Concept established in 1961 through MITs Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS). E-mail was the most popular application for the ARPANET computer network when it was established in 1969. In 1971, Roy Tomlinson developed the use of the at symbol (@) to separate the names of their user and their machine.
Instead of snail-mail, e-mail sends the messages and attachments instantly (in real time). It is the cheapest communication alternative overall. It becomes more personal; more is involved in an e-mail than F2F or telephone communication.
Definition: The real-time exchange of information between people who are not in the same physical space First introduced in the 1960s with American Telephone and Telegraph's Picturephone In 2004- $2.25 billion in revenue Through teleconferencing, companies can conduct meetings, customer briefs, training, demonstrations and workshops by phone or online instead of in person.
Reduces the cost of Face-To-Face meetings (travel costs) People Follow-ups Shorter Meetings Better prepared
Three things to consider Compatibility: plug and play Sound Quality: Full duplex technology Office Setting: Test office area Options: Expansion capabilities, remote control or wireless microphones Price: ranges anywhere from $400 - $2000
a set of interactive telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations to interact via two-way video and audio transmissions simultaneously. Also known as video teleconference or visual collaboration. Is a type of groupware. Point-to-Point: conference between two people Multi-Point: conference that involve several sites with more than one person at each site.
1964 – the earliest form of video conferencing. AT&T introduced the Picturephone at the Worlds Fair in New York. 1971: Ericsson demonstrates the first trans-atlantic video telephone (LME) call. 1992: AT&T's $1,500 videophone for home market 1992: CU-SeeMe developed for the Macintosh system. Although the first version didnt have audio, it was the best video system developed to that point. 1996: The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) began developing standards for video conferencing coding 2001: the worlds first transatlantic tele-surgery took place utilizing video conferencing. In this instance, video conferencing was instrumental in allowing a surgeon in the U.S. to use a robot overseas to perform gall bladder surgery on a patient.
2003: rise in use of video conferencing for off- campus classrooms 2004: Applied Global Technologies developed a voice-activated camera for use in video conferencing that tracks the voice of various speakers in order to focus on whoever is speaking during a conference call. 2004: WiredRed Software became the first company to enable 10 or more participants to conduct video conference sessions simultaneously. 2005: WiredRed made another first by offering web, VoIP and video conferencing over secure connections that can utilize third-party, or on- premise PKI systems.
Core technology of a VTC system is digital compression of audio and visual streams in real time. Codec: the hardware or software that performs compression ( can achieve rates of compression u p to 1:500) digital stream of 1's and 0's are subdivided into labeled packets, which are then transmitted through a digital network of some kind (usually ISDN or IP).
Two types of VTC systems: 1) dedicated systems: have all required components packaged into a single piece of equipment. 2) desktop systems: are add-ons to normal PC's, transforming them into VTC devices. International Telecommunications Union (ITU) - has three umbrellas of standards for VTC: a) H.320 - the standard for VTC over integrated services digital networks (ISDN) b) H.323 - the standard for transporting multimedia applications over LANs and IPs c) H.324 - the standard for transmission over POTS, or audio telephony networks.
Video input : video camera or webcam Video output: computer monitor, television or projector Audio input: microphones Audio output: loudspeakers or a headset Data transfer: analog or digital telephone network, (LAN or Internet)
Business: enables individuals in faraway places to have meetings on short notice, saves money on traveling expenses. Education: teachers from all over the world can be brought to classes in remote or otherwise isolated places. Students from diverse communities and backgrounds can come together to learn about one another. Students are able to explore, communicate, analyze and share information and ideas with one another. Medicine: patients may contact physicians and nurses in emergency or routine situations. Physicians and other paramedical professionals can discuss cases across large distances
Eye Contact Eye Contact plays a large role in conversational turn taking, perceived attention & intent and other aspects of group communication. Videoconferencing systems can sometimes provide an incorrect perception that the remote interlocutor is avoiding eye contact. Appearance Consciousness Communication impairment can result from people being self conscious about appearing on camera. People might also worry about saying or doing something embarrassing since the video streams can be recorded. Watch Video