Presentation on theme: "Hui Zhang, Fall 2012 1 Genghis Khans Empire at His Death at 1227."— Presentation transcript:
Hui Zhang, Fall 2012 1 Genghis Khans Empire at His Death at 1227
Hui Zhang, Fall 2012 2 Early Communication over Long Distance Between human beings Letter and messenger -Information carried by physical objects -Speed limited by transportation means: horse, bird, train, car -Bandwidth? distance? security? Fire -Early optical communication -Speed of light -Bandwidth? distance? security?
Hui Zhang, Fall 2012 3 Transcontinental Railroad: 1869
Hui Zhang, Fall 2012 4 Telegraph: Communication Using Electrons Between human beings Major milestones: -1827: Ohms Law -1837: workable telegraph invented by Samuel Morse -1838: demonstration over 10 miles at 10 w.p.m -1844: Capitol Hill to Baltimore -1851: Western Union founded -1868: transatlantic cable laid -1985: last telegraph circuit closed down
Hui Zhang, Fall 2012 5 Telegraph Engineering Technical issues -How to encode information? -How to feed/input information to the system? -How to output information? -How to improve the distance? -How to improve the speed? -How to improve the simultaneous # of telegraphs? Common issues faced by all telecommunication systems
Hui Zhang, Fall 2012 6 Telephony Milestones 1876: Alaxendar Bell invented telephone 1878: Public switches installed at New Haven and San Francisco, public switched telephone network is born People can talk without being on the same wire ! Without SwitchWith Switch
Hui Zhang, Fall 2012 7 Telephony Milestones 1878: First telephone directory; white house line 1879 Patent settlement between West Union and Bell 1881: Insulated, balanced twisted pair as local loop 1885: AT&T formed 1892: First automatic commercial telephone switch 1903: 3 million telephones in U.S. 1915: First transcontinental telephone line 1927: First commercial transatlantic commercial service
Hui Zhang, Fall 2012 8 Telephony Milestones 1937: Multiplexing introduced for inter-city calls Without Multiplexing With Multiplexing
Hui Zhang, Fall 2012 9 Telephony Technology Milestones Encoding technology -1939: Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) invented Basic technology -1948: Transistor invented by Bell scientists Automation -1951: Direct dialing for long-distance demonstrated Transmission technology -1963: Digital transmission introduced -1983 First fiber-optic cable in ATT long distance network Switching technology -1965 1ESS central office switch introduced Stored Program Control (computerized) -1976 4ESS: first digital electronic switch -1999 Last 4ESS switch installed in ATT network
Hui Zhang, Fall 2012 11 Switch Evolution Early Phone Switch Center 1ESS 4 ESS Cisco Router
Hui Zhang, Fall 2012 12 History of the Internet 70s: started as a research project, 56 kbps, < 100 computers 80-83: ARPANET and MILNET split 85-86: NSF builds NSFNET as backbone, links 6 Supercomputer centers, 1.5 Mbps, 10,000 computers 87-90: link regional networks, NSI (NASA), ESNet(DOE), DARTnet, TWBNet (DARPA), 100,000 computers 90-92: NSFNET moves to 45 Mbps, 16 mid-level networks 94: NSF backbone dismantled, multiple private backbones Today: backbones run at 10 Gbps, hundreds of millions devices around the world
Hui Zhang, Fall 2012 13 Topology of ARPANet 56 Kbps
Hui Zhang, Fall 2012 14 Devices of ARPANet PDP-10 Backplane IMP
Hui Zhang, Fall 2012 15 End Device Evolution Computer Without Network
Hui Zhang, Fall 2012 16 Todays Internet End Devices
Hui Zhang, Fall 2012 18 Commercial Internet after 1994 NSF Network Regional ISP America On Line IBM Bartnet Campus Network Joe's Company Stanford Xerox Parc Berkeley NSF Network AT&T UUnet SprintNet Modem IBM
Hui Zhang, Fall 2012 19 Communication networks can be classified based on the way in which the nodes exchange information: A Taxonomy of Communication Networks Communication Network Switched Communication Network Broadcast Communication Network Circuit-Switched Communication Network Packet-Switched Communication Network Datagram Network Virtual Circuit Network
Hui Zhang, Fall 2012 20 What is a Communication Network? (from end-system point of view) Network offers a service: move information -Bird, fire, messenger, truck, telegraph, telephone, Internet … -Another example, transportation service: move objects Horse, train, truck, airplane... What distinguish different types of networks? -The services they provide What distinguish the services? -Latency -Bandwidth -Loss rate -Number of end systems -Service interface -Other details Reliability, unicast vs. multicast, real-time, message vs. byte...
Hui Zhang, Fall 2012 21 What is a Communication Network? Infrastructure Centric View Electrons and photons as communication medium Links: fiber, copper, satellite, … Switches: electronic/optic, crossbar/Banyan Protocols: TCP/IP, ATM, MPLS, SONET, Ethernet, X.25, FrameRelay, AppleTalk, IPX, SNA Functionalities: routing, error control, flow control, congestion control, Quality of Service (QoS) Applications: telephony, FTP, WEB, X windows, Search, Youtube, Facebook...
Hui Zhang, Fall 2012 22 Summary Communication long before computer Evolutions of modern communication and computer intertwined Component centric view -End devices (telephone, computer, smartTV) -Switch (analog vs. digital, circuit vs. packet) -Transmission (copper, fiber, wireless) -Protocol (TCP/IP, Ethernet, ATM, WiFi) Service centric view -Service interface (bytestream vs. datagram, SOAP vs. REST) -Performance: reliability, latency, throughput -Security -Point to point vs. multicast vs. broadcast
Hui Zhang, Fall 2012 23 Key Drivers for Computer Networks Evolution Computers and other smart devices Routers/switches Transmission technologies -vDSL, DWDM, WiFi, WiMax, 4G Applications -telnet, FTP, Web, e-commerce, social, search, voice, video, gaming, etc … Software -Distributed control software for the infrastructure (switching/routing protocols, DNS, CDN) -End device software -Server software -Application software (device, cloud)
Hui Zhang, Fall 2012 24 Other Key Aspects of The Most Important Global Infrastructure Dependability, security, and manageability Industry structure and regulation Global politics