Presentation on theme: "Unit 7. Alexander Graham Bell "... an inspired black-haired Scotsman of twenty eight, on the eve of marriage, vibrant and alive to new ideas." Alexander."— Presentation transcript:
Alexander Graham Bell "... an inspired black-haired Scotsman of twenty eight, on the eve of marriage, vibrant and alive to new ideas." Alexander Graham Bell : The Man Who Invented the Telephone
Telephone Facts The inventor of the telephone in 1892 opens long-distance service between New York and Chicago over 800 miles of open wire line. Only 14 years before, in 1878, he had predicted that some day "a man in one part of the country may communicate by word of mouth with another in a distant place."
The First Telephone call "Mr. Watson, come here, I want you! Telephone comes from the Greek word tele, meaning from afar, and phone, meaning voice or voiced sound.
The telephone is an electrical instrument Speaking to the transmitter makes its diaphragm vibrate. This varies the electric current, causing the receivers diaphragm to vibrate. This duplicates the original sound.
The Organization of This Text The essay can be divided into 3 parts including the introduction, the body and the conclusion.
Questions How would you divide this essay into three parts? Main ideas of each paragraph? How does the text start? How can a telephone create anxiety or irritating delay? Why would the author find a public telephone box horrible? Whats the authors attitude toward important news? Whats the consequence of telling the public your name and number? Under what circumstances would a phone be essential? How does the text end?
Organization The word on in the title tells us it is argumentative writing. The writer argues for a proposition: that it is unnecessary to have a telephone because it brings more trouble than help. The way he develops his argument is inductive, that is, he uses large numbers of examples to prove his point.
1. Introduction. (para.1) The writer puts forward a premise on which he bases his argument. The sentence I just havent got a telephone. most clearly establishes the subject and draws the reader into the essay. 2. The Body (paras. 2-6)
(1) Para 2 a. The writer can live a normal life without a telephone. b. A telephone is a pest and a time-waster. (2) Para 3 To have a telephone at home is a nuisance. (3) Para 4 Without a telephone, news either good or bad, will reach anyone just as quickly. (4) Para 5 To have ones name and address printed in a telephone directory will bring one a world of troubles. (5) Para 6 A telephone at home is not of much use even in case of emergency. 3. Conclusion (para 7) The last paragraph makes a convincing finish in which the writer draws a conclusion from his preceding argument.
Part 1 (1) Introduction: The author tells the reader he doesnt have a phone.
he is taking too much for granted. So many of us take clean water for granted. One of the problems with relationships is that after a while you begin to take each other for granted. We took it for granted that you knew the whole matter.
He is proposing to attempt the impossible. The sentence means _______. He is suggesting doing something that he can not fulfill (because I dont have a phone).
I m not on the telephone. I cannot be reached by telephone.
Part 2. (2-6) Body: The author tells the reader his reasons why he chooses not to have a phone.
Find out the supporting details in paragraphs 2- 6. 2: He doesnt have it _____. He thinks it is ____. 2: He doesnt have it because he doesn't really like the telephone and because its not necessary. He thinks it is a pest and a time-waster. 3: To have a phone at home is _____. 3: To have a phone at home is a nuisance. It causes inconvenience and trouble.
4: Important news, good or bad, ____. 4: Important news, good or bad, will reach you quickly without a telephone. 5: To have your name and number printed on the telephone directory will ______. 5: To have your name and number printed on the telephone directory will cause a lot of trouble. 6: A telephone at home ______. 6: A telephone at home may be useful in case of emergency, but you can easily reach a phone in England, so its not so necessary to have one at home.
Why don t I have a telephone? Not because I pretend to be wise or pose as unusual. 1. Whats special about the question? It is a question followed immediately by an answer. Its a rhetorical device, in which a question is posed and then answered by the same speaker or writer. 2. Paraphrase or pose as unusual. … or pretend to be uncommon / out of the ordinary.
It may create unnecessary suspense and anxiety Please tell us what happened; we're all waiting in suspense. Come on then, tell me what happened; the suspense is killing me. suspense novel/story/movie anxiety or apprehension
Understanding of the sentence When you are waiting for an expected call, but for some reason it does not come, then you are bound to be nervous and restless, which is really not necessary.
or irritating delay, as when you keep ringing a number that is always engaged. She rang Mrs. Tavett but the line was engaged. [= busy American English) engaged tone/signal Kate's engaged to Mark.
flavoured with cheap face-powder and chain-smoking... filled with the odor of womens low quality face-powder and that of mens cigarettes...
your back is chilled by the cold looks of somebody who is fidgeting to take your place The child was chilled to the bone/marrow. Our hearts chilled when we heard that our team had lost again. Don't chill their enthusiasm. Would you stop fidgeting! You always have ants in your pants! Stop fidgeting with your pens!
Understanding the sentence Somebody is anxious to take your place to use the public phone. His / Her cold stare behind your back is sufficient to make your blood run cold.
Have you never rushed dripping from the bath, or chewing from the table, or dazed from the bed, only to be told that you are a wrong number?
Ill news travels apace. Bad news travels fast. Bad news has wings.
Perhaps you have been indiscreet enough to have your name and number printed in the telephone directory It was very indiscreet of Colin to tell them about our plan. ill-advised, imprudent, unwise The "Viewer Discretion Is Advised" warning on TV shows often comes before the show begins. In this context, VDA implies the show's content may not be suitable for all viewers.
a book more in evidence than Shakespeare or the Bible The police are always in evidence at football matches. It was early, and few pedestrians were in evidence on the city streets.
Understanding the sentence … a book which is more often seen or used than either Shakespeares works, which are very famous, or the Bible, which is the sacred writings of the Christian religion and which every Christian owns. In evidence here means easily seen.
bend The boy is bent on mischief. The wife was bent on making life difficult for her husband. Peter is bent on becoming a football player.
Part 3. (7) Conclusion: Theres no need to have a phone.
Is there any conclusion to be drawn from my obstinacy and wilfulness, my escapism, if you like to call it that? stubbornness He was the most obstinate man I've ever met. obstinate, willful, stubborn, headstrong, mulish, stiff-necked, bullheaded, pigheaded, dogged, pertinacious a willful child
What does the writer really mean by escapism ? Escapism refers to the tendency to escape from daily reality or routine by indulging in daydreaming, fantasy, or entertainment. Here the writer really means avoiding answering the telephone.
if I were a tycoon, for instance, or bedridden, I might find a telephone essential. a magnate
… there are two things for which the English seem to show particular aptitude: … Aptitude means an inherent ability, as for learning or quality of being suitable. Show aptitude for means have the ability to do something. The English seem to be especially talented in two areas. / There are two things that the English seem to be able to do especially well.
Question What writing techniques are adopted to make the writers proposition more easily accepted?
Man has a big brain. He can think, learn and speak. Scientists used to think that humans were different from animals because they can think and learn. They know now that animals can learn dogs, rats, birds and even worms can learn. Scientists are now beginning to understand that humans are different from animals because they can speak. Animals cannot speak. They make noises when they are afraid, or angry, or unhappy. Apes are our nearest cousins. They can understand some things more quickly than human beings, and one or two have learned a few words, but they are still different from us. They cannot join words or make sentences. They cannot think like us because they have no language, as we mean it. They can never think about the past or the future. Language is a wonderful thing. Man has been able to develop civilization largely because he has language. Every child can speak his own language very well when he is four or five but no animal learns to speak. How do children learn? Scientists do not really know. What happens when we speak? Scientists do not know. They only know that man can speak because he has a big brain.