

19 Most of my friends share the same ethnic or cultural background Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagree Strongly disagree Alberta17.6%41.2%30.2%7.8% British Columbia18.2%45.0%23.8%9.4% Manitoba23.3%36.0%29.1%5.8% Nova Scotia22.1%54.4%11.8%4.4% Ontario21.5%41.0%24.1%9.5% Quebec33.8%42.6%14.3%6.4% Saskatchewan24.7%50.7%12.3%8.2% Total24.0%42.5%21.6%8.3% Albertans and British Columbians most likely to have diversity of friends

20 I prefer living in a neighbourhood where most people share my cultural background Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagree Strongly disagree Alberta6.9%35.9%30.2%18.4% British Columbia10.4%29.6%35.5%17.3% Manitoba12.9%35.3%28.2%12.9% Nova Scotia11.8%45.6%20.6%14.7% Ontario14.7%33.2%32.6%13.3% Quebec18.2%42.9%24.9%7.3% Saskatchewan8.3%29.2%43.1%11.1% Albertans, British Columbians and Saskatchewan more likely to prefer living in diverse neighbourhoods

21 Diverse Influences: With increases in Contact at schools, workplaces, friends and neighbourhoods more likely will tolerance inevitably rise in immigrant receiving countries?

22 Canada My workplace/school is ethnically diverse / I enjoy interacti ng with people from different cultures Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagree Strongly disagree Strongly agree 61.2%28.6%26.5%27.8% Somewhat agree 32.9%61.1%56.1%52.7% Somewhat disagree 3.8%7.7%13.7%10.1% Strongly disagree 1.5%.9%1.2%6.5% I don't know.5%1.5%2.1%3.0% I prefer not to answer.2%.3% More diverse your workplace the more you enjoy interaction with others

23 Canada- French My workplace/school is ethnically diverse / I enjoy interactin g with people from different cultures Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagree Strongly disagree Strongly agree 57.0%26.5%19.6%26.9% Somewhat agree 35.0%60.3%59.8%55.1% Somewhat disagree 7.0%10.3%14.0%7.7% Strongly disagree.7%3.7%6.4% I don't know1.5%2.8%3.8% I prefer not to answer 1.0%.7% Francophones in very diverse workplaces more likely to enjoy cultural interaction

24 Canada- English My workplace/school is ethnically diverse / I enjoy interactin g with people from different cultures Strongly agreeSomewhat agree Somewhat disagree Strongly disagree Strongly agree 56.0%29.1%30.2%28.8% Somewhat agree 38.0%60.2%51.1%53.4% Somewhat disagree 3.9%8.1%16.5%8.2% Strongly disagree 1.2%.0%6.8% I don't know.9%1.2%2.2%2.7% I prefer not to answer.2% Anglophones in very diverse workplaces more likely to enjoy cultural interaction

25 Canada- other than English or French My workplace/school is ethnically diverse / I enjoy interacti ng with people from different cultures Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagree Strongly disagree Strongly agree 71.9%29.5%28.2%29.4% Somewhat agree 23.4%66.3%69.2%41.2% Somewhat disagree 1.8%4.2%29.4% Strongly disagree 2.9% Allophones in very diverse workplaces more likely to enjoy cultural interaction

26 The majority should try harder to accept the customs and traditions of cultural and religious groups My workplace/school is ethnically diverse Strongly agree Somewh at agree Somewha t disagree Strongly disagree Strongly agree27.5%11.9%8.2%7.1% Somewhat agree34.0%41.7%31.7%29.6% Somewhat disagree22.9%26.8%40.9%27.8% Strongly disagree11.1%15.2%16.8%29.6% I don't know3.4%3.6%2.4%5.9% I prefer not to answer1.0%.9%

27 The majority should try harder to accept the customs and traditions of cultural and religious groups Most of my friends share the same ethnic or cultural background Strongl y agree Somewha t agree Somewha t disagreeStrongly disagree Strongly agree17.1%11.2%14.6%34.2% Somewhat agree24.6%42.6%43.6%26.4% Somewhat disagree28.5%31.0%24.1%19.7% Strongly disagree27.4%9.8%12.4%17.1% I don't know2.5%5.0%3.6%2.1% I prefer not to answer.0%.3%1.8%.5%

28 The majority should try harder to accept the customs and traditions of cultural and religious groups I prefer living in a neighbourhood where most people share my cultural background Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagreeStrongly disagree Strongly agree22.7%7.6%13.3%36.6% Somewhat agree13.2%41.8%42.1%36.9% Somewhat disagree20.2%33.3%31.9%13.7% Strongly disagree41.0%14.0%8.8%9.2% I don't know2.8% 3.2% I prefer not to answer.0%.6%.7%.3%

29 Those in Diverse Workplaces somewhat less likely to agree that immigrants should give up customs and traditions Immigrants should give up their customs and traditions and become more like the majority My workplace/school is ethnically diverse Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagreeStrongly disagree Strongly agree17.7%14.6%16.8%23.4% Somewhat agree25.2%33.1%35.1%25.1% Somewhat disagree 25.7%34.9%36.9%35.9% Strongly disagree26.8%15.3%9.8%11.4% I don't know3.6%1.6%1.5%4.2% I prefer not to answer 1.0%.5%.0%

30 Immigrants should give up their customs and traditions and become more like the majority Most of my friends share the same ethnic or cultural background Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagreeStrongly disagree Strongly agree35.2%10.3%11.3%14.4% Somewhat agree27.4%36.5%22.9%19.1% Somewhat disagree23.3%37.0%39.3%25.3% Strongly disagree10.9%13.0%24.1%37.6% I don't know2.8%3.2%1.8%2.1% I prefer not to answer.4%.1%.6%1.5%

31 Immigrants should give up their customs and traditions and become more like the majority I prefer living in a neighbourhood where most people share my cultural background Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagree Strongly disagree Strongly agree57.4%15.6%7.0%5.4% Somewhat agree22.4%45.0%22.8%11.4% Somewhat disagree12.6%29.3%48.7%28.6% Strongly disagree4.1%8.2%19.7%50.8% I don't know3.5%1.7%1.4%2.5% I prefer not to answer.2%.4%1.3%

32 Having many ethnic groups weakens the national culture My workplace/school is ethnically diverse Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewh at disagree Strongly disagree Strongly agree13.4%9.8%12.5%18.5% Somewhat agree16.4%27.7%26.8%28.0% Somewhat disagree25.2%34.8%36.6%27.4% Strongly disagree42.4%25.4%20.7%23.2% I don't know2.1%1.6%3.4%1.8% I prefer not to answer.5%.7%1.2%

33 Having many ethnic groups weakens the national culture Most of my friends share the same ethnic or cultural background Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagreeStrongly disagree Strongly agree29.5%5.8%6.7%10.3% Somewhat agree25.8%30.5%16.0%9.8% Somewhat disagree25.6%36.0%32.3%20.6% Strongly disagree17.8%25.5%40.4%55.2% I don't know1.4%2.0%3.6%4.1% I prefer not to answer.2%1.0%

34 Having many ethnic groups weakens the national culture I prefer living in a neighbourhood where most people share my cultural background Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagreeStrongly disagree Strongly agree51.3%8.4%4.3%3.5% Somewhat agree28.5%39.3%12.7%6.7% Somewhat disagree10.8%35.7%42.6%15.0% Strongly disagree8.5%14.7%38.0%72.5% I don't know.3%1.8%1.9%2.2% I prefer not to answer.6%.1%.6%

35 Those in Ethnically diverse workplaces more likely to agree that diversity strengthens society Society is strengthened by having many cultural and religious groups My workplace/school is ethnically diverse Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagreeStrongly disagree Strongly agree46.7%21.2%19.2%15.4% Somewhat agree34.6%49.8%41.8%42.6% Somewhat disagree10.5%17.8%27.4%18.3% Strongly disagree6.6%7.5%7.3%21.3% I don't know1.1%3.1%4.3%1.8% I prefer not to answer.5%.6%

36 Greater diversity of friends means more agreement with society strengthened by pluralism Society is strengthened by having many cultural and religious groups Most of my friends share the same ethnic or cultural background Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagreeStrongly disagree Strongly agree24.3%22.7%31.6%48.5% Somewhat agree35.9%48.7%46.8%27.8% Somewhat disagree20.8%18.9%11.9%13.9% Strongly disagree16.3%5.7%5.9%7.2% I don't know2.5%3.9%3.0%2.6% I prefer not to answer.2%.8%.0%

37 Those who prefer diverse neighborhoods more likely to believe diversity strengthens us Society is strengthened by having many cultural and religious groups I prefer living in a neighbourhood where most people share my cultural background Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagree Strongly disagree Strongly agree22.1%13.6%31.0%63.4% Somewhat agree21.1%50.7%52.0%25.8% Somewhat disagree25.6%25.5%11.4%2.9% Strongly disagree30.0%7.2%2.6%4.8% I don't know.9%3.0%2.6%2.9% I prefer not to answer.3%.1%.3%

38 Those in diverse workplaces somewhat less likely to agree that cultural uniformity is good for country A country in which everyone speaks the same language and has similar ethnic backgrounds and religious beliefs is preferable to a country in which people speak different languages and have different ethnic backgrounds and religious beliefs ! My workplace/school is ethnically diverse Strongl y agree Somewh at agree Somewhat disagree Strongly disagree Strongly agree13.6%10.1%8.8%15.4% Somewhat agree12.9%25.0%19.5%23.1% Somewhat disagree26.8%34.7%39.9%27.8% Strongly disagree42.1%25.2%25.3%27.8% I don't know3.3%3.7%6.1%5.3% I prefer not to answer1.3%1.2%.3%.6%

39 A country in which everyone speaks the same language and has similar ethnic backgrounds and religious beliefs is preferable to a country in which people speak different languages and have different ethnic backgrounds and religious beliefs Most of my friends share the same ethnic or cultural background Strongly agree Somewha t agree Somewha t disagree Strongly disagree Strongly agree22.6%7.2%6.9%8.2% Somewhat agree18.7%24.8%13.4%10.8% Somewhat disagree30.7%37.4%33.2%21.6% Strongly disagree24.7%25.7%40.1%51.0% I don't know2.8%4.6%5.3%5.2% I prefer not to answer.5%.2%1.0%3.1%

40 A country in which everyone speaks the same language and has similar ethnic backgrounds and religious beliefs is preferable to a country in which people speak different languages and have different ethnic backgrounds and religious beliefs I prefer living in a neighbourhood where most people share my cultural background Strongl y agree Somewha t agree Somewh at disagreeStrongly disagree Strongly agree43.4%8.6%5.1%1.9% Somewhat agree23.4%30.9%10.8%4.2% Somewhat disagree19.9%37.8%42.0%18.2% Strongly disagree10.4%17.4%38.7%71.6% I don't know1.6%5.2%2.5%2.9% I prefer not to answer1.3%.1%.8%1.3%


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