2 Presenting Telecommunications and Networking The AntagonistsPresenting Telecommunications and NetworkingThe team name highlights our partial non-alignment with certain governmental ideasIntroducing our team members…DonPatrickAaronAustinDanMikeGlenn
4 Circuit Switched Networks A telephone network uses circuit switching to create an end-to-end connection with the dialed phone before the caller speaks 1960’s…Creating a circuit makes exclusive allocations of transmission/reception resources for the duration of the call
5 Circuit Switched Networks The telephone network is the largest global system ever created...50 year-old phones can still operate with today’s equipment !! The basic design was in the early 1900s… Mr. Alexander Graham Bell `+-
6 Circuit Switched Networks The Public Switched Telephone Network (a circuit-switched network) is today’s worldwide collection of interconnected public telephone networks, designed primarily for voice trafficA dedicated circuit (aka “channel”) is established for the duration of any transmission, such as a phone call, and can be easily contrasted with packet switching networks, in which messages are divided into small segments (packets) and where each packet is sent individually
8 Circuit Switched Networks This is a guarantee that any successful connection will fully own the resources necessary to allow a high quality interactionWhen a call ends, the circuit is broken & resources are freed up for new connectionThe capacity of a network to allow any two endpoints to be interconnected…Switched Networks
11 Telephone SignalsTelephones originally used continuous analog signals, which vary in amplitude & frequency (signal strength & pitch)A phone converts sound into electrical signals with the microphone (mouthpiece) and with the speaker (earpiece) at the other end, converts the signals back to soundToday’s digital signals differ significantly, as they are both discrete & discontinuousDigital signals exist in predetermined states as binary signals are limited to only zeroes & onesThese can be transmitted “bazillions” of times better (both faster and more quality) than the old-fashioned analog approach…
13 Telephone SignalsDialing today’s phones is done using DTMF (Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency) tones…these are from the row & column of the buttons you press (0-9, etc) to make a call>>>> Listen…Additional DTMF tones (“ABCD tones”) are used by the U.S. military & some PBX systemsSpecial phones are equipped with keys to allow specific protocol usage:A – Flash,B – Flash override priority,C – Priority communication, andD – Priority override
15 MultiplexingMultiplexing is the means of subdividing a “physical media” into more than one channelTelephone lines use “frequency multiplexing” to carry voice & DSL signals simultaneously;frequencies up to 4,000 Hz carry voice and the 25 kHz MHz band carry DSLOptical lines carry literally several orders of magnitude more data than do phone lines
17 VirtualizationVirtualization is generally non-specific with respect to the subjects shared above (Circuit-switched networks, Telephone signals and Multiplexing)… More details will be shared as we progress.
18 Digitizing Voice Signals The process is conversion of analog waves to digital dataTake samples to find the amplitudeConvert the different amplitudes into binary
26 Optical-Fiber Media Fiber Cabling Advantages Transmits using light signalsWaves of light travel within the glass coreAdvantagesNot susceptible to EMICan travel longer distancesHigher bandwidthHarder to tap
27 Optical Fiber Types Name Medium Distance Speed 100BaseTX 62.5 micron fiber412 meters100mbps1000Base SX220 meters1000mbps50 micron fiber550 metersConnector TypesSTSCLC
28 Wavelength Division Multiplexing Multiple data streams across a single connectionStreams separated by wavelengthSeparate wavelengths also called lambdas
29 Fiber-Based Advanced Transport Technologies Increases in fiber deploymentFaster SpeedsLower production costsEasy to maintainFiber Network TechnologiesFDDISONETEthernet
30 FDDI Fiber Distributed Data Interface Operates on layers 1 and 2 Ring topologyUses two unidirectional fiber ringsSecondary ring provides failoverReplaced by Fast EthernetSupports100mbps500 nodesDistances of 200km
31 SONET Synchronized Optical Network SONET can use copper or fiber Provides very high data ratesUsed primarily for backbone connectionsStarts at 51.84mbpsSONET can use copper or fiberSTS (Synchronous Transport Signal)Used for copperOC (Optical Carrier)Used for fiber
33 Where is the technology headed? Physical media will not changeCopperFiberCable bandwidth will increaseCat7 +Smaller fiber coresLower cost fiber WAN’s
34 OSI ModelHere is a picture of the Open System Interconnection or OSI model, as you can see it is composed of 7 layers but, I am not going to go into detail about each layer because this Model is not in commercial use anymore. However, despite its lack of use the OSI model has provided a backbone for current networking models and changed the way we look at network and data communications technology today.
35 Internetworking Technology Internet Protocol SuiteCommonly known as “TCP/IP “Consists of 4 LayersOne of those models based off the OSI model is the Internet Protocol Suite. All protocols responsible for upholding communications across the internet are part of this Suite. It consists of 4 layers, the Link Layer, Internet Layer, Transport Layer, and Application Layer.
36 Link Layer ARP ISDN OSPF Address Resolution Protocol Integrated Services Digital NetworkOSPFOpen Shortest Path FirstSome components that fit under the Link layer category are the ARP, ISDN, and the OSPF. The ARP’s main use is to convert an IP address into a physical or Data Link Control address. The ISDN is just an international standard for sending data primarily voice and video over digital lines. OSPF is an interior routing protocol that prevents problems like routing loops to create a more stable network and is rapidly replacing the older and inefficient routing protocol known as RIP or the Routing Information Protocol.
37 Internet Layer IP ICMP IGMP Internet Protocol Internet Control Message ProtocolIGMPInternet Group Management ProtocolIn the Internet Layer, protocols that fall under this section are the Internet, Control Message, and the Group Management Protocols. The most common is the Internet Protocol and what it does is assign each computer or node on a network a distinctive numerical address known as the IP address. Currently, there is a transition going on from IP4 to IP6 but I’m not going to get into that now because Mike will discuss this later in the presentation. The Control Message and Group Management Protocols are extensions of the IP where the Control Message supports error and control packets while the Group Management provides a way for a computer to report its multicast membership status to nearby routers.
38 Transport Layer TCP UDP Transmission Control Protocol User Datagram ProtocolWhen it comes to the Transport Layer, the two most primary areas are the Transmission Control and the User Datagram Protocols. The TCP works in conjunction with IP. However, unlike IP, Transmission Control maintains the connection of two hosts during their data exchanges, and delivers the packets in the exact same order that they were sent. User Datagram is similar to TCP in that it runs on top of IP. However, it differs because it does not provide that many error recovery services like TCP does. Its mainly used to directly send and receive datagrams over the network, Broadcasting messages are mainly used on UDP.
39 Application Layer HTTP DNS FTP SMTP Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Domain Name ServiceFTPFile Transfer ProtocolSMTPSimple Mail Transfer ProtocolThe application layer contains a combination of protocols that include providing services for the user and supports the system’s functions. HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and how web servers and browsers respond to commands. DNS is used to map and translate domain names into IP addresses. FTP is used to transfer documents and files between any two locations. SMTP is basically used to transfer messages between servers.
40 Net Neutrality What is it? Non-discriminatory Does not favor any one destination or application over anotherNet neutrality is a network that allows open and equal access to all. However, recent issues have come up about it and I have a video which will provide you more detail about what net neutrality is and give you some background about the debate surrounding it.
42 Net Neutrality Cont’d. December 21st,2010 February 22nd,2011 FCC’s stand on Net Neutrality Rules is reportedFebruary 22nd,2011U.S. House of Representatives Vote on Net Neutrality fundingAs the video mentioned, Net Neutrality’s tide did seem to be turning especially after December 21st, 2010 because the FCC approved net neutrality rules by not allowing broadband companies to block customer’s access to legal content on the Web. However, that all changed when the House of Representatives majority voted for a 61 billion dollar budget cut, this cut included the FCC’s funding to enforce net neutrality rules.
43 VOICE OVER IPVoice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) refers to the transmission of voice telephony over IP networks.
44 VOICE OVER IP (cont) Benefits Operational Cost Flexibility Don’t need two separate data plansFeatures that traditional telecommunication companies normally charge extra for, are available free of charge from open source implementationsFlexibilityLocation independenceThe ability to transmit more than one telephone call over a single broadband connection.
45 VOICE OVER IP (cont) Pitfalls Quality of service Susceptible to power failureMakes users harder to locate during emergency callsSecurityFax handling
46 Licensed WirelessOperates within the part of the radio spectrum designated by government regulators.Reserved for individual license holders.Expensive to obtain a licenseLong processEquipmentVery expensiveTime consuming set-up
48 Licensed Wireless (cont) Operators are permitted exclusive use of part of the band over an assigned geographic area.6.0 GHz in the U.S.50 MHz of the 4.9 band available for public safetyLatest Licensed Wireless“Auction 92”July 19, 201116 licensesAT&T and Verizon
49 Unlicensed WirelessThe unlicensed part of the spectrum does not promise exclusive use of the band.5.4 and 5.8 GHz in the U.S.Eliminates the delay/expense of obtaining a licenseEquipmentFar less expensiveEasier to set-up
50 Future of Wireless New wireless: N Old Wireless: G Double the speed of GWider Range than GVoIP capableOld Wireless: GNG
52 Frame Relay / ATM Frame Relay physical / logical link layers packet switching methodologystandardize the communications of DS-0 and DS-1(T1) LinesATMswitching techniqueasynchronous time-division multiplexingfixed-sized cellsATM is a core protocol used over the SONET/SDH
53 Gigabit Usually refers to LAN speed connections rather than WAN links BUT….https://primeaccess.att.com/shell.cfm?section=2641
54 Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL) 14 current versions of DSL from ADSL to VDSL2More are in developmentSpeeds vary by location and proximity to a Central office as well as what version of DSL is running in your area. Documented speeds can reach up to 200Mbit/s and are increasingUses existing telephone communication infrastructure but requires proper frequency hardware to separate the voice channels and data channels
55 Future of DSLPlans-200-Mbps“In the case of ADSL, competition in Internet access caused subscription fees to drop significantly over the years, thus making ADSL more economical than dial up access. Telephone companies were pressured into moving to ADSL largely due to competition from cable companies…”1 Gigabit DSL? Department of Electrical EngineeringStanford University
56 Digital Cable DOCSIS most common form of data services Current version 3.0 which supports IPv6 and speeds Mbit/s per 6 MHz channel, or Mbit/s per 3 MHz channelPossible Speeds up to 100Mbps at your home
57 Future of all connection technologies Digital Cable, DSL, ATM, Frame Relay, Ethernet, ?What’s the Magic Number ? (referring to speed)Reducing Price or no price increaseFIBER to the door.Verizon – FIOSGoogle
58 What is an IPv6 Address IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses A typical example of an IPv6 address is:2001:0db8:85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:0370:7334.The 128-bit IPv6 address can be abbreviated with the following rules:Rule one: Leading zeroes within a 16-bit value may be omitted. fe80:0000:0000:0000:0202:b3ff:fe1e:8329 may be written as fe80:0:0:0:202:b3ff:fe1e:8329^ 0 RemovedRule two: A single occurrence of consecutive groups of zeroes within an address may be replaced by a double colon.THIS CAN BE DONE ONLY ONCE in an a addressfe80:0:0:0:202:b3ff:fe1e:8329 becomes fe80::202:b3ff:fe1e:8329Installed example at Runzheimer International
59 IPv6 Features Multicasting One send many recipientsRequired IPSec support at the network layer securitySame security Standard used in VPNEasier routingRegardless of the longer address this is easier to process
68 Cloud Features & Comparison PrivatePublicHybridPerformance *HighLowCombinedAvailability *LimitedUnlimitedScalability *CustomizationSkill LevelSecurity?Cost ** Items that must be carefully analyzed by IT management.
69 In ConclusionWe have discussed current and future trends of telecommunications and networkingAny questions?
70 SourcesFrenzel, C. W., & Frenzel, J. C. (2004). Management of Information Technology. Boston: Course Technology. Gross, G. (2011, February 22). Net Neutrality Rules Face Uncertain Future After House Vote. Retrieved February 28, 2011, from PC World: ty_rules_face_uncertain_future_after_house_vote.html Lawson, S. (2010, December 21). House Passes Defunding of Net Neutrality Rules. Retrieved February 28, 2011, from PC World: es_compromise_net_neutrality_rules.html#tk.mod_rel Webopedia. (2011, February 27). Retrieved February 27, 2011, from Webopedia: What is Net Neutrality? (2009, April 8). Retrieved February 27, 2011, from Youtube:
71 Sources Circuit Switched Networks MSDN: Circuit-Switched Networks Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN)Pulse dialing (rotary dials)...excellent imageryTelephone SignalsDTMF (Dual Tone Multi Frequency) TonesCell phones and DTMFMultiplexingT1 lines and up…
72 Sourceshttps://piomail.carrollu.edu/owa/redir.aspx?C=4d8d163dcc c cfcc8306b6728&URL=http%3a%2f%2f4g- wirelessevolution.tmcnet.com%2ftopics%2f4g- wirelessevolution%2farticles%2f fcc- announces-700-mhz-band-license-auction-july.htm vs-unlicensed-wireless-spectrum/