# Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use

## Presentation on theme: "Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use"— Presentation transcript:

Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use
Chapter 5 Cost Behavior: Analysis and Use

Types of Cost Behavior Patterns
Recall the summary of our cost behavior discussion from Chapter 2.

The Activity Base Units produced Miles driven Labor hours
Machine hours A measure of the event that causes the incurrence of a variable cost – a cost driver

True Variable Cost Example
Your total long distance telephone bill is based on how many minutes you talk. Total Long Distance Telephone Bill Minutes Talked

Variable Cost Per Unit Example
The cost per minute talked is constant. For example, 10 cents per minute. Per Minute Telephone Charge Minutes Talked

Total cost remains constant within a narrow range of activity.
Step-Variable Costs Total cost remains constant within a narrow range of activity. Cost Activity

Step-Variable Costs Total cost increases to a new higher cost for the next higher range of activity. Cost Activity

The Linearity Assumption and the Relevant Range
Exh. 5-4 The Linearity Assumption and the Relevant Range Relevant Range A straight line closely approximates a curvilinear variable cost line within the relevant range. Economist’s Curvilinear Cost Function Total Cost Accountant’s Straight-Line Approximation (constant unit variable cost) Activity

Total Fixed Cost Example
Exh. 5-5 Total Fixed Cost Example Your monthly basic telephone bill is probably fixed and does not change when you make more local calls. Monthly Basic Telephone Bill Number of Local Calls

Fixed Cost Per Unit Example
Exh. 5-5 Fixed Cost Per Unit Example The fixed cost per local call decreases as more local calls are made. Monthly Basic Telephone Bill per Local Call Number of Local Calls

Cost Behavior Examples of normally variable costs
Merchandisers Cost of Goods Sold Service Organizations Supplies and travel Manufacturers Direct Material, Direct Labor, and Variable Manufacturing Overhead Merchandisers and Manufacturers Sales commissions and shipping costs Examples of normally fixed costs Merchandisers, manufacturers, and service organizations Real estate taxes, Insurance, Sales salaries Depreciation, Advertising

Types of Fixed Costs Committed Discretionary Examples Examples
Long-term, cannot be reduced in the short term. Discretionary May be altered in the short-term by current managerial decisions Examples Depreciation on Buildings and Equipment Examples Advertising and Research and Development

Fixed Costs and Relevant Range
Example: Office space is available at a rental rate of \$30,000 per year in increments of 1,000 square feet. As the business grows more space is rented, increasing the total cost. Continue

Fixed Costs and Relevant Range
Exh. 5-6 Fixed Costs and Relevant Range 90 Total cost doesn’t change for a wide range of activity, and then jumps to a new higher cost for the next higher range of activity. Relevant Range 60 Rent Cost in Thousands of Dollars 30 , , , Rented Area (Square Feet)

Fixed Costs and Relevant Range
Step-variable costs can be adjusted more quickly and . . . The width of the activity steps is much wider for the fixed cost. How does this type of fixed cost differ from a step-variable cost?

Which of the following statements about cost behavior are true?
Quick Check  Which of the following statements about cost behavior are true? Fixed costs per unit vary with the level of activity. Variable costs per unit are constant within the relevant range. Total fixed costs are constant within the relevant range. Total variable costs are constant within the relevant range.

Fixed Monthly Utility Charge
Mixed Costs A mixed cost has both fixed and variable components. Consider the example of utility cost. X Y Total mixed cost Total Utility Cost Variable Cost per KW Fixed Monthly Utility Charge Activity (Kilowatt Hours)

Fixed Monthly Utility Charge
Mixed Costs X Y Total mixed cost Y = a + bX Total Utility Cost Variable Cost per KW Fixed Monthly Utility Charge Activity (Kilowatt Hours)

The Analysis of Mixed Costs
Account Analysis Engineering Approach Scattergraph Plot High-Low Method Least-Square Regression Method

Account Analysis & Engineering Estimates
Each account is classified as either variable or fixed based on the analyst’s knowledge of how the account behaves. Cost estimates are based on an evaluation of production methods, and material, labor and overhead requirements.

The High-Low Method WiseCo recorded the following production activity and maintenance costs for two months: Using these two levels of activity, compute: the variable cost per unit; the fixed cost; and then express the costs in equation form Y = a + bX.

Changein cost Change in units
The High-Low Method Variable cost per unit = Change in cost ÷ change in units Changein cost Change in units

The High-Low Method Variable cost per unit = \$2,400 ÷ 3,000 units

The High-Low Method Variable cost = \$2,400 ÷ 3,000 units = \$0.80 per unit Fixed cost = Total cost – Total variable cost Fixed cost = \$9,800 – (\$0.80 per unit × 8,000 units) Fixed cost = \$9,800 – \$6,400 = \$3,400

The High-Low Method Variable cost = \$2,400 ÷ 3,000 units = \$0.80 per unit Fixed cost = Total cost – Total variable cost Fixed cost = \$9,800 – (\$0.80 per unit × 8,000 units) Fixed cost = \$9,800 – \$6,400 = \$3,400 Total cost = Fixed cost + Variable cost (Y = a + bX) Y = \$3,400 + \$0.80X

Quick Check  Sales salaries and commissions are \$10,000 when 80,000 units are sold, and \$14,000 when 120,000 units are sold. Using the high-low method, what is the variable portion of sales salaries and commission? a. \$0.08 per unit b. \$0.10 per unit c. \$0.12 per unit d. \$0.125 per unit \$4,000 ÷ 40,000 units = \$0.10 per unit

Quick Check  Sales salaries and commissions are \$10,000 when 80,000 units are sold, and \$14,000 when 120,000 units are sold. Using the high-low method, what is the fixed portion of sales salaries and commissions? a. \$ 2,000 b. \$ 4,000 c. \$10,000 d. \$12,000

Let’s put our knowledge of cost behavior to work by preparing a contribution format income statement.

The Contribution Format
The contribution margin format emphasizes cost behavior. Contribution margin covers fixed costs and provides for income.

The Contribution Format
Used primarily for external reporting. Used primarily by management.

End of Chapter 5