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Telecommunications/ Networking

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Presentation on theme: "Telecommunications/ Networking"— Presentation transcript:

1 Telecommunications/ Networking
Team 1

2 Presenting Telecommunications and Networking
The Antagonists Presenting Telecommunications and Networking The team name highlights our partial non-alignment with certain governmental ideas Introducing our team members… Don Patrick Aaron Austin Dan Mike Glenn

3 Circuit Switched Networks

4 Circuit Switched Networks
A telephone network uses circuit switching to create an end-to-end connection with the dialed phone before the caller speaks 1960’s… Creating a circuit makes exclusive allocations of transmission/reception resources for the duration of the call

5 Circuit Switched Networks
The telephone network is the largest global system ever created...50 year-old phones can still operate with today’s equipment !! The basic design was in the early 1900s… Mr. Alexander Graham Bell `+-

6 Circuit Switched Networks
The Public Switched Telephone Network (a circuit-switched network) is today’s worldwide collection of interconnected public telephone networks, designed primarily for voice traffic A dedicated circuit (aka “channel”) is established for the duration of any transmission, such as a phone call, and can be easily contrasted with packet switching networks, in which messages are divided into small segments (packets) and where each packet is sent individually

7 Circuit Switched Networks

8 Circuit Switched Networks
This is a guarantee that any successful connection will fully own the resources necessary to allow a high quality interaction When a call ends, the circuit is broken & resources are freed up for new connection The capacity of a network to allow any two endpoints to be interconnected… Switched Networks

9 Circuit Switched Networks

10 Telephone Signals

11 Telephone Signals Telephones originally used continuous analog signals, which vary in amplitude & frequency (signal strength & pitch) A phone converts sound into electrical signals with the microphone (mouthpiece) and with the speaker (earpiece) at the other end, converts the signals back to sound Today’s digital signals differ significantly, as they are both discrete & discontinuous Digital signals exist in predetermined states as binary signals are limited to only zeroes & ones These can be transmitted “bazillions” of times better (both faster and more quality) than the old-fashioned analog approach…

12 Telephone Signals Analog Digital

13 Telephone Signals Dialing today’s phones is done using DTMF (Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency) tones…these are from the row & column of the buttons you press (0-9, etc) to make a call >>>> Listen… Additional DTMF tones (“ABCD tones”) are used by the U.S. military & some PBX systems Special phones are equipped with keys to allow specific protocol usage: A – Flash, B – Flash override priority, C – Priority communication, and D – Priority override

14 Multiplexing

15 Multiplexing Multiplexing is the means of subdividing a “physical media” into more than one channel Telephone lines use “frequency multiplexing” to carry voice & DSL signals simultaneously; frequencies up to 4,000 Hz carry voice and the 25 kHz MHz band carry DSL Optical lines carry literally several orders of magnitude more data than do phone lines

16 Multiplexing 24x64k bps < 1.544Mbps (8k bytes)…1,202bps “gap”
T1 T1c T2 T3 T4

17 Virtualization Virtualization is generally non-specific with respect to the subjects shared above (Circuit-switched networks, Telephone signals and Multiplexing)… More details will be shared as we progress.

18 Digitizing Voice Signals
The process is conversion of analog waves to digital data Take samples to find the amplitude Convert the different amplitudes into binary

19 Digitizing Voice Signals

20 Digitizing Voice Signals
This image has 8 levels (0-7) This is 3-bit ( )

21 Digital Telephone Advantages of Digital Telephone Hierarchal set up
Increased quality Security Compatibility with newer technologies Hierarchal set up

22 T-Services High speed connection Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM)
Multiple types of T-Services T-Service T-1 Equivalency # of Voice Channels Speed (Mbps) T-1 1 24 1.544 T-1C 2 48 3.125 T-2 4 96 6.312 T-3 28 672 44.746 T-4 168 4032

23 Physical Layer Technologies
Transmission Link Types Conducting Media Radiating Media Common Cable Materials Copper Inexpensive Easy to connect Small form factor Span several hundred feet Fiber

24 Types of Copper Coaxial Twisted Pair Solid Copper Core
Highly resistant to EMI Twisted Pair Copper pairs twisted Standards Cat5, 5e,6, etc…. STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair)

25 Copper Cabling Specifications
Category Speed Application Cat3 10Mbps 10Base-T Cat5 100Mbps 100Base-T Cat5e 1000Mbps 1000Base-T Cat6 Cat6a 10Gbps 10Gbase-T

26 Optical-Fiber Media Fiber Cabling Advantages
Transmits using light signals Waves of light travel within the glass core Advantages Not susceptible to EMI Can travel longer distances Higher bandwidth Harder to tap

27 Optical Fiber Types Name Medium Distance Speed 100BaseTX
62.5 micron fiber 412 meters 100mbps 1000Base SX 220 meters 1000mbps 50 micron fiber 550 meters Connector Types ST SC LC

28 Wavelength Division Multiplexing
Multiple data streams across a single connection Streams separated by wavelength Separate wavelengths also called lambdas

29 Fiber-Based Advanced Transport Technologies
Increases in fiber deployment Faster Speeds Lower production costs Easy to maintain Fiber Network Technologies FDDI SONET Ethernet

30 FDDI Fiber Distributed Data Interface Operates on layers 1 and 2
Ring topology Uses two unidirectional fiber rings Secondary ring provides failover Replaced by Fast Ethernet Supports 100mbps 500 nodes Distances of 200km

31 SONET Synchronized Optical Network SONET can use copper or fiber
Provides very high data rates Used primarily for backbone connections Starts at 51.84mbps SONET can use copper or fiber STS (Synchronous Transport Signal) Used for copper OC (Optical Carrier) Used for fiber

32 Optical Carriers OC Level Bandwidth OC-1 51.84 mbps OC-3 155.52 mbps

33 Where is the technology headed?
Physical media will not change Copper Fiber Cable bandwidth will increase Cat7 + Smaller fiber cores Lower cost fiber WAN’s

34 OSI Model Here is a picture of the Open System Interconnection or OSI model, as you can see it is composed of 7 layers but, I am not going to go into detail about each layer because this Model is not in commercial use anymore. However, despite its lack of use the OSI model has provided a backbone for current networking models and changed the way we look at network and data communications technology today.

35 Internetworking Technology
Internet Protocol Suite Commonly known as “TCP/IP “ Consists of 4 Layers One of those models based off the OSI model is the Internet Protocol Suite. All protocols responsible for upholding communications across the internet are part of this Suite. It consists of 4 layers, the Link Layer, Internet Layer, Transport Layer, and Application Layer.

36 Link Layer ARP ISDN OSPF Address Resolution Protocol
Integrated Services Digital Network OSPF Open Shortest Path First Some components that fit under the Link layer category are the ARP, ISDN, and the OSPF. The ARP’s main use is to convert an IP address into a physical or Data Link Control address. The ISDN is just an international standard for sending data primarily voice and video over digital lines. OSPF is an interior routing protocol that prevents problems like routing loops to create a more stable network and is rapidly replacing the older and inefficient routing protocol known as RIP or the Routing Information Protocol.

37 Internet Layer IP ICMP IGMP Internet Protocol
Internet Control Message Protocol IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol In the Internet Layer, protocols that fall under this section are the Internet, Control Message, and the Group Management Protocols. The most common is the Internet Protocol and what it does is assign each computer or node on a network a distinctive numerical address known as the IP address. Currently, there is a transition going on from IP4 to IP6 but I’m not going to get into that now because Mike will discuss this later in the presentation. The Control Message and Group Management Protocols are extensions of the IP where the Control Message supports error and control packets while the Group Management provides a way for a computer to report its multicast membership status to nearby routers.

38 Transport Layer TCP UDP Transmission Control Protocol
User Datagram Protocol When it comes to the Transport Layer, the two most primary areas are the Transmission Control and the User Datagram Protocols. The TCP works in conjunction with IP. However, unlike IP, Transmission Control maintains the connection of two hosts during their data exchanges, and delivers the packets in the exact same order that they were sent. User Datagram is similar to TCP in that it runs on top of IP. However, it differs because it does not provide that many error recovery services like TCP does. Its mainly used to directly send and receive datagrams over the network, Broadcasting messages are mainly used on UDP.

39 Application Layer HTTP DNS FTP SMTP Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
Domain Name Service FTP File Transfer Protocol SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol The application layer contains a combination of protocols that include providing services for the user and supports the system’s functions. HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and how web servers and browsers respond to commands. DNS is used to map and translate domain names into IP addresses. FTP is used to transfer documents and files between any two locations. SMTP is basically used to transfer messages between servers.

40 Net Neutrality What is it? Non-discriminatory
Does not favor any one destination or application over another Net neutrality is a network that allows open and equal access to all. However, recent issues have come up about it and I have a video which will provide you more detail about what net neutrality is and give you some background about the debate surrounding it.


42 Net Neutrality Cont’d. December 21st,2010 February 22nd,2011
FCC’s stand on Net Neutrality Rules is reported February 22nd,2011 U.S. House of Representatives Vote on Net Neutrality funding As the video mentioned, Net Neutrality’s tide did seem to be turning especially after December 21st, 2010 because the FCC approved net neutrality rules by not allowing broadband companies to block customer’s access to legal content on the Web. However, that all changed when the House of Representatives majority voted for a 61 billion dollar budget cut, this cut included the FCC’s funding to enforce net neutrality rules.

43 VOICE OVER IP Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) refers to the transmission of voice telephony over IP networks.

44 VOICE OVER IP (cont) Benefits Operational Cost Flexibility
Don’t need two separate data plans Features that traditional telecommunication companies normally charge extra for, are available free of charge from open source implementations Flexibility Location independence The ability to transmit more than one telephone call over a single broadband connection.

45 VOICE OVER IP (cont) Pitfalls Quality of service
Susceptible to power failure Makes users harder to locate during emergency calls Security Fax handling

46 Licensed Wireless Operates within the part of the radio spectrum designated by government regulators. Reserved for individual license holders. Expensive to obtain a license Long process Equipment Very expensive Time consuming set-up

47 Licensed Wireless (cont)
Cellular structure

48 Licensed Wireless (cont)
Operators are permitted exclusive use of part of the band over an assigned geographic area. 6.0 GHz in the U.S. 50 MHz of the 4.9 band available for public safety Latest Licensed Wireless “Auction 92” July 19, 2011 16 licenses AT&T and Verizon

49 Unlicensed Wireless The unlicensed part of the spectrum does not promise exclusive use of the band. 5.4 and 5.8 GHz in the U.S. Eliminates the delay/expense of obtaining a license Equipment Far less expensive Easier to set-up

50 Future of Wireless New wireless: N Old Wireless: G
Double the speed of G Wider Range than G VoIP capable Old Wireless: G N G

51 Wireless G vs. N

52 Frame Relay / ATM Frame Relay physical / logical link layers
packet switching methodology standardize the communications of DS-0 and DS-1(T1) Lines ATM switching technique asynchronous time-division multiplexing fixed-sized cells ATM is a core protocol used over the SONET/SDH

53 Gigabit Usually refers to LAN speed connections rather than WAN links

54 Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL)
14 current versions of DSL from ADSL to VDSL2 More are in development Speeds vary by location and proximity to a Central office as well as what version of DSL is running in your area. Documented speeds can reach up to 200Mbit/s and are increasing Uses existing telephone communication infrastructure but requires proper frequency hardware to separate the voice channels and data channels

55 Future of DSL Plans-200-Mbps “In the case of ADSL, competition in Internet access caused subscription fees to drop significantly over the years, thus making ADSL more economical than dial up access. Telephone companies were pressured into moving to ADSL largely due to competition from cable companies…” 1 Gigabit DSL? Department of Electrical Engineering Stanford University

56 Digital Cable DOCSIS most common form of data services
Current version 3.0 which supports IPv6 and speeds Mbit/s per 6 MHz channel, or Mbit/s per 3 MHz channel Possible Speeds up to 100Mbps at your home

57 Future of all connection technologies
Digital Cable, DSL, ATM, Frame Relay, Ethernet, ? What’s the Magic Number ? (referring to speed) Reducing Price or no price increase FIBER to the door. Verizon – FIOS Google

58 What is an IPv6 Address IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses
A typical example of an IPv6 address is: 2001:0db8:85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:0370:7334. The 128-bit IPv6 address can be abbreviated with the following rules: Rule one: Leading zeroes within a 16-bit value may be omitted. fe80:0000:0000:0000:0202:b3ff:fe1e:8329 may be written as fe80:0:0:0:202:b3ff:fe1e:8329 ^ 0 Removed Rule two: A single occurrence of consecutive groups of zeroes within an address may be replaced by a double colon. THIS CAN BE DONE ONLY ONCE in an a address fe80:0:0:0:202:b3ff:fe1e:8329 becomes fe80::202:b3ff:fe1e:8329 Installed example at Runzheimer International

59 IPv6 Features Multicasting
One send many recipients Required IPSec support at the network layer security Same security Standard used in VPN Easier routing Regardless of the longer address this is easier to process

60 Why Upgrade to IPv6

61 IPV4 vs. IPV6 Upgrade concerns Conversion technology
6to4 protocol 128-bit address compared to 32-bit IPv4 address How many addresses is that? 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,45 6

62 Virtualization Overview

63 Virtualization & Networking

64 Virtualization & Storage Area Networks

65 Virtualization & Site Disaster Recovery

66 Cloud Computing Overview
What is the Cloud? Definition of Cloud Computing

67 Cloud Computing Types

68 Cloud Features & Comparison
Private Public Hybrid Performance * High Low Combined Availability * Limited Unlimited Scalability * Customization Skill Level Security ? Cost * * Items that must be carefully analyzed by IT management.

69 In Conclusion We have discussed current and future trends of telecommunications and networking Any questions?

70 Sources Frenzel, C. W., & Frenzel, J. C. (2004). Management of Information Technology. Boston: Course Technology. Gross, G. (2011, February 22). Net Neutrality Rules Face Uncertain Future After House Vote. Retrieved February 28, 2011, from PC World: ty_rules_face_uncertain_future_after_house_vote.html Lawson, S. (2010, December 21). House Passes Defunding of Net Neutrality Rules. Retrieved February 28, 2011, from PC World: es_compromise_net_neutrality_rules.html#tk.mod_rel Webopedia. (2011, February 27). Retrieved February 27, 2011, from Webopedia: What is Net Neutrality? (2009, April 8). Retrieved February 27, 2011, from Youtube:

71 Sources Circuit Switched Networks MSDN: Circuit-Switched Networks
Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN) Pulse dialing (rotary dials)...excellent imagery Telephone Signals DTMF (Dual Tone Multi Frequency) Tones Cell phones and DTMF Multiplexing T1 lines and up…

72 Sources c cfcc8306b6728&URL=http%3a%2f%2f4g- wirelessevolution%2farticles%2f fcc- announces-700-mhz-band-license-auction-july.htm vs-unlicensed-wireless-spectrum/

73 Sources %20Networks/Wireless%20Broadband%20Networks/P oint%20to%20Multi- point%20Networks/Unlicensed/_Documents/Static%20 Files/Licensed%20Versus%20Unlicensed%20Wireless. pdf?localeId=228

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