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Telecommunications/ Networking Team 1. The Antagonists Presenting Telecommunications and Networking The team name highlights our partial non-alignment.

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Presentation on theme: "Telecommunications/ Networking Team 1. The Antagonists Presenting Telecommunications and Networking The team name highlights our partial non-alignment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Telecommunications/ Networking Team 1

2 The Antagonists Presenting Telecommunications and Networking The team name highlights our partial non-alignment with certain governmental ideas Introducing our team members… Don Patrick Aaron Austin Dan Mike Glenn

3 Circuit Switched Networks

4 A telephone network uses circuit switching to create an end-to-end connection with the dialed phone before the caller speaks 1960s… Creating a circuit makes exclusive allocations of transmission/reception resources for the duration of the call

5 The telephone network is the largest global system ever created...50 year-old phones can still operate with todays equipment !! The basic design was in the early 1900s… Mr. Alexander Graham Bell `+- Circuit Switched Networks

6 The Public Switched Telephone Network (a circuit-switched network) is todays worldwide collection of interconnected public telephone networks, designed primarily for voice traffic A dedicated circuit (aka channel) is established for the duration of any transmission, such as a phone call, and can be easily contrasted with packet switching networks, in which messages are divided into small segments (packets) and where each packet is sent individually Circuit Switched Networks


8 This is a guarantee that any successful connection will fully own the resources necessary to allow a high quality interaction When a call ends, the circuit is broken & resources are freed up for new connection The capacity of a network to allow any two endpoints to be interconnected… Switched Networks Circuit Switched Networks


10 Telephone Signals

11 Telephones originally used continuous analog signals, which vary in amplitude & frequency (signal strength & pitch) A phone converts sound into electrical signals with the microphone (mouthpiece) and with the speaker (earpiece) at the other end, converts the signals back to sound Todays digital signals differ significantly, as they are both discrete & discontinuous Digital signals exist in predetermined states as binary signals are limited to only zeroes & ones These can be transmitted bazillions of times better (both faster and more quality) than the old-fashioned analog approach…

12 Analog Digital Telephone Signals

13 Dialing todays phones is done using DTMF (Dual-Tone Multi- Frequency) tones…these are from the row & column of the buttons you press (0-9, etc) to make a call >>>> Listen…Listen Additional DTMF tones (ABCD tones) are used by the U.S. military & some PBX systems Special phones are equipped with keys to allow specific protocol usage: A – Flash, B – Flash override priority, C – Priority communication, and D – Priority override

14 Multiplexing

15 Multiplexing is the means of subdividing a physical media into more than one channel Telephone lines use frequency multiplexing to carry voice & DSL signals simultaneously; frequencies up to 4,000 Hz carry voice and the 25 kHz MHz band carry DSL Optical lines carry literally several orders of magnitude more data than do phone lines

16 Multiplexing T1 T1c T2 T3 T4 24x64k bps < 1.544Mbps (8k bytes)…1,202bps gap

17 Virtualization Virtualization is generally non-specific with respect to the subjects shared above (Circuit- switched networks, Telephone signals and Multiplexing)… More details will be shared as we progress.

18 Digitizing Voice Signals The process is conversion of analog waves to digital data Take samples to find the amplitude Convert the different amplitudes into binary

19 Digitizing Voice Signals

20 This image has 8 levels (0-7) This is 3-bit ( )

21 Digital Telephone Advantages of Digital Telephone Increased quality Security Compatibility with newer technologies Hierarchal set up

22 T-Services T-ServiceT-1 Equivalency# of Voice Channels Speed (Mbps) T T-1C T T T High speed connection –Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM) –Multiple types of T-Services

23 Physical Layer Technologies Transmission Link Types Conducting Media Radiating Media Common Cable Materials Copper Inexpensive Easy to connect Small form factor Span several hundred feet Fiber

24 Types of Copper Coaxial Solid Copper Core Highly resistant to EMI Twisted Pair Copper pairs twisted Standards Cat5, 5e,6, etc…. STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair)

25 Copper Cabling Specifications CategorySpeedApplication Cat310Mbps10Base-T Cat5100Mbps100Base-T Cat5e1000Mbps1000Base-T Cat61000Mbps1000Base-T Cat6a10Gbps10Gbase-T

26 Optical-Fiber Media Fiber Cabling Transmits using light signals Waves of light travel within the glass core Advantages Not susceptible to EMI Can travel longer distances Higher bandwidth Harder to tap

27 Optical Fiber Types NameMediumDistanceSpeed 100BaseTX62.5 micron fiber412 meters100mbps 1000Base SX62.5 micron fiber220 meters1000mbps 1000Base SX50 micron fiber550 meters1000mbps Connector Types ST SC LC

28 Wavelength Division Multiplexing Multiple data streams across a single connection Streams separated by wavelength Separate wavelengths also called lambdas

29 Fiber-Based Advanced Transport Technologies Increases in fiber deployment Faster Speeds Lower production costs Easy to maintain Fiber Network Technologies FDDI SONET Ethernet

30 FDDI Fiber Distributed Data Interface Operates on layers 1 and 2 Ring topology Uses two unidirectional fiber rings Secondary ring provides failover Replaced by Fast Ethernet Supports 100mbps 500 nodes Distances of 200km

31 SONET Synchronized Optical Network Provides very high data rates Used primarily for backbone connections Starts at 51.84mbps SONET can use copper or fiber STS (Synchronous Transport Signal) Used for copper OC (Optical Carrier) Used for fiber

32 Optical Carriers OC LevelBandwidth OC mbps OC mbps OC mbps OC mbps OC mbps OC mbps OC mbps OC mbps

33 Where is the technology headed? Physical media will not change Copper Fiber Cable bandwidth will increase Cat7 + Smaller fiber cores Lower cost fiber WANs

34 OSI Model

35 Internetworking Technology Internet Protocol Suite Commonly known as TCP/IP Consists of 4 Layers

36 Link Layer ARP Address Resolution Protocol ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network OSPF Open Shortest Path First

37 Internet Layer IP Internet Protocol ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol

38 Transport Layer TCP Transmission Control Protocol UDP User Datagram Protocol

39 Application Layer HTTP Hyper Text Transfer Protocol DNS Domain Name Service FTP File Transfer Protocol SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

40 Net Neutrality What is it? Non-discriminatory Does not favor any one destination or application over another


42 Net Neutrality Contd. December 21 st,2010 FCCs stand on Net Neutrality Rules is reported February 22 nd,2011 U.S. House of Representatives Vote on Net Neutrality funding

43 VOICE OVER IP Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) refers to the transmission of voice telephony over IP networks.

44 VOICE OVER IP (cont) Benefits Operational Cost Dont need two separate data plans Features that traditional telecommunication companies normally charge extra for, are available free of charge from open source implementations Flexibility Location independence The ability to transmit more than one telephone call over a single broadband connection.

45 VOICE OVER IP (cont) Pitfalls Quality of service Susceptible to power failure Makes users harder to locate during emergency calls Security Fax handling

46 Licensed Wireless Operates within the part of the radio spectrum designated by government regulators. Reserved for individual license holders. Expensive to obtain a license Long process Equipment Very expensive Time consuming set-up

47 Licensed Wireless (cont) Cellular structure

48 Licensed Wireless (cont) Operators are permitted exclusive use of part of the band over an assigned geographic area. 6.0 GHz in the U.S. 50 MHz of the 4.9 band available for public safety Latest Licensed Wireless Auction 92 July 19, licenses AT&T and Verizon

49 Unlicensed Wireless The unlicensed part of the spectrum does not promise exclusive use of the band. 5.4 and 5.8 GHz in the U.S. Eliminates the delay/expense of obtaining a license Equipment Far less expensive Easier to set-up

50 Future of Wireless New wireless: N Double the speed of G Wider Range than G VoIP capable Old Wireless: G GN

51 Wireless G vs. N

52 Frame Relay / ATM Frame Relay physical / logical link layers packet switching methodology standardize the communications of DS-0 and DS-1(T1) Lines ATM switching technique asynchronous time- division multiplexing fixed-sized cells ATM is a core protocol used over the SONET/SDH

53 Gigabit Usually refers to LAN speed connections rather than WAN links BUT….

54 Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL) 14 current versions of DSL from ADSL to VDSL2 More are in development Speeds vary by location and proximity to a Central office as well as what version of DSL is running in your area. Documented speeds can reach up to 200Mbit/s and are increasing Uses existing telephone communication infrastructure but requires proper frequency hardware to separate the voice channels and data channels

55 Future of DSL Plans-200-Mbps Plans-200-Mbps In the case of ADSL, competition in Internet access caused subscription fees to drop significantly over the years, thus making ADSL more economical than dial up access. Telephone companies were pressured into moving to ADSL largely due to competition from cable companies… 1 Gigabit DSL? Department of Electrical Engineering Stanford University

56 Digital Cable DOCSIS most common form of data services Current version 3.0 which supports IPv6 and speeds Mbit/s per 6 MHz channel, or Mbit/s per 3 MHz channelMbit/s Possible Speeds up to 100Mbps at your home

57 Future of all connection technologies Digital Cable, DSL, ATM, Frame Relay, Ethernet, ? Whats the Magic Number ? (referring to speed) Reducing Price or no price increase FIBER to the door. Verizon – FIOS Google

58 What is an IPv6 Address IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses A typical example of an IPv6 address is: 2001:0db8:85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:0370:7334. The 128-bit IPv6 address can be abbreviated with the following rules: Rule one: Leading zeroes within a 16-bit value may be omitted. fe80:0000:0000:0000:0202:b3ff:fe1e:8329 may be written as fe80:0:0:0:202:b3ff:fe1e:8329 ^ 0 Removed Rule two: A single occurrence of consecutive groups of zeroes within an address may be replaced by a double colon. THIS CAN BE DONE ONLY ONCE in an a address fe80:0:0:0:202:b3ff:fe1e:8329 becomes fe80::202:b3ff:fe1e:8329 Installed example at Runzheimer International

59 IPv6 Features Multicasting One send many recipients Required IPSec support at the network layer security Same security Standard used in VPN Easier routing Regardless of the longer address this is easier to process

60 Why Upgrade to IPv6

61 IPV4 vs. IPV6 Upgrade concerns Conversion technology 6to4 protocol 128-bit address compared to 32-bit IPv4 address How many addresses is that? 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,45 6

62 Virtualization Overview

63 Virtualization & Networking

64 Virtualization & Storage Area Networks

65 Virtualization & Site Disaster Recovery

66 Cloud Computing Overview What is the Cloud? Definition of Cloud Computing

67 Cloud Computing Types

68 Cloud Features & Comparison PrivatePublicHybrid Performance * HighLowCombined Availability * LimitedUnlimitedCombined Scalability * LimitedUnlimitedCombined Customization UnlimitedLimitedCombined Skill Level HighLowCombined Security ??Combined Cost * HighLowCombined * Items that must be carefully analyzed by IT management.

69 In Conclusion We have discussed current and future trends of telecommunications and networking Any questions?

70 Sources Frenzel, C. W., & Frenzel, J. C. (2004). Management of Information Technology. Boston: Course Technology. Gross, G. (2011, February 22). Net Neutrality Rules Face Uncertain Future After House Vote. Retrieved February 28, 2011, from PC World: ty_rules_face_uncertain_future_after_house_vote.html Lawson, S. (2010, December 21). House Passes Defunding of Net Neutrality Rules. Retrieved February 28, 2011, from PC World: es_compromise_net_neutrality_rules.html#tk.mod_rel Webopedia. (2011, February 27). Retrieved February 27, 2011, from Webopedia: What is Net Neutrality? (2009, April 8). Retrieved February 27, 2011, from Youtube:

71 Sources Circuit Switched Networks MSDN: Circuit-Switched Networks Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN) Pulse dialing (rotary dials)...excellent imagery Telephone Signals DTMF (Dual Tone Multi Frequency) Tones Cell phones and DTMF Multiplexing T1 lines and up…

72 Sources c cfcc8306b6728&URL=http%3a%2f%2f4g- wirelessevolution%2farticles%2f fcc- announces-700-mhz-band-license-auction-july.htm vs-unlicensed-wireless-spectrum/

73 Sources %20Networks/Wireless%20Broadband%20Networks/P oint%20to%20Multi- point%20Networks/Unlicensed/_Documents/Static%20 Files/Licensed%20Versus%20Unlicensed%20Wireless. pdf?localeId=228

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