2Introduction Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks Students used to go into either data communications or voice communications.Today, the two fields are merging.Voice systems transfer computer data and data networks support voice.Anyone studying the field of data communications and networks must learn some basic telecommunications too.
3Basic Telephone Systems Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksBasic Telephone SystemsThe local loop is the telephone line that runs from the telephone company’s central office to your home or business.The central office is the building that houses the telephone company’s switching equipment and provides a local dial tone on your telephone.If you place a long distance call, the central office passes your telephone call off to a long distance provider.
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5Basic Telephone Systems Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksBasic Telephone SystemsThe country is divided into a few hundred local access transport areas (LATAs).If your call goes from one LATA to another, it is a long distance call and is handled by a long distance telephone company.If your call stays within a LATA, it is a local distance call and is handled by a local telephone company.
6Basic Telephone Systems Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksBasic Telephone SystemsA trunk is a special telephone line that runs between central offices and other telephone company switching centers.A trunk is usually digital, high speed, and carries multiple telephone circuits.A trunk is typically a 4-wire circuit, while a telephone line is a 2-wire circuit.
7Basic Telephone Systems Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksBasic Telephone SystemsA trunk is not associated with a single telephone number like a line is.A telephone number consists of an area code, an exchange, and a subscriber extension.The area code and exchange must start with the digits 2-9 to separate them from long distance and operator services.
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9Basic Telephone Systems Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksBasic Telephone SystemsWhen the telephone company installs a line, it must not proceed any further than 12 inches into the building. This point is the demarcation point, or demarc.Modular connectors, such as the RJ-11, are commonly used to interconnect telephone lines and the telephone handset to the base.When the handset is lifted off the base (off-hook), an off-hook signal is sent to the central office.
10Basic Telephone Systems Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksBasic Telephone SystemsWhen the off-hook signal arrives at the central office, a dial tone is generated and returned to the telephone.When the user hears the dial tone, they dial (or press) the number.The central office equipment collects the dialed digits, and proceeds to place the appropriate call.
11PBX Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks Private branch exchange (PBX) - a common internal phone switching system for medium to large-sized businesses.Provides advanced intelligent features to users, such as:4-digit internal dialingSpecial prefixes for WATS, FX, etc (private dialing plans)PBX intelligently decides how to route a call for lowest cost
12More PBX Features Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks Voice mailRoutes incoming calls to the best station set (automatic call distribution)Provides recorded messages and responds to touch-tone requests (automated attendant)Access to database storage and retrieval (interactive voice response)VoIP
13PBX Components Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks CPU, memory, telephone lines, trunksSwitching networkSupporting logic cardsMain distribution frameConsole or switchboardBattery back-up system
14Automated Attendant Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks Plays a recorded greeting and offers a set of options.Lets the caller enter an extension directly (touch tone or voice) and bypass an “operator”.Forwards the caller to a human operator if the caller does not have a touch tone phone.Available as an option on a PBX.
15Automatic Call Distributor Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksAutomatic Call DistributorWhen you call a business and are told all operators / technicians / support staff etc. are busy and that your call will be answered in the order it was received.Used in systems where incoming calling volume is large, such as customer service, help desk, order entry, credit authorization, reservations, and catalog sales.Early systems used hunt groups. Original systems routed call to first operator in line (kept person very busy!)
16Automatic Call Distributor Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksAutomatic Call DistributorModern systems perform more advanced functions, such as:Prioritize the callsRoute calls to appropriate agent based on the skill set of the agentIf all agents busy, deliver call to waiting queue and play appropriate message (like how long they may have to wait)Forward calls to another call center, or perform automatic return call
17Interactive Voice Response Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksInteractive Voice ResponseIVR is similar to AA except:IVR incorporates a connection to a database (on a mainframe or server)IVR allows caller to access and/or modify database information.IVR can also perform fax on demand.
18Interactive Voice Response Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksInteractive Voice ResponseCommon examples of IVR include:Call your bank to inquire about an account balanceUniversity online registration systemBrokerage firm taking routine orders from investorsInvestment fund taking routine requests for new account applicationsA company providing employees with info about their benefit plans
19Key Telephone System Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks Used within a small office or a branch office, a key telephone system (KTS) is an on premise resource sharing device similar to a PBX.For example, a key system might distribute 48 internal telephone sets over 16 external phone lines. The business would pay for the 16 individual lines but have 48 telephone sets operating.User selects outside line by pressing corresponding line button on key set (phone).
20Basic Telephone Systems Services Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksBasic Telephone Systems ServicesForeign exchange service (FX) - customer calls a local number which is then connected to a leased line to a remote site.Wide area telecommunications services (WATS) - discount volume calling to local and long distance sites.Off premises extensions (OPX) - dial tone at location B comes from the PBX at location A.
21Other Players in the Market Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksOther Players in the MarketAlternate operator services - pay phones, hotel phonesAggregators - an aggregator pulls a bunch of small companies together and goes after phone discountsReseller - rents or leases variety of lines from phone companies, then resells to customersSpecialized mobile radio carriers - mobile communication services to businesses and individuals, including dispatch, paging, and data services. ARDIS and RAM Mobile Data two good examples
22The Telephone Before and After 1984 Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksThe Telephone Before and After 1984In 1984, the U.S. government broke up AT&T.Before then, AT&T owned a large majority of all local telephone circuits and all the long distance service.With the Modified Final Judgment of 1984, AT&T had to split off the local telephone companies from the long distance company.The local telephone companies formed seven Regional Bell Operating Companies. Today, there are only 3 left: AT&T, Qwest (US West), and Verizon (Bell Atlantic).
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24The Telephone Before and After 1984 Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksThe Telephone Before and After 1984Another result of the Modified Judgment was the creation of the LATA (local access and transport area).Local telephone companies became known as local exchange carriers (LECs), and long distance telephone companies became known as interexchange carriers (IEC, or IXC).Calls that remain within a LATA are intra-LATA, or local calls. Calls that pass from one LATA to another are inter-LATA, or long distance.
25The Telephone Before and After 1984 Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksThe Telephone Before and After 1984Before 1984, the telephone network in the U.S. resembled a large hierarchical tree, with Class 5 offices at the bottom and Class 1 offices at the top.Users were connected to the Class 5 offices.The longer the distance of a telephone call, the further up the tree the call progressed.Today’s telephone structure is a collection of LECs, POPs, and IECs.
26Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks The Telephone After 1996Another landmark ruling affecting the telephone industry was the Telecommunications Act of 1996.This act opened up the local telephone market to competitors.Now cable TV companies (cable telephony), long distance telephone companies, or anyone that wanted to start a local telephone company could offer local telephone service.Local phone companies that existed before the Act are known as incumbent local exchange carriers (ILEC) while the new companies are competitive local exchange carriers (CLEC).
27Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks The Telephone After 1996LECs are supposed to allow CLECs access to all local loops and switching centers / central offices.If a local loop is damaged, the LEC is responsible for repair.The LEC is also supposed to provide the CLEC with a discount to the dial tone (17-20%).LECs can also provide long distance service if they can show there is sufficient competition at the local service level.
28Limitations of POTS Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks POTS lines were designed to transmit the human voice, which has a bandwidth less than 4000 Hz.A telephone conversation requires two channels, each occupying 4000 Hz.
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30Limitations of POTS Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks A 4000 Hz analog signal can only carry about 33,600 bits per second of information while a 4000 Hz digital signal can carry about 56,000 bits per second.If you want to send information faster, you need a signal with a higher frequency or you need to incorporate more advanced modulation techniques.POTS cannot deliver faster signals. What will?
31Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks The 56k Digital ModemA 56k modem (56,000 bps) achieves this speed due to digital signaling as opposed to analog signaling used on all other modems.A 56k modem would actually achieve 64k except:1. the local loop is still analog, thus analog signaling2. the analog to digital conversion at the local modem introduces noise/errorCombined, these shortcomings drop the speed to at best 56k.
32Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks The 56k Digital ModemA 56k modem does not achieve 56k either because the FCC will not let the modem transmit at the power level necessary to support 56k, so the best the modem can do is approximately 53kA 56k modem will not even achieve 53k if the connection between your modem and the remote computer contains an additional analog to digital conversion, or if there is significant noise on the line.
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34Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks There is always one analog to digital conversion on the downstream link – at the users modem. This drops the 64Kbps stream down to 56 Kbps.
35Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks The 56k Digital ModemA 56k modem is based upon one of two standards:V.90 - Upstream speed is maximum 33,600 bpsV.92 - Newer standard which allows maximum upstream speed of 48 kbps (under ideal conditions) and can place a data connection on hold if the telephone service accepts call waiting and a voice telephone call arrives
36Digital Subscriber Line Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksDigital Subscriber LineDigital subscriber line (DSL) is a relative newcomer to the field of leased line services.DSL can provide very high data transfer rates over standard telephone lines.Unfortunately, less than half the telephone lines in the U.S. are incapable of supporting DSL.And there has to be a DSL provider in your region.
37Digital Subscriber Line Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksDigital Subscriber LineDSL, depending on the type of service, is capable of transmission speeds from 100s of kilobits into single-digit megabits.Because DSL is highly dependent upon noise levels, a subscriber cannot be any more than 5.5 kilometers (2-3 miles) from the DSL central office.A DSL service can be symmetric, in which the downstream and upstream speeds are identical, or asymmetric in which the downstream speed is faster than the upstream speed.
38Digital Subscriber Line Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksDigital Subscriber LineA DSL service often connects a user to the Internet.A DSL service can also provide a regular telephone service (POTS).The DSL provider uses a DSL access multiplexer (DSLAM) to split off the individual DSL lines into homes and businesses.A user than needs a splitter to separate the POTS line from the DSL line, and then a DSL modem to convert the DSL signals into a form recognized by the computer.
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40Digital Subscriber Line Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksDigital Subscriber LineA DSL service comes in many different forms:ADSL - Asymmetric DSLCDSL - Consumer DSL (trademarked version by Rockwell)DSL.Lite - Slower form than ADSL.HDSL - High-bit rate DSLRADSL - Rate adaptive DSL (speed varies depending on noise level)
41Cable Modems Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks Cable modems allow high speed access to wide area networks such as the Internet.Most cable modems are external devices that connect to the personal computer through a common Ethernet card.Cable modems can provide data transfer speeds between 500 kbps and 2.5 Mbps
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43The T-1 Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks A T-1 line is a digital service offered by the telephone companies and can transfer data as fast as Mbps (both voice and computer data).To support a T-1 service, a channel service unit / data service unit (CSU/DSU) is required at the end of the connection.
44The T-1 Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks A T-1 service is a digital, synchronous TDM stream used by businesses and telephone companies.A T-1 service is always on and always transmitting.One T-1 service can support up to 24 simultaneous channels. These channels can be either voice or data (PBX support).A T-1 service can also be provisioned as a single channel delivering Mbps of data (LAN to ISP connection).
45The T-1 Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks A T-1 service requires 4 wires, as opposed to a 2-wire telephone line.A T-1 can be either intra-LATA (local) which costs roughly $350-$400 per month, or inter-LATA (long distance) which can cost thousands of dollars per month (usually based on distance).A customer may also be able to order a ¼ T-1 or a ½ T-1.
46The T-1 Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks A T-1constantly transmits frames (8000 frames per second).Each frame consists of one byte from each of the 24 channels, plus 1 sync bit (8 * = 193 bits).8000 frames per second * 193 bits per frame = Mbps.If a channel is used for voice, each byte is one byte of PCM-encoded voice.If a channel is used for data, each byte contains 7 bits of data and 1 bit of control information (7 * 8000 = 56 kbps).
47Frame Relay Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks Frame relay is the leased service that can provide a high-speed connection for data transfer between two points either locally or over long distances.A business only has to connect itself to the local frame relay port. Hopefully this connection is a local telephone call.Once the data reaches the local frame relay port, the frame relay network, or cloud, transmits the data to the other side.
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49Frame Relay Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks A connection between two endpoints is called a permanent virtual circuit (PVC).PVCs are created by the provider of the frame relay service.The user uses a high-speed telephone line to connect its company to a port, which is the entryway to the frame relay network.The high-speed line, the port, and the PVC should all be chosen to support a desired transmission speed.
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51Frame Relay Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks Consider a company that has four office locations and currently has six leased lines interconnecting the four locations.To install frame relay, the company would ask for six PVCs in place of the six leased lines.The company would also need four high-speed telephone lines and four ports connecting the four locations to the frame relay cloud.
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54Frame Relay Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks The user and frame relay service would agree upon a committed information rate (CIR).The CIR states that if the customer stays within a specified data rate (standard rate plus a burst rate) the frame relay provider will guarantee delivery of 99.99% of the frames.The burst rate cannot be exceeded for longer than 2 seconds.
55Frame Relay Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks For example: If a company agrees to a CIR of 512 kbps with a burst rate of 256 kbps, the company must stay at or below 512 kbps, with an occasional burst up to 768 kbps, as long as the burst does not last longer than 2 seconds.If the company maintains their end of the agreement, the carrier will provide something like 99.99% throughput and a network delay of no longer than 20 ms.If the customer exceeds its CIR, and the network becomes congested, the customer’s frames may be discarded.
56Frame Relay vs. the Internet Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksFrame Relay vs. the InternetFrame relay has many advantages over the Internet, including guaranteed throughput and minimum delay, and better security.Internet has the advantage of being practically everywhere, cheaper, and simpler to create connections (no PVCs necessary). And Internet tunnels (VPNs) are attractive.
57Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks Voice over Frame RelayFrame relay is also capable of supporting voice communications.The high transfer speeds of frame relay adequately support the needs of interactive voice.If a company requires multiple voice circuits, frame relay is an interesting solution.
58Switched Virtual Circuits Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksSwitched Virtual CircuitsFrame relay can also provide switched virtual circuits (SVC).An SVC can be created dynamically by the customer.Good for short-term connections, but more expensive.
59Asynchronous Transfer Mode Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksAsynchronous Transfer ModeAsynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is a very high speed packet delivery service, similar in a number of ways to frame relay.Both send packets of data over high speed lines.Both require a user to create a circuit with a provider.One noticeable difference between ATM and frame relay is speed - ATM is capable of speeds up to 622 Mbps while frame relay’s maximum is typically 45 Mbps.
60Asynchronous Transfer Mode Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksAsynchronous Transfer ModeSimilar to frame relay, data travels over a connection called a virtual channel connection (VCC).To better manage VCCs, a VCC must travel over a virtual path connection (VPC).One of ATM’s strengths (besides its high speeds) is its ability to offer various classes of service.If a company requires a high-speed, continuous connection, they might consider a constant bit rate service.
61Asynchronous Transfer Mode Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksAsynchronous Transfer ModeA less demanding service is variable bit rate (VBR).VBR can also support real time applications (rt-VBR), as well as non-real time applications (nrt-VBR), but do not demand a constant bit stream.Available bit rate (ABR) is used for bursty traffic that does not need to be transmitted immediately. ABR traffic may be held up until a transmission opening is available.Unspecified bit rate (UBR) is for lower rate traffic that may get held up, and may even be discarded part way through transmission if congestion occurs.
62Asynchronous Transfer Mode Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksAsynchronous Transfer ModeAdvantages of ATM include very high speeds and the different classes of service.Disadvantages include potentially higher costs (both equipment and support) and a higher level of complexity.
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64Convergence Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery Networks Convergence is a big issue in the voice and data delivery industryPhone companies are buying other phone companiesOlder technologies are falling by the wayside as newer technologies take over a larger share of the marketNewer devices are incorporating multiple applicationsComputer telephony integration is one large example of convergence
65Computer Telephony Integration Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksComputer Telephony IntegrationComputer telephony integration (CTI) is the emerging field that combines more traditional voice networks with modern computer networks.Consider a system in which a customer calls a customer support number. The customer’s telephone number appears on the customer support rep’s terminal and immediately pulls up the customer’s data. The rep answers the phone by clicking on an icon on the screen and helps the customer. The rep transfers the call by clicking on another icon on the computer screen.
66Computer Telephony Integration Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksComputer Telephony IntegrationCTI can also integrate voice cabling with data cabling.The company PBX talks directly to the LAN server. The PBX can direct the LAN server to provide a telephone operation to the user through the user’s computer.The telephones may still be connected to the PBX or they may be connected to the LAN via the LAN wiring.
67Computer Telephony Integration Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksComputer Telephony IntegrationCTI applications could include the following:Unified messagingInteractive voice responseIntegrated voice recognition and responseFax processing and fax-backText-to-speech and speech-to-text conversions
68Computer Telephony Integration Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksComputer Telephony IntegrationCTI applications could include the following:Third party call controlPBX Graphic User InterfaceCall filteringCustomized menuing systems
69Telecommunication Systems In Action - A Company Makes a Service Choice Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksTelecommunication Systems In Action - A Company Makes a Service ChoiceBetter Box Corporation has offices in Seattle, San Francisco, and Dallas, with headquarters in Chicago.Better Box wants to connect Chicago to each of the other three offices.Better Box needs to download 400 kbyte files in 20 seconds. This requires a transmission speed of 160,000 bps.
70Telecommunication Systems In Action Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksTelecommunication Systems In ActionWhat could Better Box use for communications?56kbps dial-up?DSL?Cable modem?T-1?Frame relay?ATM?
71Telecommunication Systems In Action Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksTelecommunication Systems In Action56 kbps lines are too slow for our applicationDSL and cable modems connect users to the Internet, not user to user as needed in our applicationT-1s, frame relay, and ATM are appear to be viable choices
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74Telecommunication Systems In Action - A Company Makes a Service Choice Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksTelecommunication Systems In Action - A Company Makes a Service ChoiceTypical various prices for these services are shown on the next table.
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76Telecommunication Systems In Action - A Company Makes a Service Choice Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksTelecommunication Systems In Action - A Company Makes a Service ChoiceTo provide T-1 service to all four offices:Seattle to Chicago: $6325 ($ $2.50 per mile)San Francisco to Chicago: $6625Dallas to Chicago: $3500Total interLATA T-1 costs = $16,450 / month
77Telecommunication Systems In Action - A Company Makes a Service Choice Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksTelecommunication Systems In Action - A Company Makes a Service ChoiceTo provide frame relay service:Three ports at 256K = 3 x $495One port at 768K = $1240Three 256K PVCs = 3 x $230Four intraLATA T-1s = 4 x $350Total charge = $4815 / month
78Telecommunication Systems In Action - A Company Makes a Service Choice Chapter Twelve - Voice and Data Delivery NetworksTelecommunication Systems In Action - A Company Makes a Service ChoiceTo provide asynchronous transfer mode service:Four ports at Mbps ABR = 4 x $1750Three channels = 3 x $250Three paths = $2 per mile x 5140 miles = $10,280Four intraLATA T-1s = 4 x $350Total ATM charges = $19,430 / month