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1. To understand when personal interviews, telephone interviews, or self-administered surveys should be conducted 2. To discuss the advantages and disadvantages of personal interviews 3. To explain when door-to-door personal interviews should be used instead of mall intercept interviews 4. To discuss the advantages and disadvantages of telephone surveys 5. To discuss the advantages and disadvantages of mail, the Internet, and other means of distributing self-administered questionnaires 6. To understand how to increase response rates to mail surveys 7. To provide examples of the influence of modern technology on survey research 8. To select the appropriate survey research design 9. To discuss the importance of pre-testing questionnaires

2 Human Interactive Media and Electronic Interactive Media
Media Used to Communicate With Respondents Human Interactive Media and Electronic Interactive Media Human interactive media are a personal form of communication Electronic interactive media allow marketers to reach a large audience, to personalize individual messages, and to interact using digital technology Non-interactive Media Self-administered questionnaires printed on paper are non-interactive

3 Using Interviews To Communicate With Respondents
Interviews can be categorized based on the medium the researcher uses in communicating with individuals and recording data

4 Personal Interviews Personal Interview
Face-to-face communication in which an interviewer asks a respondent to answer questions

5 Personal Interviews (cont’d)
The Advantages of Personal Interviews The opportunity for feedback Probing Complex Answers Probing: A method used in personal interviews in which the interviewer asks the respondent for clarification of answers to standardized questions Length of Interview Completeness of Questionnaire Item nonresponse: Failure of a respondent to provide an answer to a survey question Props and Visual Aids High Participation

6 Personal Interviews (cont’d)
Disadvantages of Personal Interviews Interviewer influence Lack of anonymity of respondent Cost

7 Personal Interviews (cont’d)
Door-to-Door Interviews and Shopping Mall Intercepts Door-to-door interview Personal interview conducted at respondents’ doorsteps in an effort to increase the participation rate in the survey Callback An attempt to recontact individuals selected for a sample who were not available initially Mall intercept interview Personal interview conducted in a shopping mall Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited –8

8 Personal Interviews (cont’d)
Global Considerations Willingness to participate in a personal interview varies dramatically around the world The norms about appropriate business conduct also influence business people’s willingness to provide information to interviewers

9 Telephone Interviews Telephone Interview
Personal interview conducted by telephone, the mainstay of commercial survey research

10 Telephone Interviews (cont’d)
The Characteristics of Telephone Interviews Speed Cost Absence of face-to-face contact Cooperation Representative samples Callbacks Limited duration Lack of visual medium

11 Central Location Interviewing
Telephone interviews conducted from a central location using WATS lines at fixed charges

12 Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing
Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) Technology that allows answers to telephone interviews to be entered directly into a computer for processing Computerized Voice-Activated Telephone Interview Combining computerized telephone dialling and voice-activated computer messages to allow researchers to conduct telephone interviews without human interviewers Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited –13

13 Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing
Global Considerations Different cultures often have different norms about proper telephone behaviour

14 Self-Administered Questionnaires
Survey in which the respondent takes the responsibility for reading and answering the questions

15 Self-Administered Questionnaires (cont’d)
Mail Questionnaires Mail Survey A self-administered questionnaire sent to respondents through the mail Advantages and disadvantages of mail surveys: Geographic flexibility Cost Respondent convenience Anonymity of respondent Absence of interviewer Standardized questions Time is money Length of mail questionnaire

16 Self-Administered Questionnaires (cont’d)
Response Rate The number of questionnaires returned or completed divided by the number of eligible people who were asked to participate in the survey

17 Self-Administered Questionnaires (cont’d)
Increasing Response Rates for Mail Surveys Cover letter Letter that accompanies a questionnaire to induce the reader to complete and return the questionnaire Incentives help Interesting questions Follow-ups Advance notification Survey sponsorship Other techniques Keying mail questionnaires with codes

18 Self-Administered Questionnaires (cont’d)
Global Considerations Researchers conducting surveys in more than one country must recognize that postal services and cultural circumstances differ around the world

19 Self-Administered Questionnaires That Use Other Forms of Distribution
Drop-off Method A survey method that requires the interviewer to travel to the respondent’s location to drop off questionnaires that will be picked up later Fax Surveys A survey that uses fax machines as a way for respondents to receive and return questionnaires Surveys Surveys distributed through electronic mail

20 Self-Administered Questionnaires That Use Other Forms of Distribution (cont’d)
Internet Surveys A self-administered questionnaire posted on a Web site Advantages and disadvantages of Internet surveys: Speed and cost-effectiveness Visual appeal and interactivity Respondent participation and cooperation Representative samples Accurate real-time data capture Callbacks Personalized and flexible questioning

21 Self-Administered Questionnaires That Use Other Forms of Distribution (cont’d)
Internet Surveys (cont’d) Advantages and disadvantages of Internet surveys (cont’d): Respondent anonymity Response rates Security concerns Kiosk Interactive Surveys A computer with a touch screen may be installed in a kiosk at a trade show, at a professional conference, in an airport, or in any other high-traffic location to administer an interactive survey

22 Self-Administered Questionnaires That Use Other Forms of Distribution (cont’d)
Survey Research That Mixes Modes Mixed-mode survey Study that employs any combination of survey methods

23 Selecting the Appropriate Survey Research Design
To determine the appropriate technique, the researcher must ask several questions: Is the assistance of an interviewer necessary? Are respondents interested in the issues being investigated? Will cooperation be easily attained? How quickly is the information needed? Will the study require a long and complex questionnaire? How large is the budget?

24 Pre-Testing Pre-Testing
Screening procedure that involves a trial run with a group of respondents to iron out fundamental problems in the survey design

25 Ethical Issues in Survey Research
Many ethical issues apply to survey research: Respondents’ right to privacy The use of deception Respondents’ right to be informed about the purpose of the research The need for confidentiality The need for honesty in collecting data The need for objectivity in reporting data


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